Comparative Analysis

In this section there is a comparative analysis of the dominant carbon sequestration techniques. The characteristics of the sequestration methods are presented in table 16.2. This analysis investigates several sectors concerning the methods such as the advantages and disadvantages, the implementation efficiency and technical maturity, and the industrial compatibility and acceptance. The sequestration methods that are analyzed are as follows:

• Sequestration in aquifers and saline formations

• Sequestration at oil reservoirs utilizing EOR (enhanced oil recovery)

• Sequestration in depleted reservoirs (gas and oil)

• Ocean sequestration

• Reinforcement of forest reservoirs

• Reinforcement of cultivation areas

Table 16.2 Characteristics of several sequestration methods.

Sequestration in aquifers and saline formations

Advantages

Greatest storage potential among all sequestration methods/CO2 residence time is considered to be several thousands years/safe technique

Disadvantages

The potential of carbon release is not entirely studied

Implementation efficiency

Great availability

Technical maturity

There is former experience in chemical deposition in aquifers

Data availability

There are many studies concerning the particular method

Industrial acceptance

There is already CS at Utsira formation at the North Sea, since 1996

Industrial compatibility

Excellent

Sequestration at oil reservoirs utilizing EOR (enhanced oil recovery)

Advantages

The oil coproduction adds economic benefits to the method/it is safe technique/it is commercially utilized

Disadvantages

Limited storage capacity (<65 GtC)/due to the leakages the CO2, it must be injected under pressure

Implementation efficiency

Restricted to active oil reservoirs

Technical maturity

EOR is applicable over 25 years

Data availability

Excellent

Industrial acceptance

Since 1998 more than 65 oil reservoirs utilize the EOR technique

Industrial compatibility

The CO2 injection must be constant (not interrupted)

Sequestration in depleted reservoirs (gas and oil)

Advantages

Global storage potential is estimated to be 180/the reservoirs have great structural ability/there is great knowledge

Disadvantages

There are not enough depleted reservoirs

Implementation efficiency

Restricted to depleted oil and gas reservoirs

Technical maturity

The technology is same with the EOR technology

Data availability

Great

Industrial acceptance

There is not any industrial implementation

Industrial compatibility

It may require great number of depleted reservoirs

Coal-bed "storage"

Advantages

CH4 production adds economic advantages/efficient sequestration

Disadvantages

Further development for coal-bed methane needed

Implementation efficiency

Uncertainty on how different coal-beds will respond to this technique

Technical maturity

The CO2 injection for coal-bed methane production is in early stages

Data availability

Limited

Industrial acceptance

Good

Industrial compatibility

Good

Table 16.3 Characteristics of more sequestration methods.

Ocean sequestration

Advantages

Storage potential greater than 1000 Gt/no leaking

Disadvantages

It may have distortion on the local SeaWorld/legal problems/residence time restricted

Implementation efficiency

It is applicable in countries close to oceans

Technical maturity

Great experience due the ocean exploration

Data availability

Average

Industrial acceptance

Early stages

Industrial compatibility

Great for power plants close to coastlines

Reinforcement of forest reservoirs

Advantages

Low implementation costs/great number of forests/Maintenance of the biodiversity

Disadvantages

Lack in audit and verification of the sequestrated carbon/Low-term deposition

Implementation efficiency

Easily implemented to isolated areas

Technical maturity

The forestry is technically mature

Data availability

Good

Industrial acceptance

Feasible, low cost method

Industrial compatibility

Its combatable with all the power plants

Reinforcement of cultivation areas

Advantages

Low cost per ton of sequestrated CO2.

Additional benefits: better solid quality, no solid corruption, better water utilization, greater production

Disadvantages

Additional need for conventional ploughing

Implementation efficiency

Good

Technical maturity

The technology is already ready for implementation

Data availability

Not good for the carbon sequestration potential

Industrial acceptance

Additional benefits

Industrial compatibility

Good

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