From this study we can extract the following remarks:

• Renewable energy sources emit less greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and hence are beneficial for electricity production in an eco-friendly manner.

• Photovoltaic technology can be beneficial for electricity production as it uses solar energy which is freely available and pollution free and it can be applied for various purposes like solar drying, greenhouses, space, air and water heating applications, solar stills, etc., along with electricity production.

• The exergy efficiency of PV/T system (minimum-maximum, 11.3-15.7%) is more than the exergy efficiency of PV system (minimum-maximum, 7.83-12.53%) as the former uses thermal energy also.

• The sustainability index (SI) increases from 1.08 to 1.14, with the increase in the exergy efficiency of PV system from 7.83 to 12.53%.


The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada in Canada.



Area (m2)


Depletion factor


Exergy (W)


Exergy destruction (W)


Exergy input (W)

Ex solar

Exergy of solar irradiance (W)


Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficient from solar


cell to ambient air (W/ m2K)


Current at maximum power generation (A)


Short circuit current (A)






Available thermal energy (W)


Sustainability index


Hourly measured total solar irradiation (W/m2)

T b

Ambient air temperature (oC)


Photovoltaic cell temperature (oC)


Sun temperature (5777 K)


Wind velocity just above photovoltaic surface (m/s)


Voltage at maximum (actual) power generation (V)


Open-circuit voltage (V)


Exergy efficiency


Energy efficiency





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