Herein, U(ti) is a standardized variable that has zero mean and unit standard deviation. Therefore, its sequential behavior fluctuates around zero level. Furthermore, U(ti) is a Gaussian normal variate.

(vi) Similarly, the values of U'(t) are computed backward starting from the end of the series.

Although, the Mann-Kendall test can successfully locate the trends, it is not able to provide a measure of the amount of change involved during a defined period. However, the linear changes are estimated by the least squares regression analysis (Kadioglu, 1997).

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