Advanced Chemical Processes

Advanced chemical processes can develop new sequestration technologies or reinforce the existing sequestration technologies through the better understanding of the chemical reactions, and they can be utilized in both sequestration and capture technologies. Advanced chemical processes are still in progress and they use techniques being developed now for future usage. They are trying to convert the captured CO2 into long-term aggregates that can be efficiently stored in earth soil or water and have market value. The majority of these technologies make the assumption that the stored carbon will be under pressure, with no mixtures at ambient temperature. A possible approach for carbon sequestration is the transformation of carbon into aggregates such as MgCO3. Due to the fact that these materials do not have great market value they could be used in the refilling of magnesium mines. Additionally, oceans could be a viable economic possibility, where carbon can be captured as CO2 clathrate. At last, carbon from the advanced chemical process point of view can be transformed into plastic or rubber.

16.7.1 Chemical reactions for carbon sequestration

The chemical industry is already mature and there is a large number of chemical procedures developed in the field of carbon capture and sequestration. At the same time, some of the procedures' raw material or energy usage is so intensive that the production of carbon could be of the same quantity as the one being sequestrated. The acceptance or not of a process is a difficult task and several criteria must be satisfied:

• The process must be environmentally safe

• The sequestration must be stable and sustainable

• It must be economically competitive

• It must be energy balanced

As mentioned before, there are two major groups of chemical processes: i) The ones that produce products that can be sequestrated and ii) the ones that produce products that can be further utilized with economic benefits.

16.7.2 Long-term idle and safe sequestration

The objective of this process is to develop chemical processes that can transform the carbon into products that can be stored safely for a great time period. This procedure is based on the natural CO2l chemical transformation such as the rock corruption in order to create calcium and magnesium carbonates or the dissolution of the carbon into the oceans. There are four major approaches for these procedures:

• The transformation of natural silicates for the production of geological stable ores of carbonates and silicon

• The CO2 dissolution into oceans

• The development of CO2 clathrates that can be utilized in large-scale sequestration into cold ocean

• The formation of "formats" and "oxalates." CO2 is an acidic gas that can be sequestrated with the use of an alkaline compound

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