In this chapter, GHG emissions from an uncontrolled landfill site are compared with those from controlled landfill sites in which flaring, conventional electricity generation technologies such as ICE and GT, and SOFC are utilized. It is shown that even with the simplest solution, which is flaring, total GHG emissions in the lifetime of the site can be reduced by 58% compared to the uncontrolled case. Among the different technologies, the SOFC seems to be the best option, as it reduces the GHG emissions by 63%, and has a specific lifetime GHG emission of 2.38 tonnes CO2.eq/MWh when it only produces electricity and 1.12 tonnes CO2.eq/MWh when it is used in a cogeneration application. The latter case has the lowest environmental impact factor, which is equal to 29%. Hence, this study has shown that SOFC is very effective in combating global warming in landfill sites in addition to its other advantages like low emissions and noise and high efficiency. A future study will include an optimization of a SOFC in a landfill site. In this study, operating variables will be optimized to maximize the energetic performance and minimize the greenhouse gas effect.


The financial and technical support of an Ontario Premier's Research Excellence Award, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Carleton University, and University of Ontario and Institute of Technology is gratefully acknowledged.

Nomenclature global warming potential specific enthalpy, J/mol higher heating value of landfill gas, MJ/tonnes methane generation rate, year-1 potential methane generation capacity, m3/tonnes lower heating value, J/mol mass, tonnes CO2.eq molar flow rate, mol/s mass of waste accepted in the ith year, tonnes fraction of methane oxidized in the soil annual methane generation, m3/year age of the jth section of waste mass Mt accepted in the ith year, years molar concentration fraction of vented gas in flare

Greek Letters

£lCE specific GHG emission ratio of internal combustion engine, tonnes eq.CO2/MWh p density, g/cm3

G specific lifetime GHG emission, tonnes eq.CO2/MWh nel electrical efficiency 77 collection efficiency nICE electrical efficiency of internal combustion engine

GWP h hhv k Lo


QCH4 *j x vent r greenhouse gas reduction ratio

T Number of days that electricity producing technology operates per year, days

X fuel-air ratio on molar basis Subscripts c,i combustor inlet c,o combustor outlet f fuel


Alexander, A., Burklin, C., Singleton, A. 2005. Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) Version 3.02 User's Guide. Washington, USA: United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Bove, R., Lunghi, P. 2006. Electric power generation from landfill gas using traditional and innovative technologies. Energy Conversion and Management. 47:1391-1401.

Climate Leaders. 2004. Direct Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfilling. US Environmental Protection Agency.

Colpan, C.O., Dincer, I., and Hamdullahpur, F. 2007. Thermodynamic modeling of direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cells operating with syngas. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 32:787-795.

Colpan, C.O., Dincer, I., and Hamdullahpur, F. 2008a. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions using various thermal systems in a landfill site. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Global Warming-2008, 6-10 July 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Colpan, C.O., Dincer, I., and Hamdullahpur, F. 2008b. A review on macro-level modeling of planar solid oxide fuel cells. International Journal of Energy Research. 32:336-355.

Colpan, C.O., Dincer, I., Hamdullahpur, F. 2009. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions using various thermal systems in a landfill site. International Journal of Global Warming. 1(1-3):89-105.

Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 2002. Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd., CanadExport, 20(10):1-4.

Duerr, M., Gair, S., Cruden, A., McDonald, J. 2007. Hydrogen and electrical energy from organic waste treatment. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 32: 705-709.

Environment Agency and Scottish Environment Protection Agency. 2002. Guidance on Landfill Gas Flaring.

Environment Agency and Scottish Environment Protection Agency. 2004. Guidance for Monitoring Landfill Gas Engine Emissions.

EPA, 1998. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 5th ed., Chapter 2.4. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC, US: Environmental Protection Agency.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. An Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

LandGEM. Accessed on March 29, 2008.

Lombardi, L., Carnevale, E., Corti, A. 2006. Greenhouse effect reduction and energy recovery from waste landfill. Energy. 31: 3208-3219. Lunghi, P., Bove, R., Desideri, U. 2004. Life-cycle-assessment of fuel-cells-based landfill-gas energy conversion technologies. Journal of Power Sources. 131:120-126. Murphy, J.D., McKeogh, E. 2004. Technical, economic and environmental analysis of energy production from municipal solid waste. Renewable Energy. 29:1043-1057. News. 2005. GTI runs SOFC on gasified chicken waste. Fuel Cells Bulletin. 9:4. News. 2007. TMI demos SOFC using agricultural waste. Fuel Cells Bulletin. 9:4. News. 2008. Wartsila to deliver SOFC system using landfill gas. Fuel Cells Bulletin. 3:1. Qin, W., Egolfopoulos, F.N., Tsotsis, T.T. 2001. Fundamental and environmental aspects of landfill gas utilization for power generation. Chemical Engineering Journal. 82:57-172.

Sime, R., Stucki, S., Biollaz, S., Wiasmitinow, A. 2002. Linking Wood Gasification with SOFC Hybrid Processes, Proceedings, 5th European SOFC Forum, Lucerne, Switzerland.

SCS Engineers. 1994. Implementation Guide for Landfill Gas Recovery Projects in the Northeast. Final Report.

SCS Engineers. 1997. Comparative Analysis of Landfill Gas Utilization Technologies.

Spiegel, R.J., Preston, J.L., Trocciola, J.C. 1999. Fuel cell operation on landfill gas at Penrose Power Station. Energy. 24: 723-742.

Stege, A. 2003. User's Manual Mexico Landfill Gas Model Version 1.0. Prepared for SEDESOL IIE CONAE.

XENERGY. 2002. Toward a Renewable Power Supply: The Use of Biobased Fuels in Stationary Fuel Cells. Washington, DC: Prepared for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Solar Power

Solar Power

Start Saving On Your Electricity Bills Using The Power of the Sun And Other Natural Resources!

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment