Trends and future themes in reducing N2O emissions in Japan include the following:

• N2O emissions peaked in 1990 then declined until 2005. Emissions from livestock production caused the peak, and reduced emissions from crop production caused this decline.

• Livestock production emissions were greater than crop production emissions. Proportions of the total emissions derived from cattle, pigs, and poultry were relatively constant. Reductions after 1990 were small in total and constant per unit area of farmland. The proportion of the total emissions derived from rice declined and that from vegetables increased. Because their planted areas were small, vegetables and tea were hot spots of N2O emissions.

• Lowering N2O emissions from livestock production is important in sustainable agriculture, although this aspect has received little attention to date. Changing composting methods and deodorization by trapping NH3 would be possible mitigation options. Reducing N input to vegetables is important for reducing N2O emissions from crop production.

• Our estimation of N2O emissions contains many uncertainties, and because there were not enough data available relating to indirect emissions, we had to use the IPCC default value. Increasing the data on indirect N2O emissions is one of the themes of future basic research.

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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