Infrared Spectroscopy Study

The FT-IR spectra of natural and treated bentonite clays with HCl acid (different concentrations) were obtained in the region 4000-500 cm-1 by using FT-IR Spectrometer, type Perkin Elmer Spectrum one model, at room temperature dispersed in KBr discs, (Fig. 43.2).

IR data are reported in Table 43.1. The characteristic peaks of the bentonite clays used in this study and the detailed vibrational frequencies with possible as signments being given are obtained from studies by Ledoux et al. (1964), Van der Marcel et al. (1979), and Slosiarikova et al. (1992).

3500 3000 2500 2000

1500 1000 500 0

Fig. 43.1 X-ray diffraction patterns of the bentonite clay without any specific treatment.

30 20 10 0

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

cm-1

1 1 - 041021b Mostagama

I

1

JL

u

y

u*U4wA»J

Fig. 43.1 X-ray diffraction patterns of the bentonite clay without any specific treatment.

Fig. 43.2 Compared infrared spectra of clay material untreated and treated with HCl ( El: untreated; E2 : HCl, 0.01 M; E3 : HCl, 0.05 M; E4 : HCl, 0.1 M).

As we can see, all products exhibit two moderately intense bands between 3624.64 and 3450.33 cm-1, which might be ascribed to the stretching frequencies of the OH functional groups of co-ordination water and of the hydration OH stretching. The absorption peaks between 1642.52 and 1635.53 cm-1 can be taken as both due to OH stretching vibration and S (H2O) deformation. The rest of the bands between 1064.98 and 522 cm-1 in all samples are due to stretching vibration of Si-O, Si-O-Si, OH attached to (Al3+, Fe3+, and Mg2+) groups, and the silica quartz impurities. The main changes found after acidic treatment, reported in Table 43.2, are the shift of absorption of some peaks.

Table 43.1 Compared infrared spectra of natural and treated with HCl bentonite clays.

E.1

E.0.01

E.0.05

E.2

E.3

Assignments

3624.64

3630.25

3630.25

3624.64

3630.25

OH functional group of coordination water

3450.33

3438.53

3433.93

3446.54

3435.59

Hydration OH stretching

2515

2504.20

2492.99

Impurities

1642.52

1640.53

1640.21

1637.12

1640.52

(H2O) deformation

1041.86

1042.05

1038.74

1040.62

1033.28

Stretching vibration of Si-O, Si-O— Si, and Al-O

914.68

914.68

914.68

914.68

OH deformation attached to Fe3+, Al3+, and Mg2+

7798.47

798.60

797.33

798.25

798.66

Vibration of Si-O, Si-O-Si and AlO

777.62

777.62

777.62

777.62

777.62

Vibration of Si-O, Si-O-Si and AlO

693.00

693.00

693.00

693.00

693.00

Silica quartz impurity

523.26

522.78

506.99

517.48

514.68

Silica quartz impurity

Table 43. 2 Compared infrared s jectra of natural and treated with HCl bentonite clays.

Table 43. 2 Compared infrared s jectra of natural and treated with HCl bentonite clays.

E.1

E. 0.01

Av

E.0.05

Av

E.2

Av

E.3

Av

3450.33

3438.53

11.80

3433.93

16.40

3446.54

3.79

3435.59

14.74

1642.52

1640.53

1.99

1640..21

2.30

1637.12

5.40

1640.52

2.00

1041.86

1042.05

-0.19

1038.74

3.12

1040.62

1.24

1640.52

8.58

798.47

798.60

-0.13

797.33

1.44

798.25

0.22

798.66

-0.19

523.26

522.78

0.48

-

-

-

-

-

-

E.1: natural clay; E. 0.01: clay treated with HCl, 0.01M; E.0.05: clay treated with HCl 0.05M (E.2; E.3): clay treated with HCl, 0.1M

E.1: natural clay; E. 0.01: clay treated with HCl, 0.01M; E.0.05: clay treated with HCl 0.05M (E.2; E.3): clay treated with HCl, 0.1M

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