Conclusions

Here, we have discussed the use of ammonia as a sustainable H2 source. We have also proposed the option of using ammonia simultaneously as a refrigerant for cooling purposes on vehicles. This effect was quantified in terms of refrigeration power vs. engine's power. A performance investigation was performed for comparison of the proposed systems with other alternatives through energy efficiencies and effectiveness, along with a study of some additional parameters, such as driving range and cost associated with 100 km driving. Here are some concluding remarks:

• Ammonia as source of hydrogen leads to the lowest costs in terms of CN $ per GJ stored on board.

• Among the considered alternative "H2 from NH3" is the cheapest fuel per 100 km driving range.

• There is an advantage of by-product refrigeration, ~20% from LHV, which reduces the costs.

Some additional advantages of NH3 are commercial availability, global distribution network, handling experience, mature storage, and safety technologies.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada in Canada.

Nomenclature

c

unit price, CN $/kg

COP

coefficient of performance

DC

driving cost, CN $/100 km

DR

specific driving range, km/l

h

specific enthalpy, kJ/kg

HHV

higher heating value, Mj/kg

LHV

lower heating value, MJ/kg

T

temperature, o C

w

specific work, kJ/kg

x

dissociated NH3 fraction

Greek symbols

e

effectiveness (dimensionless)

n

efficiency, %

ß

molar mass, kg/kmol

p

density, kg/m3

Superscripts

liquid

per unit of volume

Subscripts

c

cooling effect

d

dissociation

r

refrigeration effect

w

work recovered

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