Introduction

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Air pollution may be defined as an atmospheric problem, which results in the deterioration of the environmental quality. The problem occurs within the atmospheric planetary boundary layer under the combined effects of meteorological parameters, earth surface topographic features and releases air pollutants from various sources. Meteorological parameters affect ambient air pollution in numerous ways. The most important role of the meteorology is in the dispersion, transformation, and removal of air pollutants from the atmosphere.

Ambient concentration of pollutants, such as SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and TSP (total suspended material), was quite frequently exceeding recognized air quality standards. Particularly, the urban air pollution was much worse in Erzurum city in Turkey where fossil fuels were used to heat homes and buildings for several months of the winter season. Sulfur dioxide is a prominent anthropogenic pollutant resulting from especially residential heating during the winter season (from October to March) in Erzurum city. The pollutant contributes to the formation of sulfuric acid, the formation of sulfate aerosols, and the deposition of sulfate and sulfur dioxide at the ground surface (Aneja, 2001). The environmental effects of SO2 are associated with acidification of precipitation and have deleterious effects on the human health. Ocak and Ocak (2007a) observed that pH of snowfall varied 4.7-7.3 for the 2002-2003 winter season in Erzurum. SO2 affects people quickly within a few minutes on exposure. Exposure to SO2 in the ambient air has been associated with reduced lung function, increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and diseases, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and is linked to an increase in hospitalizations and deaths from respiratory and cardiovascular causes (Mouli et al., 2004). It also harms vegetation, including forest and agricultural crops. Ocak and Ocak (2007b) presented that air pollution levels due to domestic heating in winter season may harm species which are economically important, such as

I. Dincer et al. (eds.), Global Warming, Green Energy and Technology,

DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1017-2_31, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Picea orientalis L., A. Nordmanniana ssp., Fagus orientalis, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus sp., Alnus sp, for a long term in Artvin city.

TSPs are complex mixture of small (<2.5 pm) and large (2.5-100 p.m) particles of varying origin and chemical composition. These particles originate from many different stationary and mobile sources. They may be emitted directly by a source or formed in the atmosphere by the transformation of gaseous precursor emissions such as SO2 and NOX (Aneja, 2001). Health effects are strongly linked to the particle size. Smaller particles are likely to be most dangerous, because they can be inhaled deeply into the lungs and their constituents tend to be more chemically active and may be acidic. Numerous studies have linked such pollution with acute changes in lung function and respiratory illness, and effects such as asthma and bronchitis, leading to increased mortality (Mouli et al., 2004). In addition, particulates cause adverse impacts on the environment via reduced viability (Elminir, 2005).

The relationship between air pollutants and meteorological parameters such as wind velocity, temperature, and relative humidity can provide important information about air pollution. The wind speeds may transport air pollutants (SO2, PM) from distant sources. There are a negative correlation between air pollutants concentration and wind speed data. Analysis of the surface wind speed and direction alone will not adequately explain the variability in the concentrations of air pollutants. Hence, analysis of meteorological parameters affecting ambient concentrations of air pollutants should include an indicator of atmospheric moisture. High humidities may also indicate precipitation events accompanied by in-cloud scavenging, which results in low concentrations of gas and TSP concentrations. For SO2 and TSP higher concentrations occurred at lower ambient temperature in winter season. Daily polluting concentrations are influenced not only by daily meteorological parameters but also by the values of the previous day. There has been a direct link between air pollutants (SO2, PM) concentration and their previous day's concentration (Ocak, 1997).

Given a set of observations from air monitoring and meteorological stations, calculating statistical relationship among the variables is possible by using some statistical techniques such as regression analysis. Some statistical models establish how close relationships are between concentration estimates and values actually measured under similar circumstances. Effects of all factors that determine atmospheric pollutant concentrations are implicitly accounted for in the air quality data used to develop and optimize the models. These models also have low development cost and resource requirements (Turalioglu et al., 2005).

There are numerous research presented with statistical relationship between meteorological parameters and air pollutants. Witz and Moore (1981) showed the relationship between air pollutants (CO, NO, NOx, hydrocarbons) and meteorological parameters (wind direction, wind speed, early morning temperature, and frequency of inversions) using a stepwise multilinear regression analysis in Los Angeles in 1979. There is a close relationship between air pollutants and meteorological parameters. Ocak et al. (1997) found a moderate correlation using Statgraph program between SO2, TSP, and some meteorological parameters (rainfall, temperature, sunshine hours, wind velocity, relative humidity) in Erzurum for

1989-1996 winter season. According to results, lower temperature and wind velocity increased SO2 concentration and lower rainfall value increased PM concentration. Cuhadaroglu and Demirci (1997) showed the relation of pollutant concentrations with meteorological factors such as wind speed, relative humidity, and temperature. According to the results obtained from this study, for some months there is a moderate and weak level of relation between the SO2 level and the meteorological factors in Trabzon city. Ocak and Demircioglu (2002) used multiple linear regression analysis to estimate SO2 and PM concentrations using meteorological parameters (relative humidity, temperature, wind speed) and previous day's pollutants concentration in Erzurum for 1995-1996 winter seasons. A positive correlation was found between previous day's concentration and the pollutants concentration. Oguz et al. (2003) investigated the relationship of SO2 and PM in the air to several meteorological parameters such as wind speed, rainfall, temperature, sunshine hours, and relative humidity in Erzurum for 1994-2001 winter seasons. According to the results obtained through multiple linear regression analysis, there are moderate levels of correlation between SO2 and particle concentrations and meteorological parameters in Erzurum. Turalioglu et al. (2005) predicted SO2 and PM concentrations using multiple regression equation including previous day's pollutants concentration and meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and precipitation for 19952002 winter seasons in Erzurum. The results showed good relationship between the meteorological parameters, previous day's SO2 concentration, and actual SO2 concentration.

The objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between meteorological parameters and air pollutants such as SO2 and TSP. For this purpose, SO2 and TSP concentration is statistically correlated with wind speed, humidity and temperature, and previous day's concentration of the pollutants for 1995-1997 winter seasons.

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Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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