Data and Method

Daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperature data were supplied by the National Meteorological Service. The data of an outskirt and a downtown sampling site were used in the analysis. Population data were gained from the Central Statistical Office, the number of population in the CHR is 1 697 724 in Budapest and 1 150 926 in County Pest.

Mortality data were collected by the Central Hungarian Institution of the National Public Health and Medical Officers' Service and were forwarded to the National Institute of Environmental Health in Budapest. During the July heat wave mortality data were collected every day, out of this period they were collected from general practitioners weekly between June 1 and August 31, 2007. Thirty-five capital institutions and 11 hospitals of County Pest provided daily crude mortality data. These data contain some uncertainty due to administrative reasons, the exact analysis can only be carried out in the second half of 2008 when the Central Statistical Office provides the exact number of daily mortality stratified by age, gender, and cause of death.

Temperature and mortality data were first analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Excess mortality was compared to "a baseline" mortality - to the mean mortality of cool days of the summer period defined above. Excess mortality is the difference between the observed mortality of a given day and the mean mortality of cool days. It was separately counted for death cases in hospitals and out of hospitals. The time series of mortality of the summer period allowed assessing "the harvesting" effect (short term mortality displacement after the heat wave). Using the collected mortality data of the Central Hungarian Region and relying on the association established we attempted to assess the rate of excess mortality for the whole country. The association between daily mortality and daily mean temperature was assessed using the data of 92 days of the summer period of 2007 by generalized additive regression model (GAM). The estimates related to Budapest were compared to that of the previous results of 1970-2000.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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