Conclusions

Understanding the factors that control phenological variability is crucial for the design of durable weed management practices. Studies of this nature will be useful to predict weeds growth, and determine the appropriate timing for the application of herbicides in order to optimize their use and avoid secondary effects of herbicides treatment such as soil and water pollution. Phenological characteristics of 14 cereal weeds and their relationships with the climatic variations were studied for

5 years. Two groups were identified. Winter-spring species, most of their development cycles take place in winter, they reach the maturity of their seeds with less than 1200 degree-days, and spring-summer species, of which vegetative development stage is spread out until spring, this species require between 1900 and 2300 degree-days to mature their seeds. Variability in phenology of these weeds was dependent on temperature patterns of the year. Cereal weeds adapt with the climatic variations by modulating the duration of their phenological phases. The results showed that phenological events of these species have been increasing in earliness during the warm years.

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