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Environment protection is one of our most important obligations, whose goals were defined during some key UN Summits in Rio (1991), Kyoto (1997), and Johannesburg (2001). Any type of energy production, transportation, transformation, conversion, and consumption has some impact on the environment, and the magnitude of such an impact will depend closely on the technologies and methods used. The typical CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled electrical power plants become 915 g/kWh for coal at a 35% power plant efficiency, 760 g/kWh for fuel oil at a 35% power plant efficiency, and 315 g/kWh for natural gas at a 60% power plant efficiency. The emission of air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide, will be greatly reduced if we manage to limit our consumption of fossil fuels (Oktay et al., 2007c; and Bertani et al., 2002). Fossil fuels emissions are given in Table 7.6.

Table 7.6 Fossil fuels emissions.

Fuel

CO2

Emissions (g/kWh) SO2

NOx

Coal

915

3.15

2.72

Fuel oil

760

22.57

2.27

Natural gas

315

0.04

1.59

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