Conclusions

From this study we can extract the following remarks:

• Renewable energy sources emit less greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and hence are beneficial for electricity production in an eco-friendly manner.

• Photovoltaic technology can be beneficial for electricity production as it uses solar energy which is freely available and pollution free and it can be applied for various purposes like solar drying, greenhouses, space, air and water heating applications, solar stills, etc., along with electricity production.

• The exergy efficiency of PV/T system (minimum-maximum, 11.3-15.7%) is more than the exergy efficiency of PV system (minimum-maximum, 7.83-12.53%) as the former uses thermal energy also.

• The sustainability index (SI) increases from 1.08 to 1.14, with the increase in the exergy efficiency of PV system from 7.83 to 12.53%.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada in Canada.

Nomenclature

A

Area (m2)

Dp

Depletion factor

Ex

Exergy (W)

EXd

Exergy destruction (W)

Exin

Exergy input (W)

Ex solar

Exergy of solar irradiance (W)

h

Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficient from solar

ca

cell to ambient air (W/ m2K)

Im

Current at maximum power generation (A)

Isc

Short circuit current (A)

PV

Photovoltaic

PV/T

Photovoltaic/thermal

Q

Available thermal energy (W)

SI

Sustainability index

S T

Hourly measured total solar irradiation (W/m2)

T b

Ambient air temperature (oC)

cell

Photovoltaic cell temperature (oC)

sun

Sun temperature (5777 K)

V

Wind velocity just above photovoltaic surface (m/s)

Vm

Voltage at maximum (actual) power generation (V)

Voc

Open-circuit voltage (V)

¥

Exergy efficiency

n

Energy efficiency

Subscripts

e

Electrical

th

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