Christopher J. Koroneos and Dimitrios C. Rovas
Carbon sequestration refers to the provision and safe storage of carbon dioxide that otherwise would be emitted to the atmosphere. The basic idea is the retention, isolation, and final storage of the produced carbon dioxide, utilizing biological, chemical, or mechanical routes. Some methods retain the carbon from the exhaust gas before it is emitted. The retained carbon then can be deposited in underground geological repositories or in the oceans. Additionally, chemical and biological processes can transform carbon into solid products or they can enhance the natural terrestrial cycle. Carbon sequestration can be a useful tool in the minimization of the carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and it can be significant in the stabilization of the atmospheric CO2 concentration.
The dominant carbon sequestration methods are as follows:
• Ocean sequestration
• Land ecosystem sequestration
• Sequestration in geological repositories
• Advanced biological processes
• Advanced chemical processes
The carbon emitted to the atmosphere comes mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to develop a feasible and economical sequestration methodology, there must be significant alteration done to the existing energy system.
There are four major areas of interest in the development of an efficient carbon sequestration system: The carbon flow, the environmental storage, the existing scientific knowledge, and the fossil fuel combustion. The utilization and comparison of those areas would provide the most efficient carbon sequestration system which will lead to the capture and transportation of carbon, the carbon deposition, the advanced technologies, and the terrestrial carbon cycle (Fig. 16.1).
I. Dincer et al. (eds.), Global Warming, Green Energy and Technology,
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1017-2_16, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010
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