Do It Yourself Solar Energy

DIY Home Energy System

This ebook guide teaches you how to escape complete dependence the power grid and learn how to live mostly on your own power and make sure that you are dependent on Yourself. You will be able to slash your energy bill by over 75% and not have to depend on greedy energy companies. The largest energy corporations are a monopoly for a given area, so they do not need to care about customer service or doing right by the people they service. You will learn how to break this monopoly and depend on yourself. Make your home immune to power shortages, blackouts, and energy failures; live free of any worry that the grid will totally fail you! You will learn practical steps such as how to build your own solar panel for less than $60! Once you start relying more on solar power you will be able to easily protect your family from dangerous power outages, and live free! Read more...

DIY Home Energy System Overview


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My DIY Home Energy System Review

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The very first point I want to make certain that DIY Home Energy System definitely offers the greatest results.

As a whole, this ebook contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Solar Energy and the Environment

The attributes of solar energy technologies (e.g., modularity, flexibility, low operating costs) differ considerably from those for traditional, fossil fuel-based energy technologies. Solar energy technologies can provide cost-effective and environmentally beneficial alternatives to conventional power systems. Some of the benefits that make solar energy systems attractive follow (e.g., Dincer, 2000 and McGowan, 1990) They cannot be depleted. If used appropriately, solar energy resources are reliable and sustainable. Solar energy resources do have some characteristics that lead to problems, but they are often solvable technical and economic challenges generally diffuse, not fully accessible, sometimes intermittent, and regionally variable. The potential for overall benefits is often overlooked for solar energy technologies. They are often assessed as less cost-effective than traditional technology however, as commented by Dincer and Rosen (2005) comprehensive assessments show many more...

Concentrating Solar Power 581 Technology Description and Status

There are three types of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology trough, parabolic-dish and power tower.9 Trough and power tower technologies apply primarily to large, central power generation systems, although trough technology can also be used in smaller systems for heating and cooling and for power generation. The systems use either thermal storage or back-up fuels to offset solar intermittency and thus to increase the commercial value of the energy produced. The conversion path of concentrating solar power technologies relies on four basic elements concentrator, receiver, and transport-storage and power conversion. The concentrator captures and concentrates solar radiation, which is then delivered to the receiver. The receiver absorbs the concentrated sunlight, transferring its heat to a working fluid. The transport-storage system passes the fluid from the receiver to the power-conversion system in some solar-thermal plants a portion of the thermal energy is stored for later...

The promise of solar energy

Solar energy is the main renewable energy resource throughout the world. Other renewable energy sources, e.g. biomass energy and wind energy, are derived directly from it. It is an abundant energy source. Our planet receives from the sun the equivalent of 15 000 times the energy consumed in the world, but this energy is diffuse and intermittent. Solar energy can be captured as either heat or electricity using the photovoltaic effect. There is considerable scope for the development of low-temperature thermal solar energy in the short term. Heat is supplied by solar sensors consisting of a black absorbent surface which transfers the heat to a heat exchange fluid, generally a mixture of water and glycol to prevent the possibility of freezing. A glazed surface is fitted over the absorbent surface to block the infrared radiation re-emitted. In the housing sector, thermal solar energy is used mainly to provide sanitary hot water. It may also be used to cater for a certain proportion of...

Space lunar solar power systems

It is extremely difficult to gather diffuse, irregular solar power on Earth and make it available as a dependable source of commercially competitive standalone power. The challenges increase as irregular terrestrial solar power becomes a larger fraction of total regional or global commercial electric power. Research indicates that terrestrial solar may provide 5 to 17 of renewable power to conventional small power grids. Fifty percent supply of power by terrestrial solar, and wind, is conceivable. However, an increasing fraction of renewable power is limited by the higher cost of renewable sources, high costs of storage and transmission of renewable power, institutional resistance, and regulator effects (Wan and Parsons, 1993).

Solar Power Generation Systems

In this section, the main kinds of established solar power systems, including small-(individual) and large-scale residential power generation are classified as shown in Figure 4.2 and analyzed in terms of their overall and component performance. A typical solar-driven heat engine system for residential power (and heat) generation consists of a solar concentrating collector that drives a heat engine (e.g., a Rankine cycle). The heat engine produces shaft work at an expander that in turn drives an electrical generator additionally, the rejected heat may serve a useful purpose (e.g., water heating). Such a system can be connected to the grid or can work independently with energy storage in various ways, as will be discussed in the next section of this chapter. Even though they are conceptually similar, large-scale solar systems differ from small-scale systems through the fact that they use a central power plant. In large systems, a field of collectors is used to capture the solar energy,...

Gibbs Free Energy Minimizations

Several methods to estimate the P-T conditions of methane hydrate stability by searching for the state which minimizes the Gibbs Free Energy of the system have been developed. These programs are computationally intensive and require sophisticated computer programming. However, computer programs to carry-out these calculations are now readily available. Sloan (1990, 1998) presents a detailed description of CSMHYD, a PC-DOS based computer program. His textbook includes a floppy disk with an executable version of the program. In addition to calculations of the stability temperature at a given pressure (or vice-versa) in pure water, the program also includes a variable composition salt component to allow seawater and pore-water predictions. We refer the reader to the textbook for the details of how the program works. Output from CSMHYD is shown in figure 5 for a pure methane hydrate in equilibrium Zatsepina and Buffet (1997, 1998) present an alternate Gibbs Free Energy minimization...

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

The solar energy Industry Association (SEIA) is an American trade association for the solar industry, working to expand markets, strengthen and develop research, and improve education for the employment of solar energy. SEIA is affiliated with the PVNow coalition of photovoltaic companies, which aims to expand the North American-distributed, grid-connected photovoltaic market opportunities and eliminate market barriers. They are pursuing this goal through lobbying key state legislatures, utility rate-making authorities, and other state energy policymaking agencies. SEIA represents over 700 companies and 20,000 employees in the U.S. energy sector. and small businesses. SEIA chapters have up-to-date information on retailers and distributors in their area and frequently host workshops and discussion groups. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation through meaningful and appropriate incentive programs at...

International solar Energy society IsEs

THE INTERNATIoNAL soLAR Energy Society is an international nonprofit, nongovernmental organization with a focus on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies. The society was founded as a nonprofit organization in 1954, as the Association for Applied Solar Energy. The first meetings of the society were held the next year in Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona. The society journal began in 1957. In 1963, the name of the society was changed to the Solar Energy Society. The ISES has several publications, most notably its official journal Solar Energy, which includes articles on the science and technology of solar energy applications. The journal also publishes articles on indirect applications of solar energy, such as wind energy, and biomass. sEE ALso Alternative Energy, Solar Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA). BIBLIoGRAPHY. Karl Boer, ed., The Fifty-Year History of the International Solar Energy Society and its National Sections (ISES, 2005)....

Passive Solar Energy

Also, solar energy can be put into use by incorporating appropriate designs in buildings to maximize utilization of solar energy for various purposes such as lighting, air conditioning, and water and space heating cooling and thereby reduce external energy inputs. PV cells require high exposure to direct sunlight. To assure maximum exposure to the sun throughout the day, a phyrheliom-eter is used to calculate how much sun exposure a location experiences. This information is useful in determining whether or not a specific location is suitable for solar energy, as well as what direction the cells should face. In many cases, these cells are placed on rooftops.

Free Energy

Will a certain food provide energy when utilized by microorganisms If the answer is yes, then the food will be eaten and if it is in a wastewater, the wastewater will be cleaned up. The answer to this question can now be quantified by the combination of the concept of enthalpy and entropy. This combination is summed up in a term called free energy. Free energy G is defined as energy (represented by S) has been subtracted from the energy content. Thus, the term free energy. Biological processes are carried out at a given constant temperature as well as constant pressure. Thus, differentiating the free-energy equation at constant temperature, Note In order for G to be a maximum (i.e., to be a free energy), Q must be the Qrev as depicted in the equation.

Solar energy

Solar energy refers to both electricity and thermal energy that is harnessed from the sun. Solar thermal energy can be harnessed either passively where no moving parts are required such as for passive solar building design or actively for a wide range ofapplications, including domestic hot water and space heating via solar thermal collectors. Direct current (DC) electricity can be generated directly from sunlight using photovoltaic (PV) or solar cells that contain no moving parts. In addition, photoelectrochem-ical cells can also be used to generate solar hydrogen, and while this offers interesting potential for energy storage, it is neither a mature nor widespread technology and will therefore not be mentioned further in this chapter.

Electricity Generation from Renewables

There are many conventional and non-conventional ways by which electricity can be produced. One of the conventional ways is to produce electricity by using fossil fuels. Coal-based power plants are the mostly used method to produce electricity. They are also referred to as thermal power plants. Though the energy produced by a thermal power plant is more economical as compared to non-conventional sources, it also causes greenhouse gas emission at a higher rate and hence called dirty. On the contrary the photovoltaic system causes no harm to the environment as it uses solar energy which is also called clean energy but the electricity produced by it is not economical as the photovoltaic material used to produce solar cells are costly and for off sunshine period the energy needs to be stored in a storage device like battery. In this section we will discuss both the non-conventional and conventional sources for electricity generation. The solar energy can be utilized either to convert the...

Conclusion Of Report On Solar Parabolic Collector

This chapter presents a review and analysis of solar-driven heat engines for power generation with relevance to residential applications. The impact of solar systems on sustainable development is quantified based on fossil fuel vs solar energy utilization factors predicted over the next decades and by sustainability factor as introduced also in other works, e.g., by Dincer and Rosen (2005). The established large-scale and small-scale systems are presented and analyzed based on their The optimization of the solar-driven heat engine is important for obtaining a low-levelized electricity cost and augmented CO2 mitigation through solar power generation. With this fact in mind we developed here a model for a solar heat engine and optimization and identified the important optimization parameters which are the quality of the optical system expressed in terms of angular error S, the concentration ratio C, the rim angle (, the collector temperature corroborated with the insolation, as...

Parabolic Solar Dish System

In what follows, we illustrate the benefits of solar power generation on sustain-ability, on reducing greenhouse gas emission and on reducing global warming by a case study. The study refers to a residential (single) unit for solar power conversion based on a paraboloidal mirror that is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The solar dish concentrates the insolation on a glazed tube receiver that plays the role of desorber for an ammonia-water Rankine cycle. For expansion and work production, a scroll machine is capable of operating in a two-phase regime. The rejected heat of the The first step in solar energy system modeling and its design calculations is to determine the solar collector geometry and characteristics for maximum performance. This, in fact, is to maximize the collector efficiency. The derivation of the collector's efficiency results from the energy balance stating In Eq. (4.4), the intercept factor y JZpTa which represents the ratio between solar energy flux absorbed by the...

System Description and Control Strategy

Solar Absorption Chiller Schematic

A schematic diagram of the system studied is represented in Fig. 28.1. The system consists of a solar collector, a storage tank, an absorption chiller, heat exchanger, and auxiliary units. The system operates in four different modes. When solar energy is available for collection and there is a load demand, heat is supplied directly from the collector to the heating or cooling unit. When solar energy is available for collection and there is no heat or cooling demand, heat is stored in the storage unit. On the other hand, if solar energy is not available for collection and there is a load demand, storage then supplies heat to the heating or cooling

Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea

Energy consumption causes a range of environmental pollution. Furthermore, with the increase in energy demand, the issue of energy shortage becomes increasingly serious. Since there is more and more concern on energy conservation and environmental protection, interest has been increasingly focused on the use of renewable energy. This is considered as a key source for the future, not only for South Korea but also for the world (Ulgen and Hepbasli, 2002). Especially, solar energy as a clean energy source and one kind of renewable energy is abundant in South Korea. Therefore, the precise measurement of the local solar radiation is required. Also, the solar radiation data are a fundamental input for solar energy applications such as photovoltaics, solar thermal systems, and passive solar design. The data should be contemporary, reliable, and readily available for design, optimization, and performance evaluation of solar technologies for any particular geographical location (Bulut and...

Results and Discussion

The thermal performance of a solar system is usually measured by the solar fraction (F). Solar fraction is defined as the fraction of load met by solar energy. Figure 28.3 shows the variation of the solar fraction of space heating (Fs), domestic water heating (FD), and cooling load (FAc) as well as the total solar fraction (Ft) with collector area. As seen from the figure, a significant portion of the solar fraction for space heating and domestic water heating is satisfied at areas around 38 m2. Conversely, the space cooling requires much greater areas. The variation of total solar fraction, life cycle savings, and overall system efficiency (ratio of solar energy provided to the total incident radiation) with collector area is presented in Fig. 28.4. This typical figure shows the choice of optimum collector area which is approximately equal to 38 m2 in this case. It is The present results should encourage governments for wide installation of solar heating and cooling systems in...

Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic is a novel technology that helps reduce the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere as it uses solar energy which is free from pollutions. Solar energy can be utilized into two ways The photovoltaic applications can be beneficial wherever the electrical energy is needed. The photovoltaic technology has always had an upper edge on other technologies as it is pollution free and it uses solar energy that is freely and immensely available. Here, in this section, we are discussing various photovoltaic applications based on their performance in terms of efficiency. Another application of the PV technology is to use the PV panels on the rooftop of cars to harvest the solar energy and utilize the electricity produced to charge the batteries which further runs an electrical motor to power the car (Gaddy, 2003). This technology is still under development and can result in future generation automobiles. The street lights, traffic signals, solar lanterns, calculators, watches, dc...

Case Study

An example of solar technology is adopted to demonstrate the link between sus-tainability and efficiency. An effective way to maintain a good electrical efficiency by removing heat from the solar panels and to have a better overall efficiency of a photovoltaic system is to utilize both the technologies simultaneously. This kind of system is known as hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV T) system and can be beneficial for low-temperature thermal applications like water heating, air heating, agricultural crop drying, solar greenhouses, space heating, etc., along with electricity generation that can further be beneficial for rural electrification and agricultural applications like solar water pumping, etc. In this case study we are giving a simple demonstration on how both the technologies together give better efficiency which directly relates to better sustainability. Based on the first law of thermodynamics, the energy efficiency of a PV T system can be defined as a ratio of total energy...

Economic Analysis

Where P1 is the factor relating life cycle fuel cost to first-year fuel cost savings, P2 is the factor relating life cycle by additional capital investment to initial investmet, CA is the solar energy investment cost which is directly proportional to collector area, CE is the solar energy investment cost which is independent of collector area, CF is the unit cost of delivered conventional energy for the first year of analysis, L is the total load, and Ft is the total solar fraction of the solar system. For a particular

Raising Public Awareness

In the late 1990s, the ASE's public outreach campaign achieved an important series of successes, including three animated television spots that garnered 2.2 million in broadcast time in 49 states four radio spots airing in 45 states the Power mart consumer booklet an animated, interactive consumer website and a new educator website with free energy lesson plans. The campaign earned the ASE a National Energy Resources Organization award for public education.

Alternative energy solar

Solar energy refers to forms of energy emitted by the sun, including light, radio waves, and x-rays. Accounting for 99.8 percent of the mass in our solar system, the sun is a self-sustaining nuclear fusion reaction by which hydrogen is converted to helium. Every second, the sun converts over 4 million metric tons of matter into solar energy. This matter is converted and released from the sun in the form of radiation waves that travel through the void of space and eventually reach earth. The radiant energy that eventually reaches the earth's surface is estimated around 1,000 watts per sq. m. The sun is similar to a fusion reactor that emits 3,800 million, million, million, million watts of energy each second, which is 20,000 times the energy requirement of the world. Solar power, as an alternative fuel, involves transforming some of the sun's massive thermal energy into electricity. Individuals driven by environmental and other concerns encourage the implementation of policies that...

Alternative energy wind

WiND is A source of solar energy that does not rely on the condition of the sky. Unlike fossil fuels, wind energy can be collected during storms, snow, or the night. Wind power is the alteration of wind energy into more purposeful forms, usually electricity using wind turbines, and is a form of renewable

Geoengineering could we or should we make it work

Schemes to modify large-scale environment systems or control climate have been proposed for over 150 years to (i) increase temperatures in high latitudes, (ii) increase precipitation, (iii) decrease sea ice, (iv) create irrigation opportunities, or (v) offset potential global warming by injecting iron in the oceans or sea-salt aerosol in the marine boundary layer or spreading dust in the stratosphere to reflect away an amount of solar energy equivalent to the amount of heat trapped by increased greenhouse gases from human activities. These and other proposed geo-engineering schemes are briefly reviewed. Recent schemes to intentionally modify climate have been proposed as either cheaper methods to counteract inadvertent climatic modifications than conventional mitigation techniques such as carbon taxes or pollutant emissions regulations or as a counter to rising emissions as governments delay policy action. Whereas proponents argue cost-effectiveness or the need to be prepared if...

Powering the World Economy

In ancient times, human beings had a modest need for energy. They relied mainly on the energy from animal strength to do work. Humans first learned to control fire around one million BC and since then have used fire to cook food and to warm their shelters.8 There were water mills, wind mills and also solar energy for drying of foods. About 1000 BC, the Chinese discovered coal and started using it as a fuel, primarily for heating. Before the advent of coal, many regions experienced fuel crises due to the depletion of wood resources. The extraction and burning of coal made it possible to produce energy on a large scale and supply power to a growing economy.

Other Solar System planets and satellites

Seasonal cycles of planets are discussed in general terms in Chapter 7. The very low solar radiation received at the distant orbits of Uranus and Neptune leads to extremely cold outer atmospheres, particularly in the case of Neptune. These planets provide an opportunity to examine the novel features of an atmosphere driven by an exceedingly weak trickle of solar energy, supplemented by an equally feeble trickle of heat from the interior. Despite the weak thermal driving, Neptune has by far the strongest winds in the Solar system, as well as a variety of interesting meteorological features. We will not say much about planetary winds, but as in the case of the gas giants, a good understanding of the thermal structure is a prerequisite for any attack on the meteorology.

Multivalence Positive Ionbonding Model

The multivalence positive ion-bonding model is based on a simple electrostatic interaction between negatively charged bacteria and positive ion. The DLVO1 theory postulates that when two surfaces carry a charge of the same sign, there is a free energy barrier between them, which acts as a repulsive force. This force could seriously prevent approach of one cell to another. A positive ion added to sludge would partially neutralize the negative charges on bacterial surfaces by adsorption, causing a significant reduction in the electrical repulsion between bacteria. The positive ion hence initiates cell-to-cell interaction which is a crucial initiation towards granulation.

Introduction and background

Solar radiation is typically measured underwater as irradiance, the energy striking a unit of surface area (e.g., W m 2), and is further characterized by its wavelength (units, nanometers, nm). Spectral irradiance is reported as energy integrated over a waveband, which may be narrow (e.g., 1 nm) or broad (e.g., UV-A, 320-400 nm UV-B, 280-320 nm). The solar UVR spectrum, about 10 of the incoming energy reaching the Earth's surface, includes UV-A and UV-B wavebands. Photosynthetic organisms use wavelengths starting at about 400 nm and extending to 700 nm (Photosynthetically Active Radiation or PAR) in the process of photosynthesis. Roughly half of the incoming solar energy is represented by infrared wavelengths from 700 to 2000 nm. Ozone in the atmosphere and DOM in natural waters strongly absorb UV-B wavelengths. Water molecules in the atmosphere and in aquatic systems strongly absorb far-red and infrared wavelengths.

The Climate System Exhibits Substantial Natural Variability

The Sun's output has been measured precisely by satellites since 1979, and these measurements do not show any overall trend in solar output over this period. Prior to the satellite era, solar output was estimated by several methods, including methods based on long-term records of the number of sunspots observed each year, which is an indirect indicator of solar activity. These indirect methods suggest that there was a slight increase in solar energy received by the Earth during the first few decades of the 20th century, which may have contributed to the global temperature increase during that period (see Figure 2.2).

The Greenhouse Effect

The Earth needs the natural greenhouse effect. It is the process in which the emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere warms the planet's surface. The atmosphere naturally acts as an insulating blanket, which is able to trap enough solar energy to keep the global average temperature in a comfortable range in which to support life. This insulating blanket is actually a collection of several atmospheric gases, some of them in such small amounts that they are referred to as trace gases.

Meeting Future Challenges

Each of the themes that emerged from the RAP on the carbon cycle tends to make the climate problem more difficult to solve. The role of land management in current sinks suggests that future sinks from CO2 fertilization will be smaller than past estimates. Inertia in the human system extends the timeline for developing and implementing solutions. Land ecosystems appear to be vulnerable to large releases of carbon, including releases from several mechanisms that have been absent from or incomplete in the models used for past assessments. Strategies for increased energy efficiency, carbon sequestration, and carbon-free energy are abundant, but no single technology is likely to solve the climate problem completely in the next few decades. A portfolio approach is the best option, but many of the elements of the portfolio are implicitly present in economic scenarios that fail to meet stabilization targets. Finally, each of the strategies for increased energy efficiency, carbon...

The earths energy sources

All chemical reactions need energy for activation (see Chapter 4.2.1) independent of whether they are exothermic or endothermic. Deep in the earth, heat and pressure are thermodynamic quantities initiating chemical reactions, as discussed in Chapters 2.1.2 and 2.2.1. In the atmosphere and at the earth's surface, however, the only available energy to promote chemical reactions is direct solar radiation. The fundaments of photochemical processes are described later (Chapter 4.2.3) in this Chapter the radiation transfer and physical processes in relation to it are briefly summarized. Beside initialization of chemical reactions, solar energy determines the earth's temperature regime (heat and subsequent pressure gradients) allowing transportation of matter in fluid systems such as the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The mean surface temperature of the earth is 288 K (varying between 222 K and 321 K) without the present atmosphere the mean surface temperature would be only 255 K. This narrow...

Natural Climate Change

The Sun has bursts of activity that cause dark patches, called sunspots, to appear on its surface within lighter areas called plages. The more sunspots and plages there are, the more energy the Sun is radiating. There are more of them now than in the early 1800s, but the variations in solar energy that they cause are quite small, and they do not match the current pattern of climate change.

Samuel S Butcher and Sharon E Anthony

Another property of the system, G, the free energy, or the Gibbs free energy, is related to enthalpy and entropy by The second law also describes the equilibrium state of a system as one of maximum entropy and minimum free energy. For a system at constant temperature and pressure the equilibrium condition requires that the change in free energy is zero In practice, G and H for a substance are defined relative to the G and H for the constituent elements of that substance. These relative values are known as free energy of formation and enthalpy of formation for standard conditions and symbolized as AG0 and AH0. So where we indicated values of G and H in Equations (1) and (2), in practice we would use a free energy and enthalpy of formation, which are themselves a special kind of AG and AH. Values for these functions may be obtained from standard tables of thermodynamic data, usually for the reference temperature of 298.2 K and a pressure of 1.0 bar. The Chemical Rubber Company handbook...

An Engineering Problem

Yet the evidence that global warming is already occurring is strong, and it seems reasonable that we should act to prevent it from becoming extreme. But this is certainly no time to abandon our trust in technology. Abundant energy is necessary for modern society. It will be necessary in the developing world if the populations there are to achieve some amount of prosperity. There are ways to reduce CO2 emissions by increasing end use efficiency (Rosenfeld et al., 1997). However, the real key to supplying carbon free energy more likely lies in development of affordable and safe nuclear (fission and fusion) and renewable energy. In a very real sense global warming has become an engineering problem. Given the rather daunting challenge of supplying the world with 10 to 30 TWt of carbon free energy within the next 50 to 100 years, and even more if atmospheric CO2 is to be stabilized, as implied by the various scenarios, it appears inevitable that we should explore a wide range of...

Biogeophysical Feedbacks and the Dynamics of Climate

Palaeobotanic evidence indicates that during the early to middle Holocene, boreal forests extended north of the modern treeline (Frenzel et al, 1992 TEMPO, 1996 Cheddadi et al, 1997). It is suggested that this migration was triggered by changes in the earth's orbit. Moreover, the migration of boreal trees is assumed to amplify the initial warming owing to the so-called taiga-tundra feedback, first discussed by Otterman et al. (1984) and Harvey (1988, 1989a,b). The albedo of snow-covered vegetation is much lower for forests than for low vegetation such as tundra, which can readily be seen from a bird's-eye view. Hence the darker, snow-covered taiga receives more solar energy than the snow-covered tundra, which, in turn, favors the growth of taiga. Later, Foley et al. (1994) analyzed the vegetation-snow-albedo feedback in more detail. By imposing an increase in forest area of some 20 as a surface condition, they find that changes in land surface conditions give rise to an additional...

Exploitation of Surface Albedo Derived From the Meteosat Data to Characterize Land Surface Changes

Abstract Land surface albedo constitutes a critical climatic variable, since it largely controls the actual amount of solar energy available to the Earth system. From a mathematical point of view, the determination of the surface albedo corresponds to the estimation of a boundary condition for the radiation transfer problem in the coupled surface-atmosphere system. A relatively large database of 10 years or more of Meteosat data has been accumulated by EUMETSAT. These data, collected at half-hourly intervals over the entire Earth disk visible from longitude 0 degree, constitute a unique resource to describe the anisotro-py of the coupled surface-atmosphere system, and provide the opportunity to document changes in surface albedo which may have occurred in these regions over that period. An advanced algorithm to retrieve the radiative properties of terrestrial surfaces sampled by the Meteosat visible instrument has been derived and a preliminary analysis of a one-year (1996) set of...

Solar Radiation Use Efficiency

As the values in Table 2.8 indicate, solar radiation use efficiency under the current crop production systems is very low. It is much below the theoretically estimated (8 to 10 percent) upper limit (Mavi, 1994). The efficiency of the conversion of photosynthetically active radiation by C3 plants falls off with increasing intensity. This decrease is caused by finite resistance to diffusion of CO2 through the leaf to the chloroplast. However, an increase in the productivity of direct solar energy can be achieved if, by redistribution, it is intercepted at more uniform and lower intensity by a greater portion of the leaf area of a crop. Aikman (1989) developed a model which

Advantages of membrane distillation

The main advantages of membrane distillation over conventional distillation processes are lower operating temperatures, compact modules, mist elimination, and the possibility of overcoming corrosion problems by using plastic equipment. This process can use available energy sources such as solar energy or waste energy in industrial processes. However, the process still has shortcomings such as membrane wetting and high membrane cost. Development of new membranes, membrane coatings, and increased competition among manufacturers should reduce the latter drawback.

Why is energy efficiency important

Four issues will be crucial in determining the amount of energy needed in the future, and hence the amount of carbon-free energy to meet climate targets Carbon Free Energy Needed to Meet a 450 ppm Carbon Dioxide Target Carbon Free Energy Needed to Meet a 450 ppm Carbon Dioxide Target Figure 4.1 Model predictions of required carbon free energy for a 450 ppm CO2 target (Source Azar and Dowlatabadi, 1998). Figure 4.1 Model predictions of required carbon free energy for a 450 ppm CO2 target (Source Azar and Dowlatabadi, 1998).

The Sun And Changes In ExTernalenergy Caused By Orbital Variations

Path of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun and the inclination or tilt of its axis cause variations in the amount of solar energy reaching the top of the atmosphere. These variations are thought to be responsible for the advance and retreat of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere ice sheets in the past few million years. In the past 2 million years alone, the ice sheets have advanced and retreated approximately 20 times. The climate record as deduced from ice-core records from Greenland and isotopic tracer studies from deep-ocean, lake, and cave sediments suggest that the ice builds up gradually over periods of about 100,000 years, then retreats rapidly over a period of decades to a few thousand years. These patterns result from the cumulative effects of different astronomical phenomena.

Glacial theory and early global climate models

Greenhouse effect, and the British scientist John Tyndall was trying to figure out how this actually worked. At the time, most scientists believed that the gases in the atmosphere were transparent, but in his laboratory he had shown that carbon dioxide was, in fact, opaque. It could thus help the atmosphere keep solar energy that would otherwise reflect back into space. There is very little carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and Tyn-dall did not think change in its concentration would be sufficient to cause an ice age. Water vapor was another matter and if something dried up the atmosphere then that could be the explanation Remove for a single summer-night the aqueous vapour from the air and the sun would rise upon an island held fast in the iron grip of frost, he wrote about England in a paper in 1863.2 The scientific community involved in the 19th century ice-age debate was also aware that snow and ice covering a region during an ice age would reflect sunlight back into space and...

Climate Change Technology

The Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program recognizes that burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. This program, part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, therefore, works to make clean solar energy available to regions that previously relied on fossil fuels. Specifically, the program champions photovoltaic (PV) energy converters that transform solar energy into electricity via superconductors. The program also investigates the themes of concentrating solar power to run turbines that would generate electricity, solar heating whereby solar energy is used to heat water or building spaces, and solar lighting which integrates directed natural sunlight into building lighting schemes.

Developed vs developing countries

Will the impact of energy efficiency on the need for carbon-free energy technologies be much reduced due to the importance of developing countries as they industrialize Could global energy intensities actually rise in the next 100 years For insights into these questions we need to examine the complex process of energy efficiency changes. However, in any predictions of energy efficiency there are great uncertainties, and this is especially true in developing

Collocated surface and satellite observations as constraints for Earth radiation budget simulations with global climate

Abstract Satellite measurements show that the exchange of solar energy between the global climate system and outer space is well simulated by the current generation of General Circulation Models (GCM). However, this alone does not ensure that these models also reproduce the distribution of solar energy within the simulated climate system correctly. Thus, the present study uses in addition to the satellite data a collocated set of surface observations for a more vigorous assessment of the solar energy in the climate system than could ever be achieved using satellite data alone. It is shown that GCMs typically underestimate the absorption of solar energy in the atmosphere, by 10 -20 Wm . In other words, the present study suggests that the global mean shortwave atmospheric absorption, a highly debated quantity, should rather be between 80-90 Wm , than around 70 Wm as found in many current GCMs. This leads to excessive insolation at the GCM surface compared to more than 700 globally...

Doris Duke Charitable Foundation

The second strategy of the Climate Change scheme, to promote the development of clean-energy technologies, encourages the development of policies that will make the existing technologies (such as wind and solar power) available to the market more quickly, particularly technologies dealing with energy efficiency, renewable energy, and low-emission uses of coal. This strategy also endorses policies leading to the development of tomorrow's clean-energy technologies.

O Ito and M Kondo Introduction

The crop combination in intercropping is usually determined so as to capture more solar energy, in other words, to achieve more light interception than monocropping by considering the canopy structure and growth duration of the crops. To improve the utilization of soil resources, the root system structure should be also considered. Combining crops with shallow and deep root systems may increase resource capture from extended soil layers where limited amounts of water and nutrients exist. In the case of a legume and cereal combination, it is reported that biological nitrogen fixation of the legume is enhanced by the presence of the cereal.2 The proper crop combination, and careful resource management in intercropping, will certainly improve the resource use efficiency and, ultimately, land productivity.

Conclusions implications for sustainable development

Energy, equity, health, and water governance are key issues when linking climate change and sustainable development. However, few studies on sustainability have explicitly incorporated the issue of climate change (Kashyap, 2004). Some studies have taken into account the carbon footprint attributable to the water sector. For example, desalination can be regarded as a sustainable water management measure if solar energy is used. Many water management actions and adaptations, particularly those involving pumping or treating water, are very energy-

Are Recent Trends In The Arctic Climate And Sea Ice Caused By Increasing Greenhouse Gases

An atmosphere-ocean-ice model was used to test these different factors by simulating the climate of a 120-year period from 1880 to 2000. One simulation included the known increase in CO2 and other greenhouse gases. The second simulation kept the greenhouse gases fixed as a constant, but included the changes in solar energy over these years. A third simulation contained both the greenhouse gases and the solar energy changes. Furthermore, each of these three simulations was performed at least four times, so that the natural, random variations in climate were also included in this experiment.

Prospects for Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

The second-generation of renewables has been commercially deployed, usually with incentives in place intended to ensure further cost reductions through increased scale and market learning. Offshore wind power, advanced biomass, solar PV and concentrating solar power technologies are being deployed now. All have benefited from R& D investments by IEA countries, mainly the 1980s. Markets for these technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. Some of the technologies are already fully competitive in favorable circumstances, but for others, and for more general deployment, further cost reductions are needed. The challenge is to continue to reduce costs and broaden the market base to ensure continued rapid market growth worldwide. Concentrating solar power

Summary And Conclusions

A comprehensive dataset of collocated surface and satellite observations has been used to assess the distribution of solar radiation in GCMs. Data from 720 sites present evidence that the GCMs have no problems in simulating the total amount of solar energy absorbed in the climate system correctly, but that the relative fraction of absorption within the atmosphere and at the surface is often substantially biased. The GCM atmospheres are general

Renewable Energy Technologies

Photovoltaic power is also widely viewed as cost competitive, like wind power. As energy from the Sun is free and the cost of the photovoltaic cells is dropping, a solar energy boom is likely in the near future. Solar energy is good for many grid-connected and building-integrated uses. They are widely used for off-grid applications ranging from telecommunications, to village power in remote and rural areas. In general, solar energy is of two types solar thermal and solar electric. Solar thermal technologies provide heat and hot water for residential, commercial, and industrial end uses. Solar electric technologies or concentrating solar power (CSP) creates heat to produce steam and or electricity. At present, producing a few kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts of electricity is feasible through commercial solar electric technologies, but a hybrid application of the technology with fossil fuel would be more economically competitive. Hydrogen can act as a...

Energy and Synthesis Relationship

The greater free energy released for oxygen favors its use whenever it is available. Therefore, denitrification must be conducted in an anoxic environment to ensure that nitate, rather than oxygen, serves as the final electron acceptor. Methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, have been most frequently used as the electron donor in experiments, rather than glucose.

Northern Hemisphere tilted toward the Sun at aphelion

Several movements are involved in changing the amount of incoming solar radiation. Earth rotates around the Sun following an elliptical orbit, and the shape of this elliptical orbit is known as its eccentricity. The eccentricity changes cyclically with time with a period of 100,000 years, alternately bringing Earth closer to and farther from the Sun in summer and winter. This 100,000-year cycle is about the same as the general pattern of glaciers advancing and retreating every 100,000 years in the past two million years, suggesting that this is the main cause of variations within the present day ice age. Presently, we are in a period of low eccentricity ( 3 percent) and this gives us a seasonal change in solar energy of 7 percent. When the eccentricity is at its peak ( 9 percent), seasonality reaches 20 percent. In addition, a more eccentric orbit changes the length of seasons in each hemisphere by changing the length of time between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.

Renewables and Noncarbon Energy Sources

Renewable energy sources produced by direct solar capture (photovoltaics), wind, hydro, and biomass are all forms of solar energy. Hence, all sources face a finite upper limit of available energy (Metz et al. 2001 Lightfoot and Green 2002), based on net flux density (e.g., average radiation at the ground of 200 watts per square meter W m-2 ). Biomass production is limited by the photosynthetic efficiency of conversion of solar energy, which on a canopy scale is capped at about 2-3 percent during the growing season. One must consider the phenology of the plant system, which may leave the landscape bare or sparse a considerable portion of the year, reducing annual mean photo-synthetic conversion efficiency (Baldocchi and Valentini, Chapter 15, this volume). Additional energy inputs may be required for cultivation and for fertilizers in order to prevent soil degradation. Land availability is limited by competition with other needs. Furthermore, a significant portion of the terrestrial...

The Nature Of Offsets

In contemplating making a contribution to tackling climate change, individuals and households have choices. They may decide to reduce their carbon footprint by reducing greenhouse emissions at source, for example by cutting back on car use or upgrading to a smaller and more fuel-efficient vehicle or at home, by installing insulation or solar panels to reduce reliance on electricity from coal fired utilities. Such actions prevent, right now, an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases and make a contribution to mitigating global warming and climate change. Such actions may also save the household money, especially if subsidies on expensive options such as solar power installation are generous and if the household is credited for supplying power to the grid.

David J Kieber Barrie M Peake and Norman M Scully

The absorption of solar energy by dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters results in a variety of photochemical transformations involving oxygen as a major reactant. These photochemical transformations generate a suite of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including the superoxide anion, the hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, alkoxy and peroxy radicals, the carbonate radical, and hydrogen peroxide. ROS cause numerous biogeochemical changes in aquatic ecosystems affecting the cycling of DOM, biological processes, and trace metal speciation. However, experimental results indicate that H202 is not very reactive in aqueous solution in the absence of catalysts such as oxidases, Fe(II) or light 21 . Uncatalyzed redox reactions involving H202, especially those with organic compounds, proceed very slowly in aqueous solution even though they are thermodynamically favored in some cases. Presumably these reactions are slow due to a high kinetic barrier. For example, the standard state free...

Human historic perspective From the past into the future

As discussed in Chapter 2.6.5, food and energy are the key limiting factors for human development (Fig. 2.57). Humans have relied on various sources of power for centuries with solar power providing most of the essential energy. Solar energy is vital to all natural ecosystems. The energy sources have ranged from human, animal, wind, tidal and water energy to wood, coal, gas, oil and nuclear sources for fuel and power. The planet could not support the six to seven billion people that exist today without the commercialization of first coal, and then oil and gas. If these energy sources were necessary for the historically rare and unprecedented population growth that has occurred over the past 300 years, then this growth might be correlated (and modeled), in some way, after the pattern of consumption of these energy sources (Figures 2.45-2.47 and 2.58).

Advanced Noncarbon Technologies

Advanced noncarbon technologies, such as nuclear fission or fusion, space solar power, and geoengineering, could potentially play an important role in climate stabilization. Several of these technologies are controversial, in early stages of development, or both. Until an option can be shown not to be viable, however, we should work to understand the option's potential benefits and drawbacks. Nuclear fission is an existing technology that could help stabilize climate. In some countries (e.g., France) nuclear power generates a substantial fraction of electricity, thus displacing CO2 emissions that might otherwise occur. Fission involves generating electricity by splitting heavy atomic nuclei, most commonly U235, into lighter atomic nuclei. Present nuclear reactor technology provides CO2-free electricity while posing unresolved problems of waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. The supply of fissile material, which depends on price, can be extended greatly through the use of...

Forced Climate Variability

Within a system, while externally-forced variability is caused by some factors outside the system. A classic example of externally-forced climate variability is represented by the changes caused by variations in the amount and distribution of solar energy incidents on the Earth because of the differences in the solar luminosity or in the Earth's orbital parameters. The distinction between the two types of variability is not always so clear-cut, because it depends on how the boundaries of the system under examination are defined. For example, when studying or modeling the atmosphere in isolation from the rest of the climate system, changes in sea surface temperatures would be termed external forcing. Yet, in a coupled ocean atmosphere model, variability induced in the atmosphere by variations in sea surface temperatures would be internally generated variability. There is still considerable debate concerning the extent of internal climate variability.

Challenges to Future Deployment

As solar energy is intermittent, storage systems are needed for stand-alone solar systems. However, solar power generation may work well as part of a diversified power supply system. The system compatibility depends on the shape of the electricity load curve. In sunny regions with an electricity demand peak during summer days (often caused by air conditioning), the peak contribution of solar can be high.

Other reduction reactions

Coupling water oxidation with CO2 reduction using solar energy. The photochemical conversion of H2O-CO2 into fuels is of interest if solar energy can be used effectively. Several authors (Inoue et al., 1979 Mackor et al., 1987 Arakawa, 2003) have reported that HCOOH, HCHO and CH3OH are produced in the reduction of CO2 with H2O under solar irradiation of an aqueous suspension of a variety of semicon

Cost and Potential for Cost Reductions

Since concentrating solar power uses direct sunlight, the best conditions for this technology are in arid or semi-arid climates, including Southern Europe, North and Southern Africa, the Middle East, Western India, Western Australia, the Andean Plateau, Northeastern Brazil, Northern Mexico, and the Southwest United States. The cost of concentrating solar power generated with up-to-date technology at superior locations is between USD 0.10 and USD 0.15 per kWh. CSP technology is still too expensive to compete in domestic markets without subsidies. The goal of ongoing RD& D is to reduce the cost of CSP systems to USD 0.05-USD 0.08 per kWh within 10 years and to below USD 0.05 in the long term. Improved manufacturing technologies are needed to reduce the cost of key components, especially for first plant applications where economies of scale are not yet available. Field demonstration of the performance and reliability of stirling engines are critical.

Structure And Trends In Markets For Forestry Offsets

According to a New York Times article (Rosenthal, 2007), a 37 hectare tract of land at Tiszakeski, on the Danube River in Hungary, will be planted with trees to offset the Vatican's 2007 CO2 emissions. The Vatican has already cut emissions by installing solar panels but wants to offset its emissions from cars, heating and lighting.

Future RD Efforts

Improvements in the concentrator performance and cost will have the most dramatic impact on the penetration of CSP. Because the concentrator is a modular component, it is possible to adopt a straightforward strategy that couples development of prototypes and benchmarks of these innovations in parallel with state-of-the-art technology in real solar-power plant operation conditions. Modular design also makes it possible to focus on specific characteristics of individual components, including reflector materials and supporting structures, both of which would benefit from additional innovation. Storage systems are another key factor for cost reduction of solar power plants. Development needs are very much linked to the specific system requirements in terms of the heat-transfer medium utilized and the necessary temperature. In general, storage development requires several scale-up steps linked to an extended development time before market acceptance can be achieved. Research and...

Global Environment Facility GEF

In addition to renewable energies and energy efficiency, new technologies are critical to help prevent dangerous levels of greenhouse gas emissions, while allowing for economic development. GEF provides support for such new technologies that are not yet cost effective. The current portfolio ranges from large-scale solar power plants, to distributed power generation in fuel cells, to building-integrated solar photovoltaics.

Restoring Democracy Media Money Civic Renewal

In Robert Kuttner's words more than half of the income lost by the bottom eighty percent was captured by the top one-quarter of one percent (Kuttner, 2006, p.3). Not to put too fine a point on it, this was a con job sponsored by a few who had a lot to gain from public befuddlement, culture wars, and political polarization. The results were a three-decade-long, deliberately provoked public donnybrook that distracted us from more serious issues having to do with policy changes necessary to promote energy efficiency and solar power, encourage sustainable economic development, improve environmental quality, modernize transportation, and rebuild cities in order to head off climate destabilization.

Reactor Configuration

The feasibility and efficiency of other types of bioreactors, such as completely mixed tank reactor (CMTR) in development of aerobic granular sludge have not been sufficiently demonstrated so far. In a hydrody-namic sense, column-type upflow reactor and CMTR have very different hydrodynamic behaviors in terms of interactive patterns between flow and microbial aggregates, as illustrated in Fig. 5.8a. According to the thermodynamics, the circular flow could force microbial aggregates to be shaped as regular granules that have a minimum surface free energy, provided those aggregates could be kept in the reactors under given dynamic conditions. Thermodynamically, such a phenomenon is very similar to the formation of benthic round-shape boulders in a natural flowing river system. It is obvious that in a column-type upflow reactor a higher ratio of reactor height to diameter can ensure a longer circular flowing trajectory, which in turn creates a more effective hydraulic attrition to...

Passive Satellite Data

Passive satellite data are based on sensors relying on reflectance of solar energy back to the sensor or detector. Different types of indices can be developed to facilitate the interpretation of images and estimation of different land areas. It is also possible to obtain time-series data for the desired land-use systems, since satellites cover the land-use systems of any project location continuously and regularly.

Implications of Carbon Management Options

Our discussion of the wider implications of mitigation is intended to supplement the more technically oriented contributions of Caldeira et al. (Chapter 5) and the engineering-oriented review of Hoffert et al. (2002), by providing some analysis of collateral effects. We consider four classes of impact corresponding to the four terms in equation (4) climate change and greenhouse, economic, environmental, and sociocul-tural. The technical options are organized into five categories identifiable with the six mitigation-oriented terms in equation (3) conservation and efficiency (combining the factors e and i into one category), non-fossil-fuel energy sources (factor f ), land-based options including disturbance reduction and biological sequestration (terms FLULUC and FSq ), biological sequestration in oceans (term F ), and engineered CO2 disposal (term FDisp). We restrict discussion to options that are currently technically feasible, at least at moderate scales, omitting (for example)...

Non FossilFuel Energy Sources

Solar Power The solar option has low sociocultural and environmental impacts compared with many other energy systems. Available energy densities are moderate, about 15 W per square meter (m-2) for electric power (Hoffert et al. 2002), so that current global electricity consumption could be met from a square less than 400 kilometers on a side (WBGU 2003). The resource is most concentrated in subtropical semiarid to arid areas, implying development opportunities in these areas, which are largely in the developing world. Extensive decentralization is also possible and is very efficient in some sectors (such as solar hot water), leading to substantial social benefits and microeco-nomic opportunities. On the cost side, large-scale solar energy deployment may involve significant land use changes with consequences for ecosystems water supply may be an issue in arid regions energy transport over large distances and across national borders is both a technical and an institutional hurdle and...

Effects of forest cover change on ecosystem services and society

Fire also increases albedo (short-wave reflectance), which reduces the amount of solar energy absorbed by the land surface and transferred to the atmosphere. This occurs in spring due to removal of the tree canopy, exposing the more reflective snow-covered ground, and in the summer due to replacement of the dark complex

Reflecting on warming whats watts

Also releases more energy, so eventually a new equilibrium would be reached. Similarly, as additional greenhouse gases trap more solar energy, Earth warms until a new equilibrium is reached, with as much energy leaving as arriving. Put another way, Earth's temperature is whatever is required to send back into space the same amount of energy that the planet absorbs. There would be a short-term trade-off. Extra energy going into melting would raise sea levels faster but leave less energy for raising temperatures. But in the longer term, that would be of no help. For as more ice melts, it will expose ocean water, tundra, or forest. Those darker surfaces will be able to absorb more solar energy than the ice they replace. So we may get accelerated melting and more warming. The critical term here is albedo, the measure of the reflectivity of the planet's surface. Anything that changes Earth's albedo whether melting ice or more clouds or pollution itself will affect Earth's ability to hold...

Iiiphotocatalytic Degradation Of Hazardous Wastes In Colloidal Semiconductor Sols

It has been shown that under certain circumstances adsorbed water will also oxidize to oxygen. The efficiency of this photodecomposition of water is insufficient to develop an economically viable process for the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel. However, the photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the surface of the semiconductors can oxidize a number of species present in the solution rather efficiently 7-9,19-37 . Many of the species observed to degrade under these conditions are included in the EPA list of priority pollutants. Thus, the scientific basis for the photocatalytic degradation of hazardous species was established. Though a toxic waste treatment process based on this phenomenon has not yet been built, the photocatalytic degradation of toxic pollutants at the surface of semiconductor particles has the potential for an energy-efficient and safe waste management process commensurate with the economy of disposal.

Pollution of the Land

Most people dislike the intrusive presence of many wind turbines, especially in areas of great natural beauty. The generators also emit a persistent humming noise which many people living nearby find intolerable, and results in the loss of value of their property. These disadvantages do not occur in the case of off-shore wind farms, but instead there is some danger to shipping and appreciably higher cost. Similar remarks apply to solar power, if ever the collectors were deployed on a large scale.

The manmade carbon cycle Air capture and CO2 cycling

Economic paradigm change solar energy is in excess and is naturally dissipated in the atmosphere hence, large energy consuming conversion processes and air capture can be carried out for resource generation and climate sustainability. Energy provision is based on three pillars renewable sources (all based on solar energy either directly in the form of radiation or indirectly as wind and water energy as well as biomass), geochemical-stored solar energy (fossil fuels) and nuclear energy (geo heat and fusion and fission processes). A fourth source should be listed here but seems to be of less interest in solving global problems gravitational energy (for example, tides). For thousands of years humans have been using wood for heating, cooking and building. Disregarding local pollution (soot and smoke) it was a perfect solution renewable and CO2 neutral. Let us start as soon as possible with wide introduction of CCS to reduce CO2 emissions. So far, as fossil fuels are combusted this...

An Introduction to Nanoparticles

However, industrial manufacture has widened the range of NP types very considerably. mNPs are presently used in skin care products such as sun blocking creams (TiO2, ZnO, SiO2), self-cleaning glass (TiO2), self-cleaning refrigerators (Ag), anti-odour impregnation in clothes (Ag), car components (CNT), medicines (Au, Fe oxides), plastics (CNTs, Fe oxides), biotechnology ('quantum dots', CdSe), solar panels (TiO2), fuel additives (Ce oxides), paper (TiO2), paints (TiO2, Au), some food additives (TiO2), electronics (Au), fuel cells (CNTs), and sports equipment (C60) 4, 5 . Morphologies are also diverse, from carbon nanotubes (CNTs), ribbons, and wires, to acicular crystals, to spheres composed of one metal coated by a second. The types of particle available are growing, and the total number possible is vast.

Conclusions and recommendations

Supply-side options, such as sea water desalination, which are presently promoted throughout the region, are energy intensive, contributing to increased greenhouse gas emissions that further exacerbate climate change. Desalination technology is also not equally affordable to the different countries in the region. Although the region is blessed with sunshine, it lags behind in investments in solar power. Desalination based on solar energy could be the basis for more sustainable supply-side water management options. Cross-border cooperation for sustainable solutions that involve water conservation technology transfer and joint development of large solar fields, for example, will not only help water security, but advance political security, as well.

Finding Out What Forests Really Do To Climate

To get very far in understanding the effects of forest cover on climate, we need to break down the complex form and behavior of the forest into simple components. These are the building blocks of a model that can include the role of forest in making climate. Several of them have already been talked about in Chapters 4 and 5, but it will do no harm to mention them again (Figure 6.2). One important basic aspect of forests is the proportion of sunlight that they absorb. Known as albedo (from a Latin word meaning whiteness) this is important in determining how easily the forest can heat up in the sun. The darker the forest surface (i.e., the lower the albedo) the more solar energy is absorbed, as opposed to being reflected straight back out into space. When it is absorbed, this energy tends to heat up the leaves. Some of the heat then goes to warming the air around the top of the forest canopy. But, in fact, much of the heat energy that is in the leaves just vanishes the leaves stay much...

The melting curve of iron

To determine the melting curve of iron, Alfe et al. 1999, 2001, 2002b, 2003, 2004 calculated the chemical potential j of pure iron as a function of pressure and temperature for both solid and liquid. In a one component system this is the same as the Gibbs free energy per atom G N. In fact, Alfe et al. 1999, 2001, 2002b, 2003, 2004 calculated the Helmholtz free energy F as a function of volume and temperature and then obtained G from its usual relation G F + pV. As mentioned above, for any fixed pressure the continuity of G with respect to temperature defines the melting transition, which is found by the point where the Gibbs free energies of liquid and solid become equal, Gl(p, Tm) Gs(p, Tm).

Hours from start of segment

Removing natural gas generation entirely from the utility sector (achieving 248 mmtC yr), will increase solar generation to levels above peak daytime demands, leading to routine storage of excess solar electricity as compressed hydrogen to power late afternoon fuel cell generation. Fuel cell generation will peak at 20 of total electric demand. A totally carbonless utility system will require 7 trillion kWh of carbonless generation to reliably deliver 5 trillion kWh of end-use electricity, eliminating utility emissions at a marginal cost of 400 tonneC (Figure 6.2, 0 GW scenario). Further carbon reductions must then come from the transportation sector, essentially fueled by additional solar power.

Consequences Of Economic Activities

Michigan's human economic activities increase pressure on Michigan's environment and the global environment. Air and water pollution from industry, traffic, and greenhouse gases increase because of industrial and domestic fossil fuel combustion soil erosion from fertilizers and farm runoff are the main consequences of human economic activities, which can be reduced by investigating and implementing alternative energy sources (such as atomic, wind, solar power, bio-fuels, and land-field fuel), developing new

The overall photosynthetic process

Thylakoid membrane system, hydrogen is withdrawn from water and passed along a series of hydrogen carriers to NADP, so that NADPH2 is formed and oxygen is liberated. Associated with this hydrogen (or electron) transport there is a conversion of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate to ATP (adenosine triphosphate), probably two (or, on average, some fractional number between one and two) ATP molecules being formed for every two electrons transferred or molecule of NADP reduced. These chemical changes are associated with a considerable increase in free energy this is made possible by the light energy absorbed by the chloroplast pigments. Thus we may summarize the light reactions by the equation In the dark reactions, which take place in the stroma of the chloroplast, the NADPH2 produced in the light reactions is used to reduce CO2 to the level of carbohydrate. This too is associated with an increase in free energy, the energy being supplied by the concomitant breakdown of...

Energy balance of the Earth

Thus, the planet Earth is found in the flow of solar shortwave radiation (wave length about 0.5 m). The parallel beam of solar rays delivers to the boundary of the atmosphere about 1.4kJ m2 s-1 of heat. The Earth's surface receives only a part of the solar radiation. The remaining part is reflected by the clouds into space, or diffused and absorbed by the atmosphere. The solar energy that reaches the Earth's surface consists of direct radiation, < 2dir, and that diffused in the atmosphere, qdii. Owing to the globular shape of the Earth its surface receives different amounts of direct solar radiation per unit of area. Besides, owing to rotation of the Earth and its circulation around the Sun as well as the inclination of the rotation axis to the ecliptic plane, the amount of solar energy inflow to unit area of the Earth has a distinct daily and annual variation, and owing to many-year and many-century variations of the elements of the Earth orbit, has many-century variations, too.

Implications for developing nations

In other countries, a focus on renewable energy development will be more effective. As the experiences of the small island developing states demonstrate, renewable generation can be achieved in a variety of ways. Some countries will focus on biofuels from a variety of sources others will focus on emerging technologies like wind and solar power to undergird their development. Either method will reduce potential fossil fuel consumption while countries work at the same time to further improve their standards of living, thus striking a balance between considerations of equity and efficiency.

Geoengineering Strategy Reduce Solar Irradiance

Proposed to loft into outer space a 10 mm thick and 2,000 km in diameter shield constructed of lunar materials and locate it at the L1 point. A more recent study proposed to launch 800,000 m-sized reflective objects manufactured on Earth to the L1 point, creating a 100,000 km diameter reflective cloud to deflect solar energy 21 . Both studies discussed the challenge of maintaining the delicate balance between the opposing gravitational fields, centripetal acceleration from orbiting the sun, and the forcing associated with the deflection of solar photons. In the 22 report, the list of proposed objects to be placed into LEO included a large solar-reflective screen, thousands of mirrors, and clouds of dust. Due to instability in orbit, the NAS committee ruled out the dust cloud proposal as impractical.

Global warming and politicizing science

The NAS's reputation in research and the dissemination of information about global warming and climate change precedes its accolades for its museum exhibits about climate change. In 1991, the NAS released a report, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, calling for a decrease in the dependence on fossil fuel, the advancement of nuclear and solar energy technologies, and the promotion of energy conservation, all aimed at a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The NAS asserted that the United States could reduce emissions by up to 40 percent cost-effectively and that a potential ecological disaster because of global warming was reason enough to implement changes immediately.

Geoengineering Strategy Increase the Planetary Albedo

Pinatubo, a volcano in the Philippines, explosively erupted. The volcanic plume lofted approximately 20 Tg of gaseous sulfur dioxide into the upper troposphere and stratosphere. During the subsequent weeks, the volcanic sulfur dioxide dispersed across the globe, while photochemically oxidizing to form sulfate aerosols. These aerosols had both significant direct and indirect effects on the Earth's radiative balance - directly scattering solar radiation to outer space and indirectly affecting climate by enhancing cloud reflectivity in the upper troposphere. Two months after the eruption, the Earth's albedo had increased, on average, by 6 . Cloud-free regions, which otherwise absorb a large fraction of the earth's incoming solar energy, saw a 20 increase in albedo due entirely to direct aerosol scattering. In the year to follow, global temperatures dropped by an estimated 0.7 C (relative to 1991). As the volcanic aerosols settled out of the stratosphere and...

US potential for renewable energy

Renewable resources are sometimes dismissed as serious options because it is argued their growth will be constrained by the underlying resource base. In fact, statistics show that the US has a very large resource base for wind, solar, geothermal and other renewables, and the land area required would be modest (see Figure 19.4). Recent studies show that if wind energy technology were to be fully implemented in only three states, it would generate enough electricity to power the whole nation. Similarly, solar energy fully deployed in seven states could supply ten times the nation's energy requirement, and much of this energy could be supplied using rooftop collectors. Figure 19.4 Comparative amounts of land area required to produce 30 per cent of US electricity using wind power, solar power and geothermal energy Figure 19.4 Comparative amounts of land area required to produce 30 per cent of US electricity using wind power, solar power and geothermal energy

Chargeenhanced nucleation

There can be many sources of this charge, typically charge separation by the differential motion of drops of different sizes, or the always-present electric current between ionosphere and the Earth's surface, which can charge up individual droplets at cloud boundaries. A net charge corresponds to an electrostatic energy on the drop which modifies the Gibbs free energy budget and therefore the saturated vapour pressure around the drop.

Sky Radiance and Diffuse Fraction

It is well known that the atmosphere scatters shorter wavelengths of solar energy much more than longer wavelengths, and that the scattering increases with SZA (Iqbal, 1983). Usually, more than half of the UV-B irradiance arriving on earth is from diffuse radiation from the sky. The greater fraction of radiance from the sky has profound implications for the amount of UV-B irradiance in urban ecosystems.

The potential for community action

In the UK, Woking Borough Council provides a good example of community action and cohousing ideas practised at a local government level. The council has used energy efficiency measures, decentralised networks and micro-generation technologies such as solar panels to provide for the energy needs of the Borough's residents, and has done so at affordable prices. The council was one of the first in the country to introduce energy efficiency policies, in 1990, and reduced energy consumption by 20 per cent in the first four years. Another UK example of community action is provided by the Ashton Hayes Going Carbon Neutral Project launched in January 2006. The village of Ashton Hayes in Cheshire aims to become the first carbon neutral village in England, supported by most of the local community including the local school, Women's Institute, Parish Council, businesses and other organisations (House of Commons, 2007). Actions in the project include 'carbon footprinting' of the village, home...

Economic Aspect Of TiO2 Photocatalysis

Cost is comprised of capital costs, and operation and maintenance costs. The capital costs can be reduced by designing more efficient systems. The operation costs greatly depend on many factors such as the type and concentration of pollutants, level of treatment, and catalyst dose and loading method (fixed and slurry), in addition to the pretreatment (e.g., removal of particles causing high turbidity, which inhibit UV light penetration) and posttreatment (e.g., membrane separation in case of suspension-type TiO2 reactors) costs. Since more efficient systems have been developed, aiming at increase in efficiency and decrease in cost, the estimated costs of such systems have been roughly compared with those of the conventional treatment technologies used. Recent studies have been devoted to scientifically and technically improve TiO2 photocatalysis, particularly solar energy-based detoxification process. The costs for solar photocatalytic process were compared with those of activated...

Renewable Energy Sources As An Alternative To Nuclear Power

Building and commissioning massive, complex nuclear plants requires huge government subsidies. Contrast this with wind or solar energy that are distributed and less dense supplies of energy. The amount of solar panels produced on an annual basis is equivalent to the construction of two nuclear facilities. The renewable solar approach seems simpler and safer, and not one requiring subsidies. Such sound

Proportion of incident light captured by phytoplankton

A major factor limiting conversion of solar energy to chemical energy by phytoplankton is, as was pointed out by Clarke (1939), the competition for radiant energy by all the non-living components of the water. We saw in Chapter 3 that the different components of the aquatic medium -water, soluble colour, tripton and phytoplankton - each account for a proportion of the total light absorbed by the water body. We also saw that to obtain an accurate estimate of the amount of PAR captured by each component separately, calculations should be carried out using the absorption coefficients for a series of narrow wavebands followed by

Oecd Documents And Policy

Sharing information, costs, and efforts can facilitate a technical shift towards more climate-friendly technologies. It may also drive governments to allocate more funds in support for basic research and development. These forms of cooperation between countries are also recommended to engage more countries into action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. OECD has particularly focused on solar power technologies the use of environmental-friendly technologies in agriculture and the development of seeds of high-yielding varieties (HYV) appliances that can bring significant greenhouse gas emission reductions at low cost to society, without compromising on quality standards, clean coal technologies and wind power integration into electricity systems.

International Institutions

Often banks and private investors wait for a signal from the international financial community, the World Bank and others, before getting involved in large projects. There is a wide recognition, in international institutions, of the climate change and energy security issues. There is a clear rational appreciation ofthe value of carbon-free energy. But within these organizations

Theory Of Radiation Measurements

We are interested mainly in devices that determine the intensity of the radiation as a function of its wavelength or wave number (A-1). The instruments of interest for climate research operate mostly, although not exclusively, in the infra-red part of the spectrum, which is conveniently broken down into two regimes, the near and the thermal infra-red. In the climate system, virtually all of the solar energy flux is contained within the range from about 0.2 to about 5.0 m, which includes the visible and the ultraviolet range as well as the near-infra-red, while the planetary or terrestrial emission occurs between 5.0 and 100 m, which is therefore defined to be the thermal infra-red region.

Cultural And Historical Perspectives Of The Present Agrolandscape

Figure 2 depicts an urban environment, including the relationship of the inner urban landscape to the outer agricultural landscape. Although much has been written regarding the pattern and shaping of the landscape from prehistory to present day (see review by Jellicoe and Jellicoe, 1987, for details), there exists the need to address and quantify the concept of landscape sustainability from an energetic (solar energy and energy subsidy) perspective. One objective of this chapter is to increase trans-disciplinary dialogue concerning this need. Although we recognize that markets have become increasingly global in structure and function (Brady, 1990), it appears that management practices, for example, integrated pest management and information processing, will be conducted on a regional basis (Elliott and Cole, 1989). SOLAR-POWERED PATCHES (E.G., PARKS GARDENS) Figure 2 Diagram depicting urban, suburban, and exurban agricultural systems. Solar-powered (autotrophic) patches are shown...

Algae Protozoa And Multicellular Animals

Algae are microscopic photosynthetic plants. They are among the simplest plant forms, having neither roots, stems, nor leaves. Algae typically range from single-cell entities (which impart a green color to surface waters) to branched forms that can be seen by the naked eye. The latter often appear as attached green slime on surface bodies of water. Diatoms refers to singlecelled algae which are housed in silica shells. The blue-green algae generally associated with water pollution are Anacystis, Anabaena, and Aphanizomellon. Green algae are Oocystis and Pediastrum. Algae are autotrophic that is, they use carbon dioxide or bicarbonates as sources of carbon. Inorganic nutrients of phosphate and nitrogen as ammonia or nitrate are also used. Some trace nutrients are also necessary (magnesium, boron, cobalt, calcium). The reaction or process by which algae propagate is known as photosynthesis.The products of photosynthesis are new plant growth and oxygen. The energy supplied to the...

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