Acidic medium was effective for decreasing the high amount of sulfur ratio of Can lignite. The most effective medium was H2O2 + HCl solution. With this treatment sulfur ratio was removed by the order of 36%, and HF was also effective for decreasing sulfur from 3.8 to 2.83% of giving 26% yield. These treatments were also effective for decreasing mineral parts of Can lignite. The highest ash reduction was accomplished with H2O2 + HF solution which was given approximately 48% demineralization yield. HF could react almost with every minerals especially siliceous ones in the mineral matter.


American Society for Testing and Materials (1983) Annual book of ASTM Standards. Part 26 (Methods D 2015, D 2072, D 3174 and D 3177). Philadelphia, PA, USA. Dincer, I (1998) Energy and environmental impacts: Present and future perspectives. Energy Source 20: 427-453.

Dincer, I (2001a) Environmental Issues I -Energy Utilization. Energy Source 23: 69-81. Dincer, I (2001b) Environmental issues II - Potential solutions. Energy Source 23: 83-92. Gulen, J, Doymaz, I, Piskin, S, Toprak, S (2005) Removal of mineral matter from Silopi Harput asphaltite by acid treatment. Energy Sources 27: 1457-1464. Gulen, J (2007) Mineral matter identification in Nallihan lignite by leaching with mineral acids. Energy Sources-Part A 29: 231-237.

Kahriman, A, Ipekoglu, B, Kesinel, A, Zemcen, G, Karadogan, A, Gorgun, S (2000) Rez-erv calculation and evaluation of Can lignites for the power plant. Turkey 12. Komur Kon-gresi, 23-26 Mayis, Zonguldak, Turkey.

Karaca, H, Ceylan, K (1997) Chemical cleaning of Turkish lignites by leaching with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. Fuel Processing Technology 50: 19-33.

Kusakebe, K, Orita, M, Kato, K, Morooka, S, Kato, Y, Kusunaki, K (1989) Simultaneous desulphurization and demineralization of coal. Fuel 68: 396-399.

Shirazi, AR, Bortin, O, Eklund, L, Lindquist, O (1995) The impact of mineral matter in coal on its combustion. A new approach to the determination of the calorific value of coal. Fuel 74 (2): 247-251.

Steel, KM, Patrick, SW (2001a) The production of ultra clean coal by chemical demineralization. Fuel 80: 2019-2023.

Steel, KM, Besida, J, O'Donnell, TA, Wood, DG (2001b) Production of ultra clean coal Part I-Dissolution behavior of mineral matter in black coal toward hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. Fuel Processing Technology 70: 171-192.

Wu, Z, Steel, KM (2007) Demineralization of a UK bituminous coal using HF and ferric ions. Fuel 86: 2194-2200.

Yang, RT, Subho, KD, Tsai, BMC (1985) Coal demineralization using sodium hydroxide and acid solutions. Fuel 64: 735-742.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment