C

Heat/Power

Smoking Drying

Cooling

Freezing

-

Boiling

Frying

Cooking

Pasteurisation

-

Sterilisation

'>

Unit Operations for Food

Unit Operations for Food

Raw Material

Packing and Storage

Trimming

Digestion

Separation

Washing

Filtration

Distril

ution

House hold preparation ion C

Common preparation ion

Food (Ready to eat)

Fig. 10.3 A flowchart of energy consumption points and process flows during the food supply chain.

10.2.4 Energy demand and global warming potentials

As an example for energy demand and global warming potentials in food industry, Table 10.1 gives a list of various research results presented in the literature for some food products.

Table 10.1 Energy demand and global warming potentials for some food products.

Packing Retail Transport Consumption Storage Process

Energy demand (MJ/kg product )

Packing Retail Transport Consumption Storage Process

Energy demand (MJ/kg product )

Org. potato

0.3

0.2

1.4

0.65

-

-

Potato (UK)

0.3

0.2

1.27

1.2

0.5

-

Local fruit (D)

-0.65

1.2

-0.49

-

-0.81

-

Imported fruit

-0.65

1.2

-3.57

-

-

-

Ketchup

13.8

1.2

1.4

-

1.3

7.1

Beef

-

2.2

-

-

0.15

5.11

Fish finger (LE)

-

4.2

-

3.25

-

10.75

Fish finger (HE)

-

4.75

-

26.5

-

10.08

Chilled salmon

-

2.25

-

4

-

2.5

Bread (Swedish)

-

3.50

2

-

3.9

GWP ( g CO2 eq. Per kg)

Organic potato

5

4

125

85

-

-

Carrot

4.78 3

2.23-2

-

1.86-1

-

0

Frozen carrot

1.50-2

37106

-

3.22-1

-

37348

Canned carrot

4.44-1

-

-

37318

-

1.34-1

Tomato

520

135

95

-

-

440

Fish finger (LE)

-

141

-

216

-

540

Fish finger (HE)

-

216

-

812

-

540

Bread (Swedish)

-

-

380

10

-

210

Source: Mattsson and Sonnesson (2000); Nemry et al. (2001); Cederberg, (2003); Williams et al. (2006); Foster et al. (2006).

Source: Mattsson and Sonnesson (2000); Nemry et al. (2001); Cederberg, (2003); Williams et al. (2006); Foster et al. (2006).

10.3 Results and Discussion

In order to reduce the effects of global warming effect based on the emissions coming from food industry, the following actions are proposed and discussed to reduce the greenhouse gases emitted from food industry: (i) some key drivers and strategies; (ii) a strategic program; and (iii) an alternative solution. In this regard, Fig. 10.4 proposes the driving forces and possible strategies for reducing the global warming effects while Fig. 10.5 proposes a strategic program for food industry. Moreover, Fig. 10.6 presents an alternative solution to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions produced by food industry. This is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and hence combat global warming.

10.3.1 Some key drivers and strategies

Widespread use of renewable energy in food industry can be important for achieving food sustainability and reducing the global warming effect. If so, renewable energy and technologies are needed for food industry. In this regard, in order to reduce the global warming effects caused by food industry, the urgent need is to develop some potential strategies for sustainability in food industry and find a sustainable alternative energy-based food supply chain. Actually, sustainable development requires a supply of energy resources that is sustainable and available at reasonable cost and causes no or minimal negative effects. In fact, fossil energy resources are finite, and thus lack the characteristics needed for stability and sus-tainability, while green energy sources are sustainable over the relatively long term (Midilli and Dincer, 2007). Particularly, cost-effective and environmentally benign renewable energy can be the most essential means for increasing the energy stability and sustainability in food industry. If a comprehensive renewable energy-based food technologies is effectively put into practice, this key example will encourage many food producers for implementation. The food industry may then maximize the benefits from the renewable energy-based food supply chain, while minimizing the global warming effect associated with the use of fossil fuel energy sources. In this regard, it is expected that these potential strategies proposed in this chapter can contribute to the development of food industry and make it more sustainable. Consequently, the use of renewable energy sources in food industry can help safe production, transportation, distribution, etc., of food and thus contribute to ensure the sustainability in food sector. Renewable energy is mostly expected in the future to replace the fossil fuel in food industry. Considering this important feature, the required strategies for sustainability in food industry are presented in Fig. 10.4 as modified from Dincer and Rosen (2004; 2005) and Midilli et al. (2005). As shown in Fig. 10.4, the main factors considered in the development of strategies for food industry are education, media, societies and organizations, public institutions, private sector, government, and research and development units.

These driving forces should be related to food strategy, programming, and planning units. These units produce the required strategies for stability and sus-tainability in food industry. If these strategies are put into practice, then it will be possible to ensure the social, environmental, energy, economical, and industrial stabilities in food industry.

10.3.2 A strategic program

In order to put into practice the required strategies to reduce the global warming effect caused by food industry, a strategic program should be developed. In this regard, Fig. 10.5 presents a possible strategic program for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from food industry.

Contribute to minimally processed foods,

Contribute to organic food production and consumption,

Minimizing muscle food production and consumption,

Maximize fruits and vegetables production and consumption.

Consumption of the less processed and packaged food,

Minimizing food transport distance,

Maximizing the renewable energy use for food supply chain

Minimizing fossil fuel use in food sector

Eating locally produced food produces,

Contribute to food production and consumption in season.

Contribute to minimally processed foods,

Contribute to organic food production and consumption,

Minimizing muscle food production and consumption,

Maximize fruits and vegetables production and consumption.

Consumption of the less processed and packaged food,

Minimizing food transport distance,

Maximizing the renewable energy use for food supply chain

Minimizing fossil fuel use in food sector

Eating locally produced food produces,

Contribute to food production and consumption in season.

Fig. 10.4 Possible strategies for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions produced by food industry.

A Strategic Program for Sustainability in Food Industry

Program

Planning of

Renewable

Food

Sustainable

Marketing

Sustainable

Renewable

resource in-

wastes

Food Tech-

Policyde-

development

energy

vestigation

manage-

nology de-

velopment

education in

Based food

for food

ment

velopment

in food in-

food industry

technologies

supply steps

and recovery

dustry

Application of sustainabil-ity strategies and programs t__i__t__t__i__t

Responsi-bilit

Effective

Plans, pro

designs and

jects and

programs for

policies for

food tech-

short and

nologies

long-term

use for food

Food management policies and programs

Food management policies and programs

Technology management and control programs

Application of sustainabil-ity strategies and programs

Development of investment and cost analysis programs

Target

Technology management and control programs

Development of investment and cost analysis programs

Applicability

!" Environ- '

j -Consumer 1

-Consumer

-Food

-Consumer

in food

mental

interest

- Food

distributor

-Producer

processes

conven-

- Food

proucer

-Food

-Retailer

X

ience of the

producer

- Food Dis-

Retailer

-Distributor

l 1

sources and

interest

tributor

1 -R&D units ' |

1 1

technolo-

1 I 1

1 l

gies

1

' I '

Fig. 10.5 A strategic program for food industry.

Fig. 10.5 A strategic program for food industry.

10.3.3 An alternative solution

Global warming that is observed locally, regionally, and globally has recently been a key problem as a result of fossil fuel consumption. In the past, fossil fuel sources could be used to solve world energy problems. However, fossil fuels cannot continue indefinitely as the principal energy sources due to the rapid increase of world energy demand for industrial, residential, commercial, and sectoral applications and also for different needs of the human beings.

One of the requirements of human beings is food supply. Particularly, population growth and development of new technologies are very important parameters affecting the fossil fuel consumption in food industry. In the case of fossil fuels in food industry, this industry will probably produce some pollutants such as tar, dust, and harmful gases including COX, SOX, and NOX, causing air pollution, as well. The pollutants produced by food industry are discharged to the atmosphere and create some problems.

Food Requirement

Population Growth

Cultivation and harvesting

Process and package

Process and package

Food (Ready-eat)

Preparation

Tar j C

Storage and Distribution

[ Energy demand for food supply chain and development of new technologies in food industry

Which way is the better?

Increase of fossil fuel consumption in food industry

Renewable energy use in food industry

Rapid increase of CO2 and other greenhouse gases by food industry

Rapid increase of CO2 and other greenhouse gases by food industry

Effects

Greenhouse effect Global climate change Global aridity and poverty Air, water and land pollution Narrowing of green fields Flooding and erosion Ozone layer risk and acid rain etc.

Decreasing greenhouse effect More stability of global climate Decreasing global aridity Less pollution Increase of green fields Decreasing flood and erosion Decreasing acid rain etc.

Results

Increasing aridity

Unproductiveness of agricultural areas Decreasing food production Decreases in living standards Disturbances of balances in nature National and cultural conflicts Defense of existing agricultural fields etc.

Fig. 10.6 An alternative solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from food industry.

Decreasing aridity Increasing productivity in food industry Increasing food production Increase in living standards Increasing stability in food industry Increasing sustainability in food industry National and cultural peace etc.

Decreasing food scarcity and more sustainability in food industry

Fig. 10.6 An alternative solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from food industry.

For example, gas, particulate matter, and dust clouds in the atmosphere absorb a significant portion of the solar radiation directed at the Earth and cause a decrease in the oxygen available for living things. This can cause the global warming and change the climates locally, regionally, and/or globally. For instance, the average annual temperature of Earth has increased 0.7oC since 1860. If the utilization of fossil fuels continues at today's pace, the world's annual average temperature is predicted by some to increase 1.25oC by 2025, 2.2oC by 2050, 3.5oC by 2075 and 5.4oC by 2100, due to the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ul-tanir, 1997; TUSIAD, 1998; Midilli et al., 2005). If the utilization of fossil fuels reaches to 1000 EJ (1 exajoule = 109 GJ = 22.7*106 TEP (ton equivalent petrol)) in 2050, world average temperature will likely rise between 3oC and 5oC. This increase in temperature is sufficiently high to affect significantly life across the world. A 1oC rise in temperature may change climates in many areas of the northern and southern hemispheres. An annual average world temperature increase of almost 5oC would likely raise the levels of seas and oceans more than 1 m due to ice melting in the poles, and cause agricultural poverty, erosion, and floods (e.g., TUSIAD, 1998).

In fact, these negative effects of fossil fuel utilization can be created not only by food industry but also by all applications that consume fossil fuel sources. If increasing use is made of fossil fuels in food industry, significant global problems will probably increasingly occur. These are listed in Fig. 10.6 indicating and focusing on the important results of this study. Considering the above negative effects and the results, listed in Fig. 10.6, of fossil fuel consumption, it can be said that it is impossible to reduce the global warming effects caused by food industry and to ensure the energy stability and sustainability in food sector. Actually, this can allow us to use the renewable energy sources and technologies in this sector. In fact, in the near future, it is expected that, in case of increasing global warming and its immediate effects, the renewable energy and technologies will also become increasingly important to compensate for clean energy need in food industry.

Considering the above explanations, it should be emphasized that one of the main global problem affecting food industry is population growth. Increasing population needs much more food. Thus, in order to supply much more food for human beings, the following main processes in food industry should be taken into consideration: cultivation and harvesting, raw material production, food processing and packing, food storage and distribution, and finally food preparation. To achieve these food process steps and develop new technologies in food industry, energy is absolutely required. For this purpose, we have two ways. One is to utilize fossil fuel-based energy and technologies in food industry. Second way is to use renewable energy and technologies. If we use fossil fuel-based energy and technologies in food industry, it is certain to produce the above pollutants and greenhouse gases. If so, some possible effects of greenhouse gas emission produced by food industry can be observed locally, regionally, and globally. These effects can cause (i) increasing aridity, (ii) unproductiveness of agricultural areas, (iii) decreasing food production, (iv) degrading living standards, (v) disturbances of balances in nature, (vi) national and cultural conflicts, and (vii) defense of existing agricultural fields. These negative results can probably increase the food scarcity and decrease the food stability. As a result of these, local, regional, and global tensions can be observed. Accordingly, these tensions can likely cause a chaos in the world. Considering these important explanations, it can be said that fossil fuel consumption in food industry can accelerate the global warming effect. Therefore, the second way should be taken into consideration to decrease the effects of global warming. As understood from Fig. 10.6, renewable energy and technology can provide more energy sustainability in food industry. In this regard, if renewable energy and technologies are used in food industry, the emissions of greenhouse gases can be likely reduced. In such a way that, this attempt, can rapidly decrease the concentration of greenhouse gases produced by food industry. If so, the main contribution of renewable energy use in food industry can be enumerated as follows: (i) decreasing greenhouse effect, (ii) more stable climatic conditions, (iii) decreasing global aridity, (iv) less pollution, (v) increasing green agriculture, (vi) decreasing flood and erosion, and (vii) greener and cleaner technologies and their use. Thus, the results of these positive effects can be enumerated as follows: (i) decreasing aridity, (ii) increasing productivity in food sector, (iii) increasing food production and living standards, ( iv) increasing stability and energy sustainability in food industry, and (v) national and cultural peace. Consequently, it can be deduced that these important results can decrease the food scarcity and increase the energy stability and sustainability in food industry. As a result of this, the peace of civilizations may be ensured and thus, a peaceful world may be constituted. Meanwhile, it should be emphasized that renewable energy and technologies will not be entirely replace fossil fuels and technologies in food industry. However, it will be an important advantage to meet partially the energy requirements for food supply chain and developments of new technologies in food industry by using renewable energy sources and technologies.

10.4 Conclusions

This chapter aimed to analyze the aspects of energy consumption and greenhouse gas production in food industry and discuss potential solutions and strategies for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gases for better environment and sustainable development.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the support provided by Nigde University in Turkey and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council in Canada.

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