Modeling and Analysis of Engine Performance

The Marnoch engine uses a pneumatic rotary actuator and a transmission system that converts mechanical energy provided through a flywheel to electricity in an electrical generator. Any cylinder configuration can be used and it is not restricted to a rotary actuator. The transmission can be a belt drive or direct drive, similar to systems used in wind turbines. The differential in pressure between the heated tank and the cooled tank drives the actuator. The size of the actuator depends on the...

[ti

Herein, U(ti) is a standardized variable that has zero mean and unit standard deviation. Therefore, its sequential behavior fluctuates around zero level. Furthermore, U(ti) is a Gaussian normal variate. (vi) Similarly, the values of U'(t) are computed backward starting from the end of the series. Although, the Mann-Kendall test can successfully locate the trends, it is not able to provide a measure of the amount of change involved during a defined period. However, the linear changes are...

Case Study

An example of solar technology is adopted to demonstrate the link between sus-tainability and efficiency. An effective way to maintain a good electrical efficiency by removing heat from the solar panels and to have a better overall efficiency of a photovoltaic system is to utilize both the technologies simultaneously. This kind of system is known as hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV T) system and can be beneficial for low-temperature thermal applications like water heating, air heating,...

DS v dV s

Similar equalities can be obtained using the other Gibbs equations that relate other properties, i.e., enthalpy, H H (S, p) and dH T dS + V dp , the Gibbs function G G(T,p) and dG - SdT + V dp , and the Helmholtz potential F F(T,V) and dF -S dT - p dV . These are also useful in the elimination of some of the non-measurable terms and thermodynamic properties. In Somerton and Arnas (1985), the theory as well as the use of the method is given. For the general equation of dZ M dY + N dX , the...

Concluding Remarks

This chapter describes nuclear-based energy sources and technologies such as thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production. The efficiency analysis reported in this chapter for a Cu-Cl thermochemical water decomposition cycle for hydrogen production has allowed several findings. For each of the steps in the cycle, the variations of reaction heat with parameters like process temperature have been quantified and characterized. Also exergetic efficiency of each step has been obtained based on a...

Discussion

While it is important to consider the embodied impacts of new building designs this must not be the sole factor for selection. A full analysis of operational energy should be completed. Energy in operation presently has the largest impact over the lifetime of a property. With the current benchmarks it was estimated that the energy in operation would overtake the initial embodied energy within 7 years and the carbon would take almost 12 years (see Hammond and Jones, 2007 and 2008a). It was also...

Driving Range and Its Cost

It is interesting to investigate the driving range as a function of the system effectiveness. In this respect we assume system effectiveness and a performance indicator of the powertrain given in terms of shaft torque energy for each kilometers of driving. We consider here a reasonable value for this indicator of 1 MJ km and take three illustrative values for system effectiveness defined as Figure 5.8 compares some performance indicators for hydrogen from ammonia solution, pure hydrogen, and...

Economic Analysis

The cost of the conventional fuel energy is the the most important factor affecting the economic feasibility of the solar system. The economic calculations for this study are based on life cycle savings (LCS) method (Duffie and Beckman 1991). There are two variables which characterize the life cycle savings method the duration of the analysis and the discount rate. The discount rate is defined as the rate of return which can be obtained from the best alternative investment. The life cycle...

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment

Greenhouse gases that are most relevant to energy system analysis are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) however, CO2 is considered the main contributor to global warming. For this reason, CO2 emission effects are only considered in the present analysis. The amount of fossil carbon emission avoided by using a renewable resource instead of a fossil fuel power generation technology depends on the fossil fuel type that is avoided and on the conversion technology that...

Environmental Impact

In this section the environmental impact of the above-said non-conventional (renewable) sources of energy would be discussed in terms of equivalent carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere. Figure 3.1 shows the equivalent CO2 emission for different energy sources for direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions. The former is used for the emission during the operation whereas the latter is responsible for CO2 emission other than the operation, say, during the installation of a system. 1...

Footwear should also be decontaminated

After walking around areas that may be contaminated (such as farms, markets, or backyards with poultry), clean your shoes as carefully as possible with soap and water. When cleaning shoes, make sure that you do not flick any particles into your face or on your clothes. Wear a plastic bag over your hands, shield your eyes by wearing glasses or goggles, and cover your mouth and nose with a cloth. Leave dirty boots and shoes outside the home until they have been thoroughly cleaned.

F fXTp V Wi 2 I F Pi p

By the market clearing condition X i 1N Si 1 +B1+n1 0, Substituting (25.12) in to (25.11), we obtain In the case where nation i buys Si 1 emission credits at time 1, the cost of nation is The expectation and the variance are The expectation and the variance are The substantial cost minimizing problem of a nation i is The substantial cost minimizing problem of a nation i is

Info

Note that from Eqs. (5.3) and (5.4) it appears that, on an ideal basis, producing locally hydrogen from ammonia is more efficient than producing and on board using pure hydrogen. Up to this moment the irreversibilities of the chemical reactions and the fuel production and distribution costs were not considered in the analysis. One can of course expect that due to the irreversibilities of the production process, the cost of ammonia is higher than that of the hydrogen from which is synthesized....

DV

And the isothermal compressibility, kt the coefficient of thermal expansion, i ( dv can be measured. Using these parameters and since thermodynamic properties are mathematically well-behaved functions, namely the order of differentiation does can be measured. Using these parameters and since thermodynamic properties are mathematically well-behaved functions, namely the order of differentiation does non-measurable properties becomes simple. In general, the Maxwell relations are obtained from dZ...

Introduction

In the second half of July 2007 a record breaking heat wave arrived in Central-Eastern Europe. For Hungary it was the ever recorded longest and hottest heat wave concerning both daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperature. During the summer 2007 there was a milder heat wave between June 19 and 23, between July 16 and 24 an extremely intensive heat wave affected the country, and the last heat wave affecting only some parts of the country arrived to Hungary between August 23 and 26. Hungary took...

Method 4021 Framework

The framework of the study is set out in Fig. 40.1. The livestock sector includes cattle, pigs, and poultry. Because numbers of other livestock, such as horses and goats, are few, they were ignored. The crop sector includes paddy rice, upland fields, vegetables, tea, orchards, and forage. Direct emission Indirect emission Nitrogen flow , Fig. 40.1 Framework of N2O emission associated with agricultural N flow. 40.2.2 Data sources Basic statistical data, such as livestock numbers and areas of...

Materials and Methods 3121 Description area

Erzurum is one of the cities located in the eastern part of Turkey, situated on plateau surrounded by mountains to east, north, and south. The height of this plateau is 1950 m a.s.l. It lies in a NE-SW direction, on an area about 20 km long and 5 km wide (Fig. 31.1). The altitude difference between the upper and lower limits of the city is approximately 200 m. The annual average temperature of the city is 6oC and the number of days below zero is 161. The city's severe climate and unfavorable...

Previous situation

Training of the managers and employers about waste management is unarguably the first and the most important stage of the waste management. For this reason our practice study started by informing the managers and workers about the wastes and their hazards, threats of wastes on human health and environment, and management of wastes. A visit was paid to the shipyard in order to see the general situation of the shipyard before the application of BMP. Safety issues, threats to workers' health and...

Planning responses

The Anzali Lagoon Management Project scenarios on the CSLR (1.20 m in 10 years) will offer some policy plan. 'To avoid higher intensity forms of built development in areas that could be subject to anticipated sea level rise' it is recommended that the Council adopt the following two-tier approach to new land-use developments in areas of potential risk Restrict new land-use developments in areas that within 10 years would be less than 1.20 m Caspian Sea level increase. Restriction below this...

References

Chikazawa, Y, Konomura, M, Uchida, S, Sato, H (2005) A feasibility study of a steam methane reforming hydrogen production plant with a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Nuclear Technology 152 266-272. Ertesvag, IS (2007) Sensitivity of chemical exergy for atmospheric gases and gaseous fuels to variations in ambient conditions. Energy Conversion and Management 48 1983-1995. Forsberg, CW (2003) Hydrogen, nuclear energy, and the advanced high-temperature reactor. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy...

Precautions can be taken when visiting friends or relatives in healthcare facilities

If you visit a patient who has bird flu, follow the advice from the hospital staff to wear protective clothing, including a mask, gown, gloves, and goggles. Such special protective clothing is required when you have direct contact with the patient and or the patient's environment. It is important that the protective mask fits properly. If it does not, seek advice from the hospital staff. When you leave the patient's room you must remove these items and wash your hands with soap and water.

Results and Discussion 3351 Eastern province

Table 33.3 shows an increase of 4.47oC, surface wind speeds decreased by 1 precipitation stand tall with substantial increases of 40 , a slight increase of 0.87 in surface evaporation which contributed to an increase of 4 in the soil water balance and an increase of 162 in runoff. Table 33.3 Eastern region climate fields. Table 33.3 Eastern region climate fields.

Results and Discussion 4431 Characterization of temperature

The temperature data of the previous years are summarized in Table 44.1. By using the temperature data of the outskirt measuring site of Budapest (Pestszent-lorinc) summer mean temperature was the highest in the year of 2003 concerning the last 5 years, from 2005 the mean temperature showed a slight increase and in 2007 its value was close to that of 2003. Maximum temperature (41 C) was the highest in 2007 (highest ever recorded in Budapest). Days with daily mean temperature over 30 C were...

Results for the case study

In this section, effects of the drying air temperature and the mass flow rate of drying air on the system performance were discussed. Specific heats, enthalpies, and entropies of the broccoli florets were calculated from Eqs. (15.2), (15.10), and (15.11-15.12), respectively. The properties of the inlet and outlet air were calculated from the computer aided thermodynamic tables. The reference (dead state) temperature for exergy analyses was taken to be 23oC. Exergy analyses of single-layer...

Sequestration in Geological Repositories

Cook Formation North Sea

Geological repositories such as aquifers, petroleum fields, and carbon deposits can be the first long-range opportunity for massive carbon sequestration. The knowledge is mature due to the former experience in oil and natural gas extraction, the underground aquifer management, and the natural gas storage. Carbon can be sequestrated utilizing three basic mechanisms. To begin with, carbon can be lodged at its gaseous form, beneath a low permeability mineral, utilizing the same method used in...

Solvent cleaning and degreasing process and wastes

Shipyards use solvents in a variety of cleaning and degreasing operations including parts cleaning, process equipment cleaning, and surface preparation for coating applications. Some of the major solvents used are petroleum distillates, oxygenated solvents, and halogenated solvents. Most common cleaning and degreasing operations include cold cleaning and vapor degreasing (Kura et al., 1998). Major wastes and materials that become contaminated with the solvents in cleaning and degreasing are...

System Parameters and Data

Table 28.2 shows the system parameters for the different system components. Table 28.2 Solar system parameters. Mass flow rate of water Mass flow rate of air Max. rate at which heat can be provided 14,000 W Max. temp. at which air is returned to the load 48 C Absorption chiller with auxiliary I Chiller cooling capacity 37980 kJ h Max. useful solar source temp 75 C Auxiliary energy to generator Temp. of firing wate delivered 92 C Series auxiliary if solar source temp. > 85 C Parallel auxiliary...

The Survey

From the literature review, it is clear that with the encouragement from the government, sustainable concept is beginning to settle in the construction industry. However, referencing several projects does not represent the wider scenario. To understand how far this concept has penetrated the industry, a survey was conducted among construction developers in Malaysia focusing on their understanding on this subject matter and whether they have incorporated this knowledge within their current and...

Da M L Vd

Since the process (a-b) is reversible and adiabatic, then This integrates to give for process (a-b) the f c T ln L. Therefore, since the limits of integration are J v T V reversed, the equivalence gives J ln IL ln Y L or - ln Vc - ln Vb 1. This upon substitution yields the expected This relation permits one to substitute temperatures for heat quantities in the determination of Carnot performance criteria which quickly give extremum values for the actual efficiencies for engines, q, as well as...

Wda1 h h TS1 S01522

Wda 2 (h2 h0) T0(S 2 S0) (15.23) where da1 and y da 2 were the specific exergy transfers at inlets and outlets, respectively ha, s0 denoted the specific enthalpy and specific entropy at the temperature of dead state (T0), respectively h1 and s1 denoted the specific enthalpy and the specific entropy at the temperature of drying air entering the dryer (Tda1), respectively h2 and s2 denoted the specific enthalpy and the specific entropy of drying air at the temperature of the drying air exiting,...

Effect of shaking time

An adsorption kinetic study was carried out for both natural and treated clays by adding 1 g of the clay material to 50 mL of solution with fixed concentration of Cu2+ and Ni2+. Each experiment was repeated two times. The suspension in different conical flasks was then shaken at room temperature and the concentration of the supernatant of metal ions was determined using SAA method with an accuracy of 0.5 and 0.3-0.4 Cu2+ and Ni2+, respectively. The removal percentage increases with the...

Electricity Generation from Renewables

There are many conventional and non-conventional ways by which electricity can be produced. One of the conventional ways is to produce electricity by using fossil fuels. Coal-based power plants are the mostly used method to produce electricity. They are also referred to as thermal power plants. Though the energy produced by a thermal power plant is more economical as compared to non-conventional sources, it also causes greenhouse gas emission at a higher rate and hence called dirty. On the...

Solar Energy and the Environment

The attributes of solar energy technologies (e.g., modularity, flexibility, low operating costs) differ considerably from those for traditional, fossil fuel-based energy technologies. Solar energy technologies can provide cost-effective and environmentally beneficial alternatives to conventional power systems. Some of the benefits that make solar energy systems attractive follow (e.g., Dincer, 2000 and McGowan, 1990) Relatively independent of rising oil and other fossil fuel costs....

The Idea of the Process

In the steam gasification process coal is converted into synthesis gas, typically composed of 25-30 of hydrogen, 30-60 of carbon monoxide, 5-15 of carbon dioxide, 2-30 of steam, and 0-5 of methane (Smolinski, 2007). Carbon monoxide is further converted into CO2 in the water-gas shift reaction (WGS) and in the Boudouard reaction, during which CO is converted into amorphous carbon and CO2. The idea of hydrogen-rich gas production in the process of steam gasification of coal applied in the study...

Methodology

First, a residence is selected for modeling, and the overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated according to chosen residence's general construction elements given in Table 7.2. Then, using degree-hours values, cooling load of the residence is determined. Degree-hours values were also calculated by using data taken from Turkish meteorological data station for 23 years. Degree-hours values are calculated for three conditions the warmest year, the coldest year, and the average values for 23...

Conclusions

Trends and future themes in reducing N2O emissions in Japan include the following N2O emissions peaked in 1990 then declined until 2005. Emissions from livestock production caused the peak, and reduced emissions from crop production caused this decline. Livestock production emissions were greater than crop production emissions. Proportions of the total emissions derived from cattle, pigs, and poultry were relatively constant. Reductions after 1990 were small in total and constant per unit area...

Results and Discussion

Table 22.1 reports the yield and physicochemical indices of the oils. Different oil yield was found for each sample the lowest value was obtained for E. leucoxylon (0.15 ) and E. ovata (0.17 ) the opposite resulted for E. punctata (1.41 ) and E. blakelyi (1.42 ). Differences of these yields with those reported in literature could be attributed to many factors (age of the tree, climate, nature of the soil, mode of extraction, method of analysis). Table 22.1 Yields and physicochemical indices of...

QvaaP mw hg1524

The rate of exergy transfer due to evaporation of the dryer was (Syahrul et al., 2002) Heat transfer rate to the environment was (Syahrul et al., 2002) QIoss Qevap - m 1 (hm 2 - hmx) + m da (hda1 - hda 2 ) (15.26) The following equation was used to calculate the rate of exergy loss to the surrounding, where Tb is the boundary temperature (Syahrul et al., 2002) The exergy efficiency of the dryer can be defined as the ratio of the product exergy to exergy inflow for the chamber. Thus, the general...

Presumptions

We try to utilize and extend Ishii's (2008) result to our case, so that the scope of our analysis is limited to much extent by that result. In particular, we have to assume the following 1. There are enough participants in the emission market in the trueup period, both rational and erratical participants. This can be justified by the fact that many CDM credits are available so that they can choose to enter into the market for each commitment periods which overlaps. 2. Near the final stage of...

Energy Sources for Nuclear Based Hydrogen Production

6.2.1 High-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) Hydrogen production using thermochemical cycles has been studied in the last four decades. The thermal energy source for these processes has been high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR), which have been and or are being developed. The maximum operating temperature of these cycles has been limited to about 800 C, which is the available temperature level of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is one of...

Ocean Sequestration

Ocean is considered to be a great storage facility for the carbon sequestration. Although the feasibility of this technique is not assured, there are two ocean sequestration methods under study i) direct injection of CO2 and ii) the iron fertilization. The ocean carbon intake is considered to be around 2 0.8 Gigatons Carbon (GtC) per year. There are thoughts that in the next 1000 years 90 of the today's carbon emissions will be diffused into oceans. Although the oceans' biomass represents...

Protection responses

There are two types of protection options that need to be considered. The first is the maintenance of existing natural protection systems such as sand dunes, beaches, and vegetation. This form of protection is vital at the Anzali Lagoon. It is recommended that ongoing maintenance programs such as dune restoration, vegetation control, and beach renourishment should be enhanced or implemented now in all of these areas before costly or irreversible losses occur. The second type of protection...

People who have flulike illness should take additional precautions

World Health Organization believes it is very important to prevent human influenza from spreading in areas affected by bird flu. Where the avian influenza viruses and human influenza viruses come in contact with each other, there is a risk that genetic material will be exchanged and a new virus could emerge. Anyone with flu-like illnesses should therefore be careful with secretions from the nose and mouth when around other people, especially small children, in order not to spread human...

IP 1 nExin Exout 1518

Total exergy inflow, outflow, and losses of the tray and the drying chamber were estimated based on the exergy analysis, which determined the exergy values at steady-state points and the reason of exergy variation for the process. Exergy analysis was performed for conveyor dryer framed with cutting lines in Fig. 15.1. Exergy balance equation for the conveyor dryer was Ex m2 Exm1 Exda1 Exda 2 + Ex evap Exioss Ex dest (15.19) where Exm was the exergy transfer rate of the material, Exda was the...

Data and Method

Daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperature data were supplied by the National Meteorological Service. The data of an outskirt and a downtown sampling site were used in the analysis. Population data were gained from the Central Statistical Office, the number of population in the CHR is 1 697 724 in Budapest and 1 150 926 in County Pest. Mortality data were collected by the Central Hungarian Institution of the National Public Health and Medical Officers' Service and were forwarded to the...

Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic is a novel technology that helps reduce the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere as it uses solar energy which is free from pollutions. Solar energy can be utilized into two ways (ii) solar thermal applications. The photovoltaic systems can be classified according to their use and applications. These systems can broadly be classified into two types (1) photovoltaic (PV) systems and (2) photovoltaic thermal (PV T) systems. The first type can further be classified into space...

The Carnot Principle

This is one of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. It says that there is no heat engine operating between two given reservoirs that can be more efficient than a Carnot heat engine operating between the same two reservoirs. To prove this statement, assume that the reverse is true, Fig. 2.2. Then since the Carnot engine is reversible, it can be reversed to operate as a refrigerator. Therefore, if the engine E is more efficient than the Carnot engine CE, the result becomes ('7e > nce)....

Enterprise Risk Management ERM and Related Strategies

ERM enables an organization to deal effectively with uncertainty and associated risk. ERM is a systematic approach for identifying and managing the business risks of an organization. ERM offers a proven method to align risk appetite with strategic goals, deploys resources more effectively, reduces operational surprises and losses, and improves risk response (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007). ERM is the most important support to balancing approach to assessing products, services and business...

Key Messages and Advice

Health officials who are alerted to a location where poultry (chicken, ducks, and other farmed birds) have been found to be dying of bird flu or avian influenza (H5N1 virus) will need to take immediate steps to ensure that the disease does not spread. With a good plan, one that includes effective communication measures, the spread of bird flu can be successfully arrested. The first objective is to identify the people and communities that are most at risk. The Food and Agriculture Organization...

L TH2 TL2 r

Two results and generalizing for the sum of all such cycles, then Q 0 j . In the limit as A 0, the adiabatic lines come closer thus making the heat quantities 0 > which is the important Clausius theorem. Fig. 2.3 Development of the Carnot cycle. Fig. 2.3 Development of the Carnot cycle. Fig. 2.4 Development of Clausius' statement and entropy. Fig. 2.4 Development of Clausius' statement and entropy. Now consider two reversible processes R1 and R2 starting from the initial state i and ending at...

Best Management practice BMP study in a Turkish shipyard

There are several management improvement practices achieved in time that are named as Best Management Practices (BMPs). Their main target should be the minimization or prevention of pollution with material management, housekeeping, and maintenance. With these BMP applications the advantages from the reduction of operational and workplace costs are observed. The practice can focus on source control for waste reduction at the source or treatment of the residual wastes, contaminants, and...

Water Management Works in the Tarnava River Basin 3521 The storage reservoirs

The Bezid storage reservoir is situated on Cujmed, the right tributary of Tarnava Mica, having the largest surface of tributary basin (157 sq km) and the highest volumes of water in the basin. The storage reservoir is situated upstream from the confluence with the Tarnava Mica river, 1.5 km away from Sangeorgiu de Padure. The aim is to decrease floods and protect against floods all the industrial and residential areas on the Tarnava Mica riverside as well as to meet the need for fresh and...

Painting and coating process and wastes

Material inputs for painting are primarily paints and solvents. Solvents are used in the paints to carry the pigment and binder to the surface and for cleaning the paint equipment. Paints contain toxic pigments such as chromium, titanium dioxide, lead, copper, and tributyltin compounds. The organic solvents contained in marine paints and used for thinning and cleaning are also likely to contain toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, -hexane, and acetone. Painting...

Validation of the Model

The simulated and observed daily multiannual means are compared for the corresponding climate fields for the period 1961-1990 for the entire used domain (Fig. 33.2) by visual and single values assigned for each climate field. The Visual Climate Data Analysis Tool (VCDAT) is used to extract the statistical mean and standard deviation. We can see that the model has a cold bias and slightly decreases the actual precipitation and evaporation. The model tends to give slightly higher values in wind...

N I

Korea introduced silver-disk pyrheliometer into Incheon Observatory with the beginning of Second International Polar Year (IPY) in 1932 to observe atmospheric turbidity, transmissivity, and direct solar radiation. Korean solar radiation observatory network was expanded to 11 direct solar radiation observatories and 3 horizontal solar radiation observatories. This was interrupted by the Korean War in 1950 and then resumed on January 1, 1957, with the financial support from ICA, into nationwide...

The Bigadic Geothermal District Heating System

Solar Field Pile Location Map

The Bigadic Geothermal District Heating System (GDHS) has the longest geo-thermal pipeline in Turkey (considered world's third longest pipeline). The Bi-gadic geothermal field is located 38 km south of the city of Balikesir which is in the west of Turkey (Fig. 7.1). Bigadic geothermal field covers a total used area of about 1 km2. As of the end of 2007, there were three wells ranging between depth of 307 and 429 m, respectively. The well head temperature is 98 C. There were five pumps...

Experimental 2021 Materials

Two limestones originating from Megalopolis (Southern Greece) and Florina (Northern Greece) areas were investigated for their CO2 and SO2 capture capability. Grinding and sieving were applied to provide a baseline particle size fraction between 150 and 250 m and two other particle size fractions of 38-53 m and 500-800 jam, for the investigation of the effect of granulometry on the cycling performance of the limestones. The sorption and cyclic tests were conducted in a TA instruments Q600...

Infrared Spectroscopy Study

The FT-IR spectra of natural and treated bentonite clays with HCl acid (different concentrations) were obtained in the region 4000-500 cm-1 by using FT-IR Spectrometer, type Perkin Elmer Spectrum one model, at room temperature dispersed in KBr discs, (Fig. 43.2). IR data are reported in Table 43.1. The characteristic peaks of the bentonite clays used in this study and the detailed vibrational frequencies with possible as signments being given are obtained from studies by Ledoux et al. (1964),...

Pervaporation experiments

A schematic presentation of the pervaporation apparatus is presented in Fig. 37.1. The pervaporation cell was constructed by stainless steel. The feed tank and per-vaporation cell were placed in an incubator to adjust the operation temperature. The effective surface area of the membrane is 28.26 cm2. The membrane was left for swelling in the feed mixture before pervaporation experiments. The membrane was placed on a porous material as a support material. The pressure on the permeate side was...

Pervaporation results

Pervaporation experiments were carried out for the mixtures of MTBE water with the concentration 4-8 MTBE vol at room temperature. Figures 37.4 and 37.5 present pervaporation performance of the membranes (flux and separation factor). According to the pervaporation results, membrane was permselective for MTBE over the entire range of the feed concentrations. It is found that flux increases with increasing MTBE concentrations in the feed mixture, while selectivity decreases. This can be explained...

Methodology 3821 Data used

The data used for the study cover an average of 30 years and it was collected from the Nigerian Institute of Meteorological Agency (NimetAg). It includes daily maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall, and relative humidity of the affected localities. The study area covers the six geo-political zones of the country viz, southwest (SW), northwest (NW), southeast (SE), northeast (NE), south-south (SS), and north central (NC). A total of 16 states of the Nigerian federation were covered in the...

Nomenclature

Ex Specific molar exergy, kJ kmol h Specific molar enthalpy, kJ kmol -0 h Specific molar enthalpy at reference state, kJ kmol -0 h f Specific molar enthalpy of formation, kJ kmol n Number of moles per cycle, kmol kmol H2 Specific molar reaction heat, kJ kmol Reference-environment temperature, C

Characterization of Algerian clay

The natural clay used in this study was an Algerian montmorillonite, a bentonite type from Mostaganem (NW Algeria). It was kindly supplied by ENOF (a Ltd Algerian Betonies Company). The specific surface analysis was found to be 52 m2 g by using analyzer (Micromeritics ASAP 2020 equipment, using N2 as an adsorp-tive). The procedures for treatment and purification of this material clay were prepared according to literature methods (Olphen, 1963). The chemical and mineral compositions were...

The Risk Management Process

Every year, the economists who meet in Davos at the World Economic Forum present an updated estimate of the major risks facing the business world and the global economy. They do this using a grid that shows the two dimensions of risk (Polard and Stephen 2008) the likelihood or probability of the risk occurring (expressed as a percentage) the severity or consequences if the risk does occur (expressed in monetary units) The risks that are most closely connected to environmental sustainability and...

Effect of pH

Figure 43.4 illustrates the effect of pH on removal of heavy ions by natural clay. The effect of pH on the adsorption of Cu2+ and Ni2+ was investigated at pH values 1-6. The adsorption of these metal ions from aqueous solution is remarkably influenced by the pH values in the range from 1 to 6 (obtained with a pH - meter of Cyber Scan type pH 500, prepared and adjusted by using either HCl acid or NaOH solutions). The adsorption percentage was increased in the range of pH 1-4 to reach 96.26 at pH...

Sustainability in Construction

Construction industry must inevitably change its historic methods of operating with little regard for environmental impacts to a new mode that makes environmental concerns a centerpiece of its efforts. Previously, the concern on environment was relatively a small part of most construction development. However, with the growing awareness on environmental protection due to the depletion of non-renewable resources, global warming, and extremity of destruction to ecology and biodiversity impact,...

Materials and Methods 2221 Essential oils

Plant Materials The adult leaves of the eleven Eucalyptus species (E. punctata DC, E. sideroxylon Cunn., E. saligna Smith, E. cladocalyx F. Muell., E. albens Miq.ex Benth., E. ovata Labill., E. leucoxilon F. Muell., E. Blakelyi A. Cunn, E. microcorys F. Muell. camaldulensis DC., and E. globulus Labill) were collected from the trees located in Bainem forest (16 km to the west of Algiers). Two or three trees of each species were taken randomly. Voucher specimens were cut off and housed in the...

On the Principles of Thermodynamics Effects on the Environment Global Warming and Sustainability

Precise thermodynamics education is a requirement to discuss issues that one faces in global warming, energy conversion, and other energy-related topics that affect sustainability of the environment in the global sense. For this reason, learning, understanding, and meaningful and relevant application of topics in thermodynamics are required. To accomplish this, educating students at the undergraduate and graduate levels in classical, statistical, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics becomes...

Solar and Biomass Integration to Steam Network

Process integration is a systematic approach that looks at the unity of the holistic system rather than individual units and streams that make up the process. This technique emphasizes on analyzing the overall picture and system insights first and then delving into the details of equipment, simulation, and other details (Mohan, 2005). The integration using pinch analysis technology helps in better understanding of the interactions in the system and results in sound decisions of the performance....

Carbon Sequestration A Comparative Analysis

Renato Tagiuri

Koroneos and Dimitrios C. Rovas Carbon sequestration refers to the provision and safe storage of carbon dioxide that otherwise would be emitted to the atmosphere. The basic idea is the retention, isolation, and final storage of the produced carbon dioxide, utilizing biological, chemical, or mechanical routes. Some methods retain the carbon from the exhaust gas before it is emitted. The retained carbon then can be deposited in underground geological repositories or in the oceans....

CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol on CuZrO2 Catalysts

Ferroudja Bali and Louise Jalowiecki-Duhamel The effective utilization of CO2 is gaining great attention due to its environmental relevance. As a matter of fact, synthesis of methanol from syngas (CO + H2) is very important in industry and synthesis of methanol from CO2 + H2 is one of the most economic processes. Therefore, it is important to develop new catalysts for this reaction with high activity and selectivity to methanol. Methanol synthesis is carried out at low temperature on...

Catalytic CO2 hydrogenation

The catalytic CO2 + H2 reaction was studied in a SOTHELEM RDP 830 apparatus. A stainless steel U tube reactor was placed into a tubular furnace. The catalyst was deposited as a slight layer on a fritted stainless steel disk within the reactor. The pressure of CO2 + 3 H2 was adjusted to the desired value by a system of capi-lars. This system permits to stabilize the pressure inside the reactor to 5 bars. The mass of catalyst is of 100 mg and the solid is analyzed after in situ reduction in H2 at...

Land Ecosystem Sequestration

Carbon sequestration in land ecosystems refers to the clear abstraction of the atmospheric carbon and to the interception of CO2 emission production from land ecosystems. Carbon sequestration can be accomplished mainly due to the stabilization of the photosynthesis, the alteration in land use, in a way that this will lead to lower carbon emissions and the use of the biomass as fuel. There are two major approaches on the land ecosystem sequestration i) the ecosystems protection and maintenance...

Measured Data

The data of major cities of South Korea used 20 years (1986-2005). All meteorological and solar radiation data that are used in this study have been measured at the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). Seoul and other three regions are among the solar measured areas and Ulsan is not. This study involves four regions of Korea and compares the figures from each region the solar radiation estimations apply the original coefficient substitution method which Kasten and Czeplak (1979) suggested...

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics denies a system the possibility of utilizing energy in a particular or arbitrary way. There are two basic definitions of the second law which were stated at different times by different people, historically speaking. It is impossible to construct an engine which is operating in a cycle that will produce no effect other than the extraction of energy from a reservoir and the performance of an equivalent amount of work. Thus an efficiency of 100 is not a...

Could climate change spread avian influenza and create a global pandemic

Child Soldiers International

Influenza A viruses have been isolated from many species including humans, pigs, horses, mink, felids, marine mammals and a wide range of domestic birds, but wild birds belonging to the orders Anseriformes (particularly ducks, geese, and swans) and Charadriiformes (particularly gulls, terns, and waders) are thought to form the virus reservoir in nature (Olsen et al., 2006). Climate change and alterations in the environment or animal breeding processes could be responsible for the mutations...

Result and Discussion

A total of 35 construction developers had responded to this survey. These developers have been active in the industry between 4 and 36 years. The majority of them have been involved with more than 20 projects with project cost within the range of Ringgit Malaysia RM10 to more than RM100 millions. Their range of project profiles varied from landed property to shop, houses, and others. The progress in Malaysia is discussed under several subheadings a) the level of knowledge and awareness of...

Using GIS technology

An approach to use GIS in reading meteorological data as features, points, or polygons and carrying basic statistical operations on the resultant layers was performed repeatedly for temperature, precipitation, evaporation, runoff, and wind speeds. Points represent cities and meteorological stations, while the polygons represent defined regions of Saudi Arabia. The defined 6 regions and 37 locations scattered all over Saudi Arabia were studied separately. GIS data for Saudi Arabia's political...

Problem Statement

The importance of water and air in our daily life is clear to everyone, though they represent fragile Earth resources that can change abruptly at times. Understanding the mechanics of climate change provides us with an essential need to prepare for the future. Saudi Arabia has huge ancient groundwater reserves that are continuously under increasing demand. The total number of wells in Saudi Arabia increased by more than 100 from 1982 to 1990, and the total irrigation demand in 1997 was 22,933.4...

Effect of mass of clay

The adsorption of metal ions on the natural bentonite clay amount was studied on variable mass of clay from 0.25 to 10 g in constant solution volume of 50 mL with 2 h stirring time. The effect of clay amount on metal ions removal is shown in Fig. 43.5. The result indicates that the adsorption percentage increased with the increasing amount of the bentonite clay in the two cases of clay-metal interactions. This adsorption percentage was constant at higher amounts than 2 g. The optimum metals...

Materials and Methods

The Anzali Lagoon Management Project considers the implications of a rapid rise in the Caspian Sea level due to the collapse of the East North Pole Ice Sheet, high water discharge from the Volga River, which could produce a rise in sea level of 0.20 to 1.5 m. The historical changes are very small compared to the scenario to be considered in Anzali Lagoon Project - a 1.20 m rise in 10 years (or 12 cm year). As we are dealing with a poorly understood phenomenon, it was felt better to keep the...

Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea

Global Solar Towns

Hochun Yoo, Kwanho Lee, Sohee Park and Kyoung Hwan Noh Energy consumption causes a range of environmental pollution. Furthermore, with the increase in energy demand, the issue of energy shortage becomes increasingly serious. Since there is more and more concern on energy conservation and environmental protection, interest has been increasingly focused on the use of renewable energy. This is considered as a key source for the future, not only for South Korea but also for the world (Ulgen and...

Future themes of sustainable agriculture in relation to N2O emissions

In Japan, the focus of sustainable agriculture is on crop production practices, such as low input of chemical fertilizer for carrot to conserve groundwater quality (Kagamihara City Groundwater Study, 1989). Japanese laws on the agroenvironment and sustainability refer to livestock husbandry only in terms of manure application for soil fertility and soil health and livestock excreta management. The primary aim of these regulations is to preserve water quality in the environment and to reduce the...

Springer

Engineering & Applied Science ibrahim.dincer uoit.ca Adnan Midilli Department of Mechanical Engineering Nigde University 51200 Nigde Turkey Department of Mechanical Engineering Ege University 35100 Bornova, Izmir Turkey T. Hikmet Karakoc Anadolu University School of Civil Aviation 26470 Eskisehir Turkey ISSN 1865-3529 e-ISSN 1865-3537 ISBN 978-1-4419-1016-5 e-ISBN 978-1-4419-1017-2 Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number 2009930937 Springer...

Solar Water System Conclusions

Great portions of the total heating and cooling loads are satisfied by solar energy at the optimum conditions and the overall system efficiency is within the previously published results. The cost of unit energy for solar heating and cooling systems approximately equals to 68 of the corresponding cost of the conventional fuel at the current prices. This maximum energy is attained with a solar collector area of 38 m2. An annual solar savings of about 1900 is achieved at these optimum conditions...

The Cloud Cover Radiation Model CRM

Kasten and Czeplak formulated equations for the estimation of solar irradiance based on cloud cover information. For their research, Kasten and Czeplak (1979) used 10-year periods from 1964 to 1973 of continuous hourly data from Hamburg, Germany. They also validated their model using German and UK data sets, thus, the coefficients they provide are from German and UK regional climatology. Initially they proceed by calculating the global horizontal irradiance under clear sky conditions IGC, and...

Exergy Analysis of Food Drying Processes

Balta, Filiz Ifier, Ebru Kuzgunkaya, Arif Hepbasli and Zafer Erbay It is well known that micro-level system parameters may have some great impact on macro-level energy aspects, the environment, and sustainability. Of course, if one wants to approach these thermodynamically, there are two ways energy analysis through the first law of thermodynamics and exergy analysis through the second law of thermodynamics. Exergy analysis is an essential tool to expose the impacts...

Chlorinated solvents

Not all of the chlorinated solvents cause depletion on ozone. There are several chlorinated solvents such as perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and methylene chloride and can be used safely for human health, safety, and environment. They are not listed as a source to damage ozone layer or to cause global warming or acid rain. When used with care, there is no risk for environment, human health, or safety. They are mostly used in dry cleaning, metal cleaning, and adhesive industry. But there...

Effects of water course management on floods in the Tarnava river basin

In the Tarnava river basin most of the floods are generated by rain. Thus, at Odor-hei hydrometric station the highest floods recorded before 1970 were the floods caused by the rainfalls in August 1955, July 1957 and 1959 with peak discharges of 80 90 m3 s. After 1970, the highest discharges of 205 m3 s were recorded on March 13, 1981. At Blaj hydrometric station the most important floods were caused by rainfalls, for example, those in 1953, April May 1956, and July-August 1960. The peak...

Experimental Procedure and Materials

Laboratory Scale Fixed Bed Reactor

The tests of hydrogen-rich gas production through steam gasification of coal were conducted in the laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor (Smolinski, 2007). The installation (see Fig. 17.1) consists of gases inlets (valves, flow regulators) (1), a water pump with a steam generator (2,3), a fixed bed reactor with a resistance furnace (4,5), a water trap (9), a flowmeter (10), and a gas chromatograph - GC(12). The fixed bed reactor is located inside the resistance furnace (see Fig. 17.2). The furnace...

Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Powered Cogeneration Systems

The industrial sector is a major electricity consumer. The growth rate of electricity demand is high especially in the developing countries and a continuous growth is anticipated for coming years. Many governments revise their energy policy introducing legislative and economic incentives to encourage private participation in the power generation investments. Generally, a favorable economic environment is created for the industries that make use of energy conservation, and cogeneration is an...

Comparison of the previous and present associations of daily mortality and temperature

Based on international literature data and national assessment, a nonlinear association can be stated between temperature and mortality in different temperature ranges in the countries with moderate climate. The association is U shaped in Budapest (Paldy, 2005a), mortality increases in both the low- and high- temperature ranges. The optimal or threshold temperature differs in different populations in relation to the adaptation capacity to local weather conditions. The slope of mortality steeply...

Onboard Refrigeration with Ammonia

Cooling Liquid Meaning

The presence of ammonia on board offers the opportunity to use it as a refrigerant for engine cooling. Moreover, ammonia can be used as working agent to recover engine heat and convert it into some additional shaft work. Optionally, the refrigeration effect of ammonia, i.e., its high latent heat of vaporization, can be used to produce some air conditioning on board. The cooling effect of ammonia is equivalent to the heat needed to raise its temperature plus, if it applies, the heat needed to...

Machining and metalworking process and wastes

The common types of metal cutting processes are broaching, cutting, drilling, forging, grinding, milling, planing, polishing, reaming, sawing, shaping, stamping, threading, and turning. In most cases, the cutting tool travels along the surface of the work piece and shaves off the metal in front of it. The high friction at the cutting edge of the blades creates heat. If allowed to become excessive, this heat can permanently deform the part that is being formed, or the cutting tool. To prevent...

Experimental Study

H2o2 Spektrum

Turkey has huge lignite deposits although most of them are of low quality. The total reserve of Can lignite is 79,000,000 tonnes (Kahriman et al., 2000). The proximate analysis results of Can lignite are given in Table 21.1. Table 21.1 Proximate analyses ( ) of Can lignite. Table 21.1 Proximate analyses ( ) of Can lignite. H2O2 solution was chosen as an oxidative medium for decreasing sulfur and mineral matter of Can lignite. At the beginning, the sample was ground, sieved to pass 0.250 m. It...

Process Description

Tehran Oil Refinery was established in 1974 by an American company (FLUOR) that involves two similar plants, northern and southern refinery. The steam networks in two oil refineries are similar. A 0.4064 m diameter, 44.8 bar pressure and a 0.2032 m diameter, 4.1 bar pressure steam lines interconnect the north and south refinery steam systems to provide operational flexibility and assist in the start-up of north refinery. In this regard northern refinery steam network is simulated. There are...

Moving Toward Sustainable Construction in Malaysia

As a developing country, Malaysia realized that the construction industry plays a significant role in its economic growth. Over the last 20 years, the industry has been consistently contributing between 3 and 5 of the national GDP (Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), 2000). However, the industry is not without weaknesses. Challenges have been in the areas of productivity, quality, safety, technology, and unproductive practices. The government is now striving to upgrade the country,...

System Description and Control Strategy

Solar Absorption Chiller Schematic

A schematic diagram of the system studied is represented in Fig. 28.1. The system consists of a solar collector, a storage tank, an absorption chiller, heat exchanger, and auxiliary units. The system operates in four different modes. When solar energy is available for collection and there is a load demand, heat is supplied directly from the collector to the heating or cooling unit. When solar energy is available for collection and there is no heat or cooling demand, heat is stored in the...

Steam Network Description

Willans Line Steam

In a steam network system steam levels are specialized through various pressures and temperatures. To investigate the existing steam network, selection of steam levels and determination of the configuration of the operating units between the steam levels are important (Harrell, 2001). To achieve the task, a model is required. This model should allow for the steam generation potential. Turbine hardware model, THM, is based on shaft work targeting and relies on the principle of the Willans line...

Parabolic Solar Dish System

Receiver Dish Solar

In what follows, we illustrate the benefits of solar power generation on sustain-ability, on reducing greenhouse gas emission and on reducing global warming by a case study. The study refers to a residential (single) unit for solar power conversion based on a paraboloidal mirror that is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The solar dish concentrates the insolation on a glazed tube receiver that plays the role of desorber for an ammonia-water Rankine cycle. For expansion and work production, a scroll...