Chlorinated solvents

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Not all of the chlorinated solvents cause depletion on ozone. There are several chlorinated solvents such as perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and methylene chloride and can be used safely for human health, safety, and environment. They are not listed as a source to damage ozone layer or to cause global warming or acid rain. When used with care, there is no risk for environment, human health, or safety. They are mostly used in dry cleaning, metal cleaning, and adhesive industry. But there is a specific solvent named trichloroethane and is regulated by the international protocols since 1990. Methylene chloride is generally used in pharmaceuticals, chemical processing, aerosols, and surface treatment.

39.2.3 Waste management in shipyards

The management of the wastes mentioned above is extremely important for environmental safety and human health. Waste management is the prevention, minimization, reuse, recycling, energy recovery, or disposal of waste materials (Fig. 39.3). The term is usually related to materials produced by human activity and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, aesthetics, or amenity. Waste management is also carried out to reduce the effects of waste materials on the environment and to recover resources from them.

Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. The methods for shipyard waste management are described below.

39.2.3.1 Source reduction

Source reduction aims to reduce the hazardous materials, pollutants, or contaminants to release to environment, prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal and minimize the hazards to human health and the environment. Source reduction can be achieved with the improvement and substitution on technological methods, production processes, raw materials with better housekeeping, maintenance, training, and stock control.

□ PREVENTION ID MINIMISATION

0 REUSE

H RECYCLING

RECOVERY ■ DISPOSAL

Fig. 39.3 Waste management hierarchy.

39.2.3.2 Reformulation or redesign of products

Some of the most common practices include eliminating metals from paints, reformulating paints and adhesives to eliminate tributyltin (TBT)-based paints and solvents, and replacing chemical-based cleaning solvents with water-based or citrus-based products.

□ PREVENTION ID MINIMISATION

0 REUSE

H RECYCLING

RECOVERY ■ DISPOSAL

Fig. 39.3 Waste management hierarchy.

Switching from solvent-based to water-based cleaners will reduce solvent volume and disposal cost, but is likely to dramatically increase wastewater volume. In-process recycling involves the reuse of materials, such as cutting scraps and blasting material, as inputs to the same process from which they came or use them in other processes or for other uses in the facility.

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