Pervaporation results

Pervaporation experiments were carried out for the mixtures of MTBE water with the concentration 4-8 MTBE vol at room temperature. Figures 37.4 and 37.5 present pervaporation performance of the membranes (flux and separation factor). According to the pervaporation results, membrane was permselective for MTBE over the entire range of the feed concentrations. It is found that flux increases with increasing MTBE concentrations in the feed mixture, while selectivity decreases. This can be explained...

Methodology 3821 Data used

The data used for the study cover an average of 30 years and it was collected from the Nigerian Institute of Meteorological Agency (NimetAg). It includes daily maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall, and relative humidity of the affected localities. The study area covers the six geo-political zones of the country viz, southwest (SW), northwest (NW), southeast (SE), northeast (NE), south-south (SS), and north central (NC). A total of 16 states of the Nigerian federation were covered in the...

Nomenclature

Ex Specific molar exergy, kJ kmol h Specific molar enthalpy, kJ kmol -0 h Specific molar enthalpy at reference state, kJ kmol -0 h f Specific molar enthalpy of formation, kJ kmol n Number of moles per cycle, kmol kmol H2 Specific molar reaction heat, kJ kmol Reference-environment temperature, C

Conclusions

The greatest effect of CSLR will be the increased risk of inundation around the estuary, the lower rivers, and the Anzali Lagoon. The Anzali Lagoon is associated with the greater frequency of extreme tidal water levels. For example, the estimated rise in the Caspian Sea levels by 2016 would lead to changes in water levels, the protection ability provided, and ecological functions of the Anzali Lagoon. The existing protection provided by minimum ground and floor levels will also be progressively...

Characterization of Algerian clay

The natural clay used in this study was an Algerian montmorillonite, a bentonite type from Mostaganem (NW Algeria). It was kindly supplied by ENOF (a Ltd Algerian Betonies Company). The specific surface analysis was found to be 52 m2 g by using analyzer (Micromeritics ASAP 2020 equipment, using N2 as an adsorp-tive). The procedures for treatment and purification of this material clay were prepared according to literature methods (Olphen, 1963). The chemical and mineral compositions were...

Concluding Remarks

We have briefly reviewed the use of game theory and potential game theoretical problems in the analysis of negotiation occurring at the UNFCCC and KP, with an emphasis on the role played by the CDM. At this moment, the future of the international scheme after 2012 is not clear, and the course of negotiation itself is a challenge to game theory. However, as many incentive issues are involved in both the negotiation process and current or proposed mechanisms, the use of game theory can contribute...

Results and Discussion

We started our numerical analysis with a two-step optimization process of the solar collector for conditions assumed in our case study. In this respect, we estimated a range for the collector factor based on typical values of heat transfer coefficient at the receiver, typical insolation, receiver temperature, and optical properties. We concluded that Fcoll 50-100 covers the values of practical interest for our case study. Furthermore, typical values of the rim angle for paraboloidal dishes are...

Introduction

Solar energy is a clean and renewable energy source, which produces neither greenhouse effect gases nor hazardous wastes through its utilization. Wide installation of renewable energy systems helps to keep our environment clean and healthy. World energy demand has been significantly increased in the last years due to the world economic growth and population increase, especially in developing countries. Conventional methods of generating electricity can produce pollutants such as carbon dioxide,...

The Risk Management Process

Every year, the economists who meet in Davos at the World Economic Forum present an updated estimate of the major risks facing the business world and the global economy. They do this using a grid that shows the two dimensions of risk (Polard and Stephen 2008) the likelihood or probability of the risk occurring (expressed as a percentage) the severity or consequences if the risk does occur (expressed in monetary units) The risks that are most closely connected to environmental sustainability and...

Effect of pH

Figure 43.4 illustrates the effect of pH on removal of heavy ions by natural clay. The effect of pH on the adsorption of Cu2+ and Ni2+ was investigated at pH values 1-6. The adsorption of these metal ions from aqueous solution is remarkably influenced by the pH values in the range from 1 to 6 (obtained with a pH - meter of Cyber Scan type pH 500, prepared and adjusted by using either HCl acid or NaOH solutions). The adsorption percentage was increased in the range of pH 1-4 to reach 96.26 at pH...

Sustainability in Construction

Construction industry must inevitably change its historic methods of operating with little regard for environmental impacts to a new mode that makes environmental concerns a centerpiece of its efforts. Previously, the concern on environment was relatively a small part of most construction development. However, with the growing awareness on environmental protection due to the depletion of non-renewable resources, global warming, and extremity of destruction to ecology and biodiversity impact,...

Materials and Methods 2221 Essential oils

Plant Materials The adult leaves of the eleven Eucalyptus species (E. punctata DC, E. sideroxylon Cunn., E. saligna Smith, E. cladocalyx F. Muell., E. albens Miq.ex Benth., E. ovata Labill., E. leucoxilon F. Muell., E. Blakelyi A. Cunn, E. microcorys F. Muell. camaldulensis DC., and E. globulus Labill) were collected from the trees located in Bainem forest (16 km to the west of Algiers). Two or three trees of each species were taken randomly. Voucher specimens were cut off and housed in the...

On the Principles of Thermodynamics Effects on the Environment Global Warming and Sustainability

Precise thermodynamics education is a requirement to discuss issues that one faces in global warming, energy conversion, and other energy-related topics that affect sustainability of the environment in the global sense. For this reason, learning, understanding, and meaningful and relevant application of topics in thermodynamics are required. To accomplish this, educating students at the undergraduate and graduate levels in classical, statistical, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics becomes...

Solar and Biomass Integration to Steam Network

Process integration is a systematic approach that looks at the unity of the holistic system rather than individual units and streams that make up the process. This technique emphasizes on analyzing the overall picture and system insights first and then delving into the details of equipment, simulation, and other details (Mohan, 2005). The integration using pinch analysis technology helps in better understanding of the interactions in the system and results in sound decisions of the performance....

Carbon Sequestration A Comparative Analysis

Koroneos and Dimitrios C. Rovas Carbon sequestration refers to the provision and safe storage of carbon dioxide that otherwise would be emitted to the atmosphere. The basic idea is the retention, isolation, and final storage of the produced carbon dioxide, utilizing biological, chemical, or mechanical routes. Some methods retain the carbon from the exhaust gas before it is emitted. The retained carbon then can be deposited in underground geological repositories or in the oceans....

CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol on CuZrO2 Catalysts

Ferroudja Bali and Louise Jalowiecki-Duhamel The effective utilization of CO2 is gaining great attention due to its environmental relevance. As a matter of fact, synthesis of methanol from syngas (CO + H2) is very important in industry and synthesis of methanol from CO2 + H2 is one of the most economic processes. Therefore, it is important to develop new catalysts for this reaction with high activity and selectivity to methanol. Methanol synthesis is carried out at low temperature on...

Catalytic CO2 hydrogenation

The catalytic CO2 + H2 reaction was studied in a SOTHELEM RDP 830 apparatus. A stainless steel U tube reactor was placed into a tubular furnace. The catalyst was deposited as a slight layer on a fritted stainless steel disk within the reactor. The pressure of CO2 + 3 H2 was adjusted to the desired value by a system of capi-lars. This system permits to stabilize the pressure inside the reactor to 5 bars. The mass of catalyst is of 100 mg and the solid is analyzed after in situ reduction in H2 at...

Land Ecosystem Sequestration

Carbon sequestration in land ecosystems refers to the clear abstraction of the atmospheric carbon and to the interception of CO2 emission production from land ecosystems. Carbon sequestration can be accomplished mainly due to the stabilization of the photosynthesis, the alteration in land use, in a way that this will lead to lower carbon emissions and the use of the biomass as fuel. There are two major approaches on the land ecosystem sequestration i) the ecosystems protection and maintenance...

Measured Data

The data of major cities of South Korea used 20 years (1986-2005). All meteorological and solar radiation data that are used in this study have been measured at the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). Seoul and other three regions are among the solar measured areas and Ulsan is not. This study involves four regions of Korea and compares the figures from each region the solar radiation estimations apply the original coefficient substitution method which Kasten and Czeplak (1979) suggested...

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics denies a system the possibility of utilizing energy in a particular or arbitrary way. There are two basic definitions of the second law which were stated at different times by different people, historically speaking. It is impossible to construct an engine which is operating in a cycle that will produce no effect other than the extraction of energy from a reservoir and the performance of an equivalent amount of work. Thus an efficiency of 100 is not a...

Could climate change spread avian influenza and create a global pandemic

Influenza A viruses have been isolated from many species including humans, pigs, horses, mink, felids, marine mammals and a wide range of domestic birds, but wild birds belonging to the orders Anseriformes (particularly ducks, geese, and swans) and Charadriiformes (particularly gulls, terns, and waders) are thought to form the virus reservoir in nature (Olsen et al., 2006). Climate change and alterations in the environment or animal breeding processes could be responsible for the mutations...

Result and Discussion

A total of 35 construction developers had responded to this survey. These developers have been active in the industry between 4 and 36 years. The majority of them have been involved with more than 20 projects with project cost within the range of Ringgit Malaysia RM10 to more than RM100 millions. Their range of project profiles varied from landed property to shop, houses, and others. The progress in Malaysia is discussed under several subheadings a) the level of knowledge and awareness of...

Using GIS technology

An approach to use GIS in reading meteorological data as features, points, or polygons and carrying basic statistical operations on the resultant layers was performed repeatedly for temperature, precipitation, evaporation, runoff, and wind speeds. Points represent cities and meteorological stations, while the polygons represent defined regions of Saudi Arabia. The defined 6 regions and 37 locations scattered all over Saudi Arabia were studied separately. GIS data for Saudi Arabia's political...

Problem Statement

The importance of water and air in our daily life is clear to everyone, though they represent fragile Earth resources that can change abruptly at times. Understanding the mechanics of climate change provides us with an essential need to prepare for the future. Saudi Arabia has huge ancient groundwater reserves that are continuously under increasing demand. The total number of wells in Saudi Arabia increased by more than 100 from 1982 to 1990, and the total irrigation demand in 1997 was 22,933.4...

Effect of mass of clay

The adsorption of metal ions on the natural bentonite clay amount was studied on variable mass of clay from 0.25 to 10 g in constant solution volume of 50 mL with 2 h stirring time. The effect of clay amount on metal ions removal is shown in Fig. 43.5. The result indicates that the adsorption percentage increased with the increasing amount of the bentonite clay in the two cases of clay-metal interactions. This adsorption percentage was constant at higher amounts than 2 g. The optimum metals...

Materials and Methods

The Anzali Lagoon Management Project considers the implications of a rapid rise in the Caspian Sea level due to the collapse of the East North Pole Ice Sheet, high water discharge from the Volga River, which could produce a rise in sea level of 0.20 to 1.5 m. The historical changes are very small compared to the scenario to be considered in Anzali Lagoon Project - a 1.20 m rise in 10 years (or 12 cm year). As we are dealing with a poorly understood phenomenon, it was felt better to keep the...

Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea

Hochun Yoo, Kwanho Lee, Sohee Park and Kyoung Hwan Noh Energy consumption causes a range of environmental pollution. Furthermore, with the increase in energy demand, the issue of energy shortage becomes increasingly serious. Since there is more and more concern on energy conservation and environmental protection, interest has been increasingly focused on the use of renewable energy. This is considered as a key source for the future, not only for South Korea but also for the world (Ulgen and...

Future themes of sustainable agriculture in relation to N2O emissions

In Japan, the focus of sustainable agriculture is on crop production practices, such as low input of chemical fertilizer for carrot to conserve groundwater quality (Kagamihara City Groundwater Study, 1989). Japanese laws on the agroenvironment and sustainability refer to livestock husbandry only in terms of manure application for soil fertility and soil health and livestock excreta management. The primary aim of these regulations is to preserve water quality in the environment and to reduce the...

Springer

Engineering & Applied Science ibrahim.dincer uoit.ca Adnan Midilli Department of Mechanical Engineering Nigde University 51200 Nigde Turkey Department of Mechanical Engineering Ege University 35100 Bornova, Izmir Turkey T. Hikmet Karakoc Anadolu University School of Civil Aviation 26470 Eskisehir Turkey ISSN 1865-3529 e-ISSN 1865-3537 ISBN 978-1-4419-1016-5 e-ISBN 978-1-4419-1017-2 Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number 2009930937 Springer...

The Cloud Cover Radiation Model CRM

Kasten and Czeplak formulated equations for the estimation of solar irradiance based on cloud cover information. For their research, Kasten and Czeplak (1979) used 10-year periods from 1964 to 1973 of continuous hourly data from Hamburg, Germany. They also validated their model using German and UK data sets, thus, the coefficients they provide are from German and UK regional climatology. Initially they proceed by calculating the global horizontal irradiance under clear sky conditions IGC, and...

Exergy Analysis of Food Drying Processes

Balta, Filiz Ifier, Ebru Kuzgunkaya, Arif Hepbasli and Zafer Erbay It is well known that micro-level system parameters may have some great impact on macro-level energy aspects, the environment, and sustainability. Of course, if one wants to approach these thermodynamically, there are two ways energy analysis through the first law of thermodynamics and exergy analysis through the second law of thermodynamics. Exergy analysis is an essential tool to expose the impacts...

Chlorinated solvents

Not all of the chlorinated solvents cause depletion on ozone. There are several chlorinated solvents such as perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and methylene chloride and can be used safely for human health, safety, and environment. They are not listed as a source to damage ozone layer or to cause global warming or acid rain. When used with care, there is no risk for environment, human health, or safety. They are mostly used in dry cleaning, metal cleaning, and adhesive industry. But there...

Effects of water course management on floods in the Tarnava river basin

In the Tarnava river basin most of the floods are generated by rain. Thus, at Odor-hei hydrometric station the highest floods recorded before 1970 were the floods caused by the rainfalls in August 1955, July 1957 and 1959 with peak discharges of 80 90 m3 s. After 1970, the highest discharges of 205 m3 s were recorded on March 13, 1981. At Blaj hydrometric station the most important floods were caused by rainfalls, for example, those in 1953, April May 1956, and July-August 1960. The peak...

Experimental Procedure and Materials

Laboratory Scale Fixed Bed Reactor

The tests of hydrogen-rich gas production through steam gasification of coal were conducted in the laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor (Smolinski, 2007). The installation (see Fig. 17.1) consists of gases inlets (valves, flow regulators) (1), a water pump with a steam generator (2,3), a fixed bed reactor with a resistance furnace (4,5), a water trap (9), a flowmeter (10), and a gas chromatograph - GC(12). The fixed bed reactor is located inside the resistance furnace (see Fig. 17.2). The furnace...

Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Powered Cogeneration Systems

The industrial sector is a major electricity consumer. The growth rate of electricity demand is high especially in the developing countries and a continuous growth is anticipated for coming years. Many governments revise their energy policy introducing legislative and economic incentives to encourage private participation in the power generation investments. Generally, a favorable economic environment is created for the industries that make use of energy conservation, and cogeneration is an...

Comparison of the previous and present associations of daily mortality and temperature

Based on international literature data and national assessment, a nonlinear association can be stated between temperature and mortality in different temperature ranges in the countries with moderate climate. The association is U shaped in Budapest (Paldy, 2005a), mortality increases in both the low- and high- temperature ranges. The optimal or threshold temperature differs in different populations in relation to the adaptation capacity to local weather conditions. The slope of mortality steeply...

Onboard Refrigeration with Ammonia

Cooling Liquid Meaning

The presence of ammonia on board offers the opportunity to use it as a refrigerant for engine cooling. Moreover, ammonia can be used as working agent to recover engine heat and convert it into some additional shaft work. Optionally, the refrigeration effect of ammonia, i.e., its high latent heat of vaporization, can be used to produce some air conditioning on board. The cooling effect of ammonia is equivalent to the heat needed to raise its temperature plus, if it applies, the heat needed to...

Machining and metalworking process and wastes

The common types of metal cutting processes are broaching, cutting, drilling, forging, grinding, milling, planing, polishing, reaming, sawing, shaping, stamping, threading, and turning. In most cases, the cutting tool travels along the surface of the work piece and shaves off the metal in front of it. The high friction at the cutting edge of the blades creates heat. If allowed to become excessive, this heat can permanently deform the part that is being formed, or the cutting tool. To prevent...

Experimental Study

Turkey has huge lignite deposits although most of them are of low quality. The total reserve of Can lignite is 79,000,000 tonnes (Kahriman et al., 2000). The proximate analysis results of Can lignite are given in Table 21.1. Table 21.1 Proximate analyses ( ) of Can lignite. Table 21.1 Proximate analyses ( ) of Can lignite. H2O2 solution was chosen as an oxidative medium for decreasing sulfur and mineral matter of Can lignite. At the beginning, the sample was ground, sieved to pass 0.250 m. It...

Process Description

Tehran Oil Refinery was established in 1974 by an American company (FLUOR) that involves two similar plants, northern and southern refinery. The steam networks in two oil refineries are similar. A 0.4064 m diameter, 44.8 bar pressure and a 0.2032 m diameter, 4.1 bar pressure steam lines interconnect the north and south refinery steam systems to provide operational flexibility and assist in the start-up of north refinery. In this regard northern refinery steam network is simulated. There are...

Moving Toward Sustainable Construction in Malaysia

As a developing country, Malaysia realized that the construction industry plays a significant role in its economic growth. Over the last 20 years, the industry has been consistently contributing between 3 and 5 of the national GDP (Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), 2000). However, the industry is not without weaknesses. Challenges have been in the areas of productivity, quality, safety, technology, and unproductive practices. The government is now striving to upgrade the country,...

System Description and Control Strategy

Solar Absorption Chiller Schematic

A schematic diagram of the system studied is represented in Fig. 28.1. The system consists of a solar collector, a storage tank, an absorption chiller, heat exchanger, and auxiliary units. The system operates in four different modes. When solar energy is available for collection and there is a load demand, heat is supplied directly from the collector to the heating or cooling unit. When solar energy is available for collection and there is no heat or cooling demand, heat is stored in the...

Steam Network Description

Willans Line Steam

In a steam network system steam levels are specialized through various pressures and temperatures. To investigate the existing steam network, selection of steam levels and determination of the configuration of the operating units between the steam levels are important (Harrell, 2001). To achieve the task, a model is required. This model should allow for the steam generation potential. Turbine hardware model, THM, is based on shaft work targeting and relies on the principle of the Willans line...

Parabolic Solar Dish System

In what follows, we illustrate the benefits of solar power generation on sustain-ability, on reducing greenhouse gas emission and on reducing global warming by a case study. The study refers to a residential (single) unit for solar power conversion based on a paraboloidal mirror that is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The solar dish concentrates the insolation on a glazed tube receiver that plays the role of desorber for an ammonia-water Rankine cycle. For expansion and work production, a scroll...

Environmental and Economic Issues from Changing a Major Fuel Type as Energy Resource in an Industrial City in Korea

Ulsan is the largest industrial city of Korea with a population of more than 1.1 million people and national-scale industrial complexes (ICs) including non-ferrous metallic IC, petrochemical IC, automobile and shipbuilding IC. Main sources of air pollutants in major metropolitan cities are traffic emissions (Mamane et al., 2008). However, they are quite different from the main sources from industrial cities. According to the recent study of air pollution source apportionment (Koo and Kim,...

Shipyard processes and pollutant sources

The shipbuilding and repair industry processes include surface preparation, painting and coating, metal plating and surface finishing, solvent cleaning and degreas- ing, machining and metal working, welding, vessel cleaning, and fiberglass operations. They consume various types of products and produce solid, liquid, and gaseous pollutants. Many different production processes employed in shipbuilding and repair require a vast amount of material inputs and generate huge amounts of waste and...

Hydrogen Production Systems

To produce hydrogen, the hydrogen bonds in hydrocarbons or water must be broken and hydrogen must be separated from the reaction mixture. The most efficient method for meeting increasing energy needs could be to convert nuclear power into electricity and hydrogen, thus providing effective and universal energy carriers. Nuclear power plants produce heat that can be used directly or converted into electricity for the production of hydrogen. Four classes of H2 production options are under...

Solar Energy Result Conclusion

The construction industry requires the extraction of vast quantities of materials, resulting in the consumption of energy resources and the release of deleterious pollutant emissions to the biosphere. Energy and pollutant emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), may be regarded as being 'embodied' or associated with materials. Here the embodied energy was viewed as the quantity of energy required to extract, process, and supply the material under consideration. Likewise the emission of...

Welding and cutting process and wastes

The primary raw material for ship construction is steel plates. All types of metal arriving at the shipyard are in standard size and length plates, shapes, and sections that may need customized sizing based on different requirements. Therefore, before welding, fabrication, and ship construction or repair, the material must be cut to required sizes, shapes, and lengths. Metal cutting in the shipyard is performed by either mechanical or thermal hot metal cutting operations (Kura et al., 1998)....

Empty Quarter

An increase of all climate fields is expected under A2 scenario (Table 33.8). Temperature will increase by 3.2oC, surface wind speeds by 1.8 , precipitation by 38.4 , evaporation by 10.8 , soil water balance by 3.6 , and runoff by 192 . Table 33.8 Empty Quarter climate fields. Table 33.8 Empty Quarter climate fields.

Hydrogen Production from Ammonia

The common approach to hydrogen economy is illustrated in Fig. 5.2 and consists of the following steps production of hydrogen from primary energy sources at some locations, hydrogen distribution (infrastructure not yet developed), and hydrogen delivery on vehicles where it is used for power generation propulsion. Our aim here is to assess the total cost of hydrogen per unit mass at the utilization point (i.e., on the vehicle) for two alternative layouts of the hydrogen transportation economy....

N2O emission

Direct N2O emission from livestock excreta (N2Oexcreta) and indirect N2O emission were calculated as follows N2Oexcreta_directi Nexcretai * EFexcretai * 14 (40.7) i) * 0.01 + Ndisposedi * 0.0124) x where EFexcreta is emission factor for excreta manipulation. Direct and indirect N2O emission by fertilization was calculated as follows N2Ofertilizer_directi (Nchemicali + Nmanurei + Nresiduali) * EFfarmi * (40.9) N2Ofertilizer_ indirect (Nchemicali + Nmanurei) * 0.3 * 0.0124 * (4 .10) where...

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH

Table 42.2 reports the aerial content of individual PAH in downtown Algiers and Oued Smar. Two diagnostics ratios referring to PAH are also reported, i.e. The total PAH concentrations recorded recently in downtown Algiers varied from 13 to 29 ng m3, and maximum levels were recorded in winter. PAH reached concentration levels similar to those recorded in the atmosphere of Prato, Italy (Cincinelli et al., 2007), but lower than those found in Thessaloniki, Greece (Manoli et al., 2004). The...

References

A simple model of CDM low-hanging fruits, in T. Sawa (ed.) International Frameworks and Technological Strategies to Prevent Climate Change, Tokyo, Springer Verlag, 66-96. Asheim, G. B., C. B. Froyn, J. Hovi, and F. C. Menz (2006). Regional versus global cooperation for climate control, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 51, 93-109. Barrett, S. (1994). Self Enforcing International Environmental Agreement., Oxford Economic Papers, 46, 878-94. Barrett, S. (1999)....

Energetic and Cost Parameters

In Table 5.2 we compare ammonia as hydrogen source with other fuels (gasoline, compressed natural gas CNG ) and pure hydrogen based on the following energetic and economic indicators specific energy per mass and per volume, respectively, and gravimetric, volumetric and, respectively energetic costs. Gasoline, stored in non-pressurized tank in liquid phase with a density of 736 kg m3, is listed in Table 5.2 as a reference fuel. Compressed natural gas (CNG) also represents an interesting path...

Case Study Broccoli Drying

Latest Conveyor Drying Systems

Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea) was purchased from a local market in Izmir, Turkey. It was processed within 24 h. Broccoli samples were washed with water, and then the excess water on the surface of broccoli was removed with filter paper. Afterward, florets of broccoli were separated. Broccoli florets were dried in a heat pump conveyor dryer designed and constructed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, shown schematically in Fig....

The 37 locations

Temperatures are expected to increase 2.5 to 5.1oC with a mean increase of 4.4oC for all 37 locations. The biggest increase of 5.1oC is over Hafar Al-Batin and the warmest mean temperature is expected over Obailah in the Empty Quarter with average daily temperature of 35.7oC. There are 15 locations in which the mean increase in temperature equals or greater than 4.8oC. The average precipitation change for the selected locations is an increase of 39 , distributed in the range -0.8 for Ar'ar...

Steam Network Optimization by Utilizing Biomass and Solar Energy Sources in an Oil Refinery

Hassan Panjeshahi, Lena Ahmadi and Simon Perry Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial processes contribute significantly to global warming. A reduction in GHG emissions can only be achieved by a conversion to renewable energy sources and a simultaneous increase in energy efficiency therefore, the application of renewable energies for evaluating the site utility systems and environmental aspects should be considered. Site utility systems involve complex...

Strategic Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food Industry

Aydin Kilic, Adnan Midilli and Ibrahim Dincer Global warming is considered a problem caused by combined worldwide greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Many greenhouse gases occur naturally as a result of Earth's geological, hydrological, and biological cycles. They include water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). In addition, other photochemically important gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and non-methane volatile organic...

Conclusion Of Report On Solar Parabolic Collector

This chapter presents a review and analysis of solar-driven heat engines for power generation with relevance to residential applications. The impact of solar systems on sustainable development is quantified based on fossil fuel vs solar energy utilization factors predicted over the next decades and by sustainability factor as introduced also in other works, e.g., by Dincer and Rosen (2005). The established large-scale and small-scale systems are presented and analyzed based on their performance...

Effects of Fuel Consumption of Commercial Turbofans on Global Warming

Engine Station Numbering

The main objective of this study is to parametrically investigate the fuel consumption effect of commercial turbofans on global warming. In this regard, of the important parameters, specific fuel consumption of commercial turbofans is taken into consideration. In order to minimize the effect of fuel consumption on global warming, the values of engine design parameters are optimized for maintaining minimum specific fuel consumption (SFC , g kN s) of high-bypass turbofan engine under different...

Solar Power Generation Systems

In this section, the main kinds of established solar power systems, including small-(individual) and large-scale residential power generation are classified as shown in Figure 4.2 and analyzed in terms of their overall and component performance. A typical solar-driven heat engine system for residential power (and heat) generation consists of a solar concentrating collector that drives a heat engine (e.g., a Rankine cycle). The heat engine produces shaft work at an expander that in turn drives...