N2O emission

Direct N2O emission from livestock excreta (N2Oexcreta) and indirect N2O emission were calculated as follows:

N2Oexcreta_directi = Nexcretai * EFexcretai * 14 (40.7)

"^2 O excreta indirecti

volatilizationi N2Oexcreta direct i) * 0.01 + Ndisposedi * 0.0124) x —

where EFexcreta is emission factor for excreta manipulation.

Direct and indirect N2O emission by fertilization was calculated as follows:

N2Ofertilizer_directi = (Nchemicali + Nmanurei + Nresiduali) * EFfarmi * (40.9)

N2Ofertilizer_ indirect = (Nchemicali + Nmanurei) * 0.3 * 0.0124 * — (4°.10)

where Nresidual is N in crop residue estimated by Mishima (2006) and EFfarm is emission factor.

The basic data for activities and emission factors are listed in Tables 40.1 and 40.2.

Table 40.1 Activity data and emission factors for crop production.

Area (1000 ha)

Fertilization (kg ha 1)

EF

Residue (kg ha 1)

1985 1990

1995 2000

2005 1985 1990 1995 2000

2005

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Paddy rice

2318 2055

2106 1763

1702 114.4 101.8 79.9 77.2

71.8

0.31

41.1

41.8

41.8

44.1

43.7

Upland crop

1030 1090

736 812

775 122.0 130.0 111.3 94.6

91.8

0.62

33.4

29.3

33.2

31.7

35.4

Vegetables

639 625

669 620

563 248.8 288.7 264.2 268.7

283.0

0.62

33.7

33.7

31.1

33.7

29.4

Orchard

484 684

341 292

265 219.1 182.0 207.4 173.6

146.5

0.62

27.3

15.6

30.6

31.4

31.7

Tea

61 59

54 50

49 670.7 739.9 768.1 611.5

482.1

2.82

54.8

54.8

54.8

54.8

54.8

Forages

1049 1096

1013 1026

1030 143.4 106.1 150.4 127.5

121.5

0.62

50.0

51.3

51.4

48.7

44.4

Table 40.2

Activities and emission factors data for livestock husbandry.

Head (1000 head)

Ne

xcreta EFexcreta

Nvol atili;

AR

1985

1990

1995 2000 2005 (g head-'

'd-1)

(%)

(%) Max

Min

Dairy cattle

2,103

2,068

1,927 1,725 2254.9 158.6-305.5

0.1-5

72.2 0.87

0.67

Beef cattle

2,639

3,435

2,901 2,806 2746.6

129.8-

146

0.1-5

72.2 0.90

0.40

Pig

11,060

11,837

9,900 9,788 9723.4

9.5

-51

0.1-5

49.8 0.74

0.16

Poultry

194,014

201,548 201,562 196,458 189,690

1.54-3.28

0.1-5

80.4 0.98

0.97

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