Materials and Methods 3121 Description area

Erzurum is one of the cities located in the eastern part of Turkey, situated on plateau surrounded by mountains to east, north, and south. The height of this plateau is 1950 m a.s.l. It lies in a NE-SW direction, on an area about 20 km long and 5 km wide (Fig. 31.1). The altitude difference between the upper and lower limits of the city is approximately 200 m. The annual average temperature of the city is 6oC and the number of days below zero is 161. The city's severe climate and unfavorable geomorphology and topography cause serious air pollution problems. As no important industrial establishment exists in the city, the major source of pollution is domestic heating. For this purpose, various qualities of fuel including coke, local lignite, and fuel oil are consumed.

Fig. 31.1 Map of Erzurum city.

31.2.2 SO2 and TSP monitoring

Air quality measurements in Erzurum city are conducted by different institutions during every winter season. Ataturk University Environmental Research Center and Erzurum Refik Saydam Sanitation Center used semi-automatic equipment for 24 h to define the concentration of SO2 and TSP. SO2 and TSP were measured using acidimetric titration method and reflectometric method. SO2 measurement range of the acidimetric method varies between 0.01 and 10 ppm. Reliability of the reflectometric method is not high because of dependence on color of particu-late matter. SO2 and TSP together with meteorological parameters (wind speed, relative humidity, and temperature) were monitored in mobile laboratory by Provincial Environmental Directorate. Measurements were carried out for every 15 min. SO2 concentrations were measured using an instrument that operates on principle of ultraviolet fluorescence (AF 21M). SO2 measurement range varies between 1ppb and 10 ppm with 1% linearity. TSP measurements were made with beta gauge instrument (KS-301-F). TSP measurement range varies between 0 and 10.000 |lg/m3. The laboratory was operative 24 h in a day. The continuous measurements of air quality and meteorological parameters were recorded for only 1995-1997 winter seasons by Provincial Environmental Directorate, and the measurements were not done between 1998 and 2003. The air quality measurements have been conducted after 2003-2004 winter season, but meteorological parameters were not measured again. It was preferred data of Provincial Environmental Directorate in this study because mobile laboratory recorded continuous measurement every 15 min and its data have more high accuracy than data of semi-automatic equipment. The data used in this study belong to 1995-1997 winter season because continuous measurements of air quality with meteorological parameters were simultaneously conducted by mobile laboratory. The location of the mobile laboratory was selected as the sampling site on the basis of availability of power and security and topography of the area. Care was taken that no high buildings or trees were present for 200 m of the site in any direction. The reason for this condition is to eliminate the effect of downwash due to high structures. The mobile laboratory was fitted with the monitors and meteorological sensors. Twenty-four hour averaged values of SO2, TSP, and meteorological data were used in this study. Statistical parameters of SO2, TSP, and meteorological data of two winter seasons are given in Table 31.1.

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