Conclusions

From this study we can extract the following remarks:

• Wastewater in Jordan contains high concentrations of pollutants, which affect the efficiency of treatment.

• Strength of waste, overloads, lack of expertise, and limited budget are the main obstacles facing wastewater management in Jordan, while modern treatment technologies, high-qualified operators, and strict regulations are the main strength points of wastewater management in Germany.

• Wastewater reuse should be considered as a non-conventional water resource in Jordan.

• To achieve better treatment efficiency, the capacity of the present plants should be enlarged to deal with the overloads and new modern technologies are required.

• Reuse of treated wastewater should be controlled by strict standards that comply with WHO and FAO guidelines, as a minimum objective of treatment. These standards must prevent pollution of the receiving watercourse, protect human health and the environment, and must be suitable for end reuse objectives and the method of application.

• In Germany, most of the wastewater volume is treated with the highest Europe standards (biological treatment with nutrient elimination).

• The cooperation between Germany and Jordan should be employed beneficially in enhancing wastewater sector in Jordan, especially by experience interchange, technology transfer, and increased financial support.

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