Environmental problems have become more apparent through a continuously growing range of pollutants, hazards, and ecosystem degradation over wider areas. Although the most significant air pollution problems were acid precipitation, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global climate change, the focus has been on global warming due to drastic increase in greenhouse gas emissions and their immediate results through catastrophic climate changes/events.
Recently, a variety of potential solutions to the current environmental problems associated with the greenhouse gas emissions has evolved. In this regard, energy systems (heat pumps, refrigeration systems, etc.) have received much attention. Absorption Cooling Systems (ACSs) have been gaining some popularity as they operate on environment friendly refrigerants conforming Montreal and Kyoto Protocols. These systems also utilize geothermal, biomass, solar energy, and waste heat as less expensive alternative energy source. Therefore, much research has been devoted to the improvement of ACSs (e.g., Misra et al., 2006; Sun 1998; Sozen 2001; and Saravanan et al., 1998). The main advantage of ACSs lies under the possibility of being powered directly by thermal energy at moderate temperature levels. Thus, it is a good alternative to utilize the waste or inexpensive heat in the cooling (Bassols et al., 2002). Utilization of ACSs becomes suitable in the case of inexpensive heat energy source over 70°C. Therefore, geothermal energy has a wide range of application potential for cooling. ACS provides reliable and quiet cooling using thermal energy. The most widely used ACS is the ammonia-water system, in which ammonia and water serve as the refrigerant and transport medium, respectively. The other ACSs include water-lithium chloride and water-lithium bromide systems, where water serves as the refrigerant.
I. Dincer et al. (eds.), Global Warming, Green Energy and Technology,
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1017-2_7, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010
Turkey's primary energy consumption is about 64 MTOE in 2003, mostly provided by fossil fuels (74.7%). Renewables collectively provide 25.3% of the primary energy, in the form of hydro (14.6%), combustible renewable and waste (9%), geothermal (1.2%), and the other renewables (0.5%). Although Turkey is ranked as seventh in the world for its geothermal energy potential, it utilizes only about 4% of this potential effectively (Akpinar et al., 2008).
Eight geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) in Turkey appear to be suitable for absorption cooling according to district heating supply or wellhead temperature (Oktay et al., 2007a): Balcova -Izmir GDHS (85°C), Sandikli-Afyon GDHS (70°C), Diyadin-Agri GDHS (78°C), Bigadif-Balikesir GDHS (75°C), Gonen-Balikesir GDHS (80°C), Kizilcahamam-Ankara GDHS (80°C), Kozakli-Nevjehir GDHS (90°C), and Salihli-Manisa GDHS (94°C).
In this chapter a new geothermal energy-assisted ACS concept is developed to study how it will help reduce energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions to combat the global warming. The first part of this study includes a feasibility study of incorporating an ACS into a geothermal district heating system (so-called: the Bigadic geothermal district heating system). In the second part, a study is conducted to analyze the cooling potential of the water-lithium bromide ACS for a building in the summer months, in addition to the geothermal district heating system which normally provides the necessary heating requirement. For both cooling and heating cases, comparisons are made with the cases using conventional fossil-fuel based energy sources to investigate how geothermal energy as a renewable and sustainable option will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO2. While the geothermal fluid temperature entering the residence's main heat exchangers is in the range of 343-349 K, the supply temperature for the generator of ACS results in 345 K. Some parametric studies are conducted with a large amount of actual data to reflect the reality in the best possible way.
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