Do It Yourself Solar Energy

DIY 3D Solar Panels

Almost everyone in the United States is currently paying higher electricity bills. This usually eats deep into your salary. Fortunately, switching to solar energy is one way to save money and make your home eco-friendly. In DIY 3D Solar Panel, a pioneer in the field of solar panels known as Zak Bennet will teach you exactly how to set up a 3D Solar Panels in your home within 24 hours. You can be able to do this using tools you can easily find in your garage. He will also show you other tools you need to make this dream of living off-the-grid and saving money on electricity bill come true. This course contains an eBook and video guide. It is very affordable and you can get a refund if you don't like it. Read more...

DIY 3D Solar Panels Summary

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My DIY 3D Solar Panels Review

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The very first point I want to make certain that DIY 3D Solar Panels definitely offers the greatest results.

As a whole, this ebook contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Commercializing Clean Energy Technologies

Commercialization is defined as the creation of self-sustaining markets that thrive in a level-playing field with other technologies without subsidies. Without commercial status, clean energy technologies are not only a constant drain on public finances, but they will also not benefit from the dynamism and innovation of the private economy. Private capital mobilization and commercialization are results of policy instruments such as eco-taxes and emissions markets as well as guiding principles that can affect the design of these policies.

Solar Power Generation Systems

In this section, the main kinds of established solar power systems, including small-(individual) and large-scale residential power generation are classified as shown in Figure 4.2 and analyzed in terms of their overall and component performance. A typical solar-driven heat engine system for residential power (and heat) generation consists of a solar concentrating collector that drives a heat engine (e.g., a Rankine cycle). The heat engine produces shaft work at an expander that in turn drives an electrical generator additionally, the rejected heat may serve a useful purpose (e.g., water heating). Such a system can be connected to the grid or can work independently with energy storage in various ways, as will be discussed in the next section of this chapter. Even though they are conceptually similar, large-scale solar systems differ from small-scale systems through the fact that they use a central power plant. In large systems, a field of collectors is used to capture the solar energy,...

Steam Network Optimization by Utilizing Biomass and Solar Energy Sources in an Oil Refinery

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial processes contribute significantly to global warming. A reduction in GHG emissions can only be achieved by a conversion to renewable energy sources and a simultaneous increase in energy efficiency therefore, the application of renewable energies for evaluating the site utility systems and environmental aspects should be considered. Site utility systems involve complex interactions. For improving the systems, a structured approach is needed. Steam generators are important components of site utility systems that affect the thermal performance of chemical and petrochemical industry processes. To overcome the above drawbacks, renewable energies can be integrated into plant for generating steam. Renewable energy offers important potential benefits. Solar energy as the abundant resource has a viable option for consumption that can free up larger quantities of oil. Moreover, there is growing recognition that...

The Clean Energy New Deal

We have a limited supply of fossil fuels, especially oil. Our burning of fossil fuels is destroying a livable climate. The two key questions are, first, will we voluntarily give up fossil fuels in the next couple of decades, rather than being forced to do so helter-skelter after it is too late to stop the catastrophe Second, when we do give them up, will the United States be a global leader in creating jobs and exports in clean energy technologies or will we be importing them from Europe, Japan, and the likely clean energy leader in our absence, China. For more than a quarter century, conservatives have blocked or scaled back efforts by progressives to spend more on clean energy development and deployment. As a result, while we lead the world in virtually every type of clean energy through the early 1980s, now we are playing catch up across the board, even in technologies that we invented, like the solar cell and the efficient lightbulb. At last we...

Renewable energy options for the future

Primary energy sources are those that contain energy in a form (high potential) that enables them to be converted directly to lower forms of energy that are directly usable by people. These include fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and renewable resources such as biofuels, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, solar power, tidal power, and wind power. Fossil fuels will Solar power uses solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, utilizing the most steady source of energy in the solar system. Sunlight can heat water or air in solar panels, create steam using parabolic mirrors, or be used in a more passive way, utilizing the light entering windows to heat buildings. Solar power is most efficient in places where the solar radiation is the highest. Places like the sunny desert southwestern United States are much more suited for solar power than the Pacific Northwest, which is shrouded in clouds many days of the year. Solar panels operate at different efficiencies, depending on the...

Gibbs Free Energy Minimizations

Several methods to estimate the P-T conditions of methane hydrate stability by searching for the state which minimizes the Gibbs Free Energy of the system have been developed. These programs are computationally intensive and require sophisticated computer programming. However, computer programs to carry-out these calculations are now readily available. Sloan (1990, 1998) presents a detailed description of CSMHYD, a PC-DOS based computer program. His textbook includes a floppy disk with an executable version of the program. In addition to calculations of the stability temperature at a given pressure (or vice-versa) in pure water, the program also includes a variable composition salt component to allow seawater and pore-water predictions. We refer the reader to the textbook for the details of how the program works. Output from CSMHYD is shown in figure 5 for a pure methane hydrate in equilibrium Zatsepina and Buffet (1997, 1998) present an alternate Gibbs Free Energy minimization...

Smallscale Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Filtration Plants

Membrane-driven processes account for over half the existing renewable energy powered desalination in existence. Some of the reasons for this include that they are a modular technology, easy to install, compact in size, and simple to operate. Many of these advantages are also mirrored by renewable energy microgenerators, such as PV modules. These are also modular, contain no moving parts, have a long life ( 20-year warranty) and involve low maintenance. The modularity of both of these technologies has also assisted in cost reduction being achieved via economies-of-scale. Wind turbines are also available in a wide variety of sizes (from 100 W up to MW scale) and multiple turbines can be included in a system design. Therefore, it is possible to scale a renewable energy powered membrane system to almost any size. These factors, combined with RO and NF exhibiting a very low SEC for seawater and brackish water, respectively, makes membranes an obvious choice when powering such systems with...

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

The solar energy Industry Association (SEIA) is an American trade association for the solar industry, working to expand markets, strengthen and develop research, and improve education for the employment of solar energy. SEIA is affiliated with the PVNow coalition of photovoltaic companies, which aims to expand the North American-distributed, grid-connected photovoltaic market opportunities and eliminate market barriers. They are pursuing this goal through lobbying key state legislatures, utility rate-making authorities, and other state energy policymaking agencies. SEIA represents over 700 companies and 20,000 employees in the U.S. energy sector. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation. and small businesses. SEIA chapters have up-to-date information on retailers and...

Renewable Energy Potential

Although renewable energy technologies are unreliable for the world's present energy demand, the market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. Approximately 74,223 MW of power is generated from windmills worldwide. Several European countries and the United States produce the largest percentage of wind energy. Denmark is the world leader in this technology. The present worldwide manufacturing output of the photovol-taics (PV) industry is more than 2,000 MW per year. Japan, Germany, and the United States contribute 90 percent of all photovoltaic installations in the world. Solar energy use is also growing at a faster rate in developing countries, such as Kenya and India. Worldwide, approximately 8,000 MW capacity of geothermal power plants are in operation. A 750 MW geothermal power plant, The Geysers in California, is the largest in the world. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world. It produces ethanol (biofuel) from sugarcane, contributing 18...

Renewable Energy In The World Today

Solar Energy Locations

Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation (GWth) and bio-fuel production (units GL year) 4 . Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation (GWth) and bio-fuel production (units GL year) 4 . generation 3 . Fig. 1 below shows the world renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008 4 . From Fig. 1, it can be seen that wind power has an installed capacity of 121 MW worldwide. The wind industry this is growing at annual rate of 30 , with widespread use in Europe and the USA 4 . The annual manufacturing output of the photovoltaics (PV) industry reached a record 6.9 GW in 2008, bringing the installed capacity to 13 MW with the largest solar farms'' operating Germany, Spain, and Portugal. Several large solar thermal power plants operate in USA and Spain with the largest of these being the 354 MW SEGS...

International solar Energy society IsEs

THE INTERNATIoNAL soLAR Energy Society is an international nonprofit, nongovernmental organization with a focus on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies. The society has 30,000 members globally from industry, research, and government there are national sections in 54 countries. The following goals are stated in the society's mandate to encourage the use and acceptance of renewable energy technologies to realize a global community of industry, individuals, and institutions in support of renewable energy to create international structures to facilitate cooperation and exchange to create and distribute publications for various target groups to support the dissemination of renewable energy technologies to bring together industry, science, and politics in workshops, conferences, and summits on renewable energy, and to advise governments and organizations in policy, implementation, and sustainability of renewable energy activities world-wide. The motto of the ISES...

Renewable Energy A Definition

It is clear therefore, that in due time renewable energies1 will dominate the world's energy supply system, due to their inherent advantages such as mitigation of climate change, generation of employment and reduction of poverty, as well as increased energy security and supply. Renewable energy technologies are well suited to respond to the limitations of current energy patterns and contribute to the further modernisation of the energy sector. increasing energy needs, thereby ensuring a sustainable security of supply. Furthermore, renewable energy sources can help improve the competitiveness of industries and have a positive impact on regional development and employment. Renewable energy technologies are suitable for off-grid services, serving those in remote areas of the world without having to build or extend expensive and complicated grid infrastructure. The earth receives solar energy as radiation from the sun, in a quantity far exceeding mankind's use. By heating the planet, the...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with states and firms to help them develop their renewable portfolio. The organization also provides expert information to consumers to improve energy efficiency and guide their transition to alternative energy options. To promote sales of renewable energy products and services, REPP created a buyer's guide and consumer directory for approximately 5,000 businesses. REPP was initiated with support from the Energy Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy. While financial support is determined on an...

Renewable Energy Sources As An Alternative To Nuclear Power

New Nuclear Construction Global Picture

Building and commissioning massive, complex nuclear plants requires huge government subsidies. Contrast this with wind or solar energy that are distributed and less dense supplies of energy. The amount of solar panels produced on an annual basis is equivalent to the construction of two nuclear facilities. The renewable solar approach seems simpler and safer, and not one requiring subsidies. Such sound Renewable energy is everywhere, easy to tap, cheap to harness, and above all, human and climate friendly. It has the added bonus of feeding surplus electricity back into the electric grid. Nuclear power, however, provides tough competition with its powerful lobby claiming it is the best carbon displacer. A 2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology study revealed that people concerned about global warming are neutral on the role of nuclear as either a solution or a problem in the climate crisis debate. What is not highlighted for the public is that for every 1,000 spent on nuclear...

Space lunar solar power systems

It is extremely difficult to gather diffuse, irregular solar power on Earth and make it available as a dependable source of commercially competitive standalone power. The challenges increase as irregular terrestrial solar power becomes a larger fraction of total regional or global commercial electric power. Research indicates that terrestrial solar may provide 5 to 17 of renewable power to conventional small power grids. Fifty percent supply of power by terrestrial solar, and wind, is conceivable. However, an increasing fraction of renewable power is limited by the higher cost of renewable sources, high costs of storage and transmission of renewable power, institutional resistance, and regulator effects (Wan and Parsons, 1993).

Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many proven technologies available to produce renewable energy, and some new technologies are under development. One of the most promising renewable energy technologies for electricity generation is wind energy that uses airflows to run wind turbines. In good wind regimes, cost-wise, wind power is comparable to fossil alternatives, particularly when economic or environmental concerns are considered. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 KW to 5 MW of rated power. Most common wind turbines for commercial use are of a rated capacity of 1.5-3 MW. Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy in the world. Since 1993, it is growing on average 30 percent a year. Windmills typically run at 2535 percent of their capacity over the course of a year. A photovoltaic module composed of multiple photovoltaic cells or arrays is used to convert sun light directly into electricity. Photovoltaic power is also widely viewed as cost competitive, like wind power. As energy from the...

Solar Energy and the Environment

The attributes of solar energy technologies (e.g., modularity, flexibility, low operating costs) differ considerably from those for traditional, fossil fuel-based energy technologies. Solar energy technologies can provide cost-effective and environmentally beneficial alternatives to conventional power systems. Some of the benefits that make solar energy systems attractive follow (e.g., Dincer, 2000 and McGowan, 1990) Their comparable environmental impact is minor and the variety of solar technologies provides a flexible array of options. They cannot be depleted. If used appropriately, solar energy resources are reliable and sustainable. Solar energy resources do have some characteristics that lead to problems, but they are often solvable technical and economic challenges generally diffuse, not fully accessible, sometimes intermittent, and regionally variable. The potential for overall benefits is often overlooked for solar energy technologies. They are often assessed as less...

Characteristics of Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many renewable energy technologies. This chapter does not provide a basic summary description of each of the technologies themselves. Such information can be found in Cassedy (2000), Johansson et al. (1993), and on the Internet at www.eren.doe.gov 80 . We will focus here on the characteristics of the technologies that relate to their potential to address climate change. This includes summarizing their cost and performance, looking at the breadth of technologies and applications, and reviewing the size and characteristics of the renewable resources.

A sustainable energy governance example coordinating renewable energy expansion

Governance complexities soon become apparent even if we simplify to a supply-side example like renewable energy. Widespread renewable energy systems pose a considerable policy challenge. The policy 'object' - viable renewable energy systems - brings with it many coordination challenges. There are various renewable energy technologies to choose from (wind, solar, biomass, marine, and others), each of which can be configured at various scales in different ways, and each of which is already developed to various degrees. The innovation and deployment of renewable energy technologies involves a mix of established energy utilities and new business models and firms. Renewable energy projects like wind farms can involve large and protracted planning processes. Other projects involve smaller planning applications, but these can prove just as protracted and debilitating for the applicant (such as those for solar water heating panels in UK conservation areas). Both make demands upon the existing...

US potential for renewable energy

In contrast those in Europe, US renewable energy policies over the past two decades have been an uneven and ever-changing patchwork of regulations and subsidies. Abrupt changes in direction at both the state and federal levels have deterred investors and led dozens of companies into bankruptcy. Embracing the path of renewable energy is not only an environmental necessity, it also makes good economic sense, allowing both companies and individuals to save money, and generating high-wage jobs in a rapidly growing technological industry. Renewable resources are sometimes dismissed as serious options because it is argued their growth will be constrained by the underlying resource base. In fact, statistics show that the US has a very large resource base for wind, solar, geothermal and other renewables, and the land area required would be modest (see Figure 19.4). Recent studies show that if wind energy technology were to be fully implemented in only three states, it would generate enough...

Synergy Between Renewable Energy Resource And Water Supply

It is critical to recognize that there can be synergies between the availability of a renewable energy and water resources. Table 1 Comparison of all existing renewable energy powered desalination technologies Australia. A further advantage of solar technologies is that peak energy production in the summer months coincides with peak water demand. A second example, in Townsville, Australia, involves the addition of a water recycling aspect to the existing Cleveland Bay Purification Plant, enabling up to 20 ML of water per day to be recycled from the main treatment plant. Currently, the treatment plant discharges the treated waters into Cleveland Bay, however, future limits on water and nutrient disposal necessitate the utility to develop a water recycling program in conjunction with private sector partners 28 . A further driver is the security of clean drinking water throughout periods of drought by reducing Townsville's raw water demand. A preliminary study indicated that both the...

Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Technologies

The most common renewable energy technologies for powering water treatment systems in the past have been PV, solar thermal energy, and wind energy. This is shown in Fig. 6 for the following desalination technologies reverse osmosis (RO) including nanofiltration, multieffect distillation (MED), electrodialysis (ED), multistage flash (MSF), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC). Although, no examples of renewable energy powered water recycling schemes exist at the present time, there are plans to develop such schemes. An Australian scheme is described in a section below. Figure 6 Breakdown of renewable energy powered desalination system technologies implemented worldwide Ref. 10 . Table 1 compares all existing renewable energy powered desalination technologies, highlighting the energy consumption and disadvantages of each technology. For RO and NF systems, the major energy requirement is for pressurising the feedwater, with brackish water systems typically operating at pressures of...

Integration of Renewable Energy

The rapid deployment of renewable energy technologies and their larger deployment in the near future, raise challenges and opportunities regarding their integration into energy supply systems. Energy systems aim at meeting the demands for a broad range of services (such as household and industry needs, transportation and storage). Energy systems include an energy supply sector and the end-use technology to provide the aforementioned energy services. In the EU and other industrialised countries, the existing energy supply system is mainly composed of large power units, mostly fossil fuelled and centrally controlled, with average capacities of hundreds of MW. Renewable energy sources are geographically widely distributed and if embedded in distribution networks are often closer to the customers. Locating renewable and distributed generators downstream in the distribution network is known as distributed generation. placing the concept of economy of scale for large units by economy of...

Concentrating Solar Power 581 Technology Description and Status

There are three types of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology trough, parabolic-dish and power tower.9 Trough and power tower technologies apply primarily to large, central power generation systems, although trough technology can also be used in smaller systems for heating and cooling and for power generation. The systems use either thermal storage or back-up fuels to offset solar intermittency and thus to increase the commercial value of the energy produced. The conversion path of concentrating solar power technologies relies on four basic elements concentrator, receiver, and transport-storage and power conversion. The concentrator captures and concentrates solar radiation, which is then delivered to the receiver. The receiver absorbs the concentrated sunlight, transferring its heat to a working fluid. The transport-storage system passes the fluid from the receiver to the power-conversion system in some solar-thermal plants a portion of the thermal energy is stored for later...

The Role for Renewable Energy

Middletown Geysers

The ideal solution to global warming would be a technological one that allows the world to switch quickly from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and geo-thermal, which emit zero or low levels of carbon dioxide. Each of these sources, however, has its limitations. According to many experts, wind power is the most promising source of clean energy. Turbines capture the energy of the wind using propeller-like blades positioned on 100-foot-high towers, and the moving blades are connected to turbines to generate electricity. Supporters say even a small wind tower could produce more than half of the electricity used by an average home, but more massive wind farms could contribute a significant share to utility grids. Denmark, for example, already generates 20 percent of its electricity from wind. Unfortunately, the wind does not blow all the time, causing a problem of intermittent and unreliable electricity generation, and many people think large wind...

Cost of renewable energy

Some forms of renewable energy, like hydroelectricity and biomass, have been cost-competitive for many years in certain applications and provide a substantial energy supply worldwide. Others, like passive solar building design, are cost competitive, but haven't yet overcome all the market factors that currently preclude their widespread use. Technologies like wind and geothermal are currently cost competitive at their best resource sites, but need further improvements and support to reach their full market potential. A few, like photovoltaics, have identified niche off-grid electric markets that the industry is building to the point where it can competitively address retail power markets. Still others, like ethanol from biomass, are evolving both in the laboratory and the marketplace to the point where they will be competitive without price supports. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the general renewable energy technologies and their economics. In reality, there are a large variety of...

Renewable energy prospects

Out of this total, biomass and waste accounted for 1186 Mtoe and hydraulic power 261 Mtoe. These two energy sources, which make the largest contribution to the renewable energy balance, have already been used for many years. The main development hopes concern wind and solar power, which still only represent a minor proportion of energy production (respectively, 0.34 and 0.09Mtoe in France in 2007). The disadvantage with these

Energy Efficiency and Clean Energy as New Hitech Markets

Energy efficiency and clean energy may provide an opportunity to participate and create a new market. Patrick Mazza from Climate Solutions, an advocacy group, suggests that 'Clean energy generation and end-use efficiency represent a USD 3.5 trillion market over the coming 20 years, even with no new public priority'.26 There will be plenty of business opportunities in resource efficiency and productivity in the energy, water, agriculture, transportation and forest product industries. Examples of these opportunities include fuel cells, enzyme-based water treatment systems, precision farming technologies and bio-based fuels and speciality chemicals. It is estimated that the combined value of the resource productivity and efficiency market of these industries exceeds USD 60 billion and is growing rapidly.

The promise of solar energy

Solar energy is the main renewable energy resource throughout the world. Other renewable energy sources, e.g. biomass energy and wind energy, are derived directly from it. It is an abundant energy source. Our planet receives from the sun the equivalent of 15 000 times the energy consumed in the world, but this energy is diffuse and intermittent. Solar energy can be captured as either heat or electricity using the photovoltaic effect. There is considerable scope for the development of low-temperature thermal solar energy in the short term. Heat is supplied by solar sensors consisting of a black absorbent surface which transfers the heat to a heat exchange fluid, generally a mixture of water and glycol to prevent the possibility of freezing. A glazed surface is fitted over the absorbent surface to block the infrared radiation re-emitted. In the housing sector, thermal solar energy is used mainly to provide sanitary hot water. It may also be used to cater for a certain proportion of...

Prospects for Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

The second-generation of renewables has been commercially deployed, usually with incentives in place intended to ensure further cost reductions through increased scale and market learning. Offshore wind power, advanced biomass, solar PV and concentrating solar power technologies are being deployed now. All have benefited from R&D investments by IEA countries, mainly the 1980s. Markets for these technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. Some of the technologies are already fully competitive in favorable circumstances, but for others, and for more general deployment, further cost reductions are needed. The challenge is to continue to reduce costs and broaden the market base to ensure continued rapid market growth worldwide. Third-generation renewables, such as advanced biomass gasification, hot dry-rock geothermal power, and ocean energy, are not yet widely demonstrated or commercialized. They are on the horizon and may have estimated high potential comparable to...

Renewable energy policy and climate policy interactions

This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even when CO2 emissions are appropriately priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate-change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals that both CO2 prices and the measures to deploy renewable electricity create wealth transfers between electric utilities and their customers, although in opposite directions. This may be important when considering the political economy of the interactions between CO2 pricing and renewable energy support in the future.

Stimulating a Clean Energy Revolution

The 'perfect storm' of climate change, political instability in key energy regions, and high oil prices has created a demand for a new energy path. The advent of promising new technologies capable of turning abundant domestic energy sources - including solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, biomass and ocean energy - into transportation fuels, electricity and heat offer a path to an unprecedented energy revolution. Renewable energy technologies, combined with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, have the potential to rapidly and economically transform the world's energy system.

Solar Energy

The total solar energy incident on the surface of the earth averages about 86,000 terawatts (TW), which is more than 5,000 times the 15 TW of energy currently used by humans (of which roughly 12 TW now comes from fossil fuels) and more than 100 times larger than the energy potential of the next largest renewable source, wind energy (Hermann, 2006). Hence, the potential resource of solar energy is essentially limitless, which has led many to conclude that it is the best energy resource to rely on in the long run. Currently, this resource is exploited on a limited scale total installed worldwide solar energy production totaled 15 gigawatts (GW) in 2008,2 or just 0.1 percent of total energy production, with similar penetration in the United States (EIA, 2009). Solar energy can be used to generate electricity and heat water for domestic use. Passive solar heating can be used in direct heating and cooling of buildings. There are two main classes of solar energy technology used to generate...

Free Energy

Will a certain food provide energy when utilized by microorganisms If the answer is yes, then the food will be eaten and if it is in a wastewater, the wastewater will be cleaned up. The answer to this question can now be quantified by the combination of the concept of enthalpy and entropy. This combination is summed up in a term called free energy. Free energy G is defined as energy (represented by S) has been subtracted from the energy content. Thus, the term free energy. Biological processes are carried out at a given constant temperature as well as constant pressure. Thus, differentiating the free-energy equation at constant temperature, Note In order for G to be a maximum (i.e., to be a free energy), Q must be the Qrev as depicted in the equation.

Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic is a novel technology that helps reduce the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere as it uses solar energy which is free from pollutions. Solar energy can be utilized into two ways (i) photovoltaic and The photovoltaic systems can be classified according to their use and applications. These systems can broadly be classified into two types (1) photovoltaic (PV) systems and (2) photovoltaic thermal (PV T) systems. The first type can further be classified into space applications, stand-alone PV systems, grid-connected PV systems, photovoltaic hydrogen production systems, and miscellaneous small-scale applications whereas the second type can further be classified as PV T air collector and PV T water collector systems and others. Further, the stand-alone PV applications can be classified into two, agricultural water pumping and community or rural electrification. The PV T air collectors can be used for agricultural greenhouse drying and space or room heating applications...

Renewable energy

For centuries people have been harnessing the energy of wind and flowing water to power windmills and watermills. This technology has now been updated to drive electricity generators. Solar energy and even volcanic heat can also be turned into electricity. Such energy sources are described as renewable because they never run out. They may not be able to provide all our energy needs, but most of them do not release any of the greenhouse gases that are causing climate change.

Passive Solar Energy

Also, solar energy can be put into use by incorporating appropriate designs in buildings to maximize utilization of solar energy for various purposes such as lighting, air conditioning, and water and space heating cooling and thereby reduce external energy inputs. PV cells require high exposure to direct sunlight. To assure maximum exposure to the sun throughout the day, a phyrheliom-eter is used to calculate how much sun exposure a location experiences. This information is useful in determining whether or not a specific location is suitable for solar energy, as well as what direction the cells should face. In many cases, these cells are placed on rooftops.

Solar Photovoltaic

The key environmental impacts associated with significant adoption of solar energy are the land area required, impacts due to the production and disposal of the solar collectors, and impacts associated with increased requirements for energy storage. As an indication of the scale of production that may be necessary, the IEA BLUE Map scenario projects a need to install, each year until 2050, an average of 215 million m2 (about 86 mi2) of solar panels world-wide to meet the 4,750 TWh year of solar electricity generation they project will be needed to displace a portion of fossil-fuel-generated electricity 4 . This is in addition to concentrated solar thermal power plants. In the U.S., the average amount of peak solar energy that reaches the surface is on the order of 1 kW m2. For photovoltaic (PV) systems, conversion efficiency is typically no higher than about 20 , so each m2 of PV could produce no more than about 200 W of power. When combined with the changing azimuth of the sun over...

Conclusion Of Report On Solar Parabolic Collector

This chapter presents a review and analysis of solar-driven heat engines for power generation with relevance to residential applications. The impact of solar systems on sustainable development is quantified based on fossil fuel vs solar energy utilization factors predicted over the next decades and by sustainability factor as introduced also in other works, e.g., by Dincer and Rosen (2005). The established large-scale and small-scale systems are presented and analyzed based on their The optimization of the solar-driven heat engine is important for obtaining a low-levelized electricity cost and augmented CO2 mitigation through solar power generation. With this fact in mind we developed here a model for a solar heat engine and optimization and identified the important optimization parameters which are the quality of the optical system expressed in terms of angular error S, the concentration ratio C, the rim angle (, the collector temperature corroborated with the insolation, as...

Parabolic Solar Dish System

Receiver Dish Solar

In what follows, we illustrate the benefits of solar power generation on sustain-ability, on reducing greenhouse gas emission and on reducing global warming by a case study. The study refers to a residential (single) unit for solar power conversion based on a paraboloidal mirror that is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The solar dish concentrates the insolation on a glazed tube receiver that plays the role of desorber for an ammonia-water Rankine cycle. For expansion and work production, a scroll machine is capable of operating in a two-phase regime. The rejected heat of the The first step in solar energy system modeling and its design calculations is to determine the solar collector geometry and characteristics for maximum performance. This, in fact, is to maximize the collector efficiency. The derivation of the collector's efficiency results from the energy balance stating In Eq. (4.4), the intercept factor y JZpTa which represents the ratio between solar energy flux absorbed by the...

System Description and Control Strategy

Solar Absorption Chiller Schematic

A schematic diagram of the system studied is represented in Fig. 28.1. The system consists of a solar collector, a storage tank, an absorption chiller, heat exchanger, and auxiliary units. The system operates in four different modes. When solar energy is available for collection and there is a load demand, heat is supplied directly from the collector to the heating or cooling unit. When solar energy is available for collection and there is no heat or cooling demand, heat is stored in the storage unit. On the other hand, if solar energy is not available for collection and there is a load demand, storage then supplies heat to the heating or cooling

Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea

Global Solar Towns

Energy consumption causes a range of environmental pollution. Furthermore, with the increase in energy demand, the issue of energy shortage becomes increasingly serious. Since there is more and more concern on energy conservation and environmental protection, interest has been increasingly focused on the use of renewable energy. This is considered as a key source for the future, not only for South Korea but also for the world (Ulgen and Hepbasli, 2002). Especially, solar energy as a clean energy source and one kind of renewable energy is abundant in South Korea. Therefore, the precise measurement of the local solar radiation is required. Also, the solar radiation data are a fundamental input for solar energy applications such as photovoltaics, solar thermal systems, and passive solar design. The data should be contemporary, reliable, and readily available for design, optimization, and performance evaluation of solar technologies for any particular geographical location (Bulut and...

Results and Discussion

Singapore Millenials Labour Force

The thermal performance of a solar system is usually measured by the solar fraction (F). Solar fraction is defined as the fraction of load met by solar energy. Figure 28.3 shows the variation of the solar fraction of space heating (Fs), domestic water heating (FD), and cooling load (FAc) as well as the total solar fraction (Ft) with collector area. As seen from the figure, a significant portion of the solar fraction for space heating and domestic water heating is satisfied at areas around 38 m2. Conversely, the space cooling requires much greater areas. The variation of total solar fraction, life cycle savings, and overall system efficiency (ratio of solar energy provided to the total incident radiation) with collector area is presented in Fig. 28.4. This typical figure shows the choice of optimum collector area which is approximately equal to 38 m2 in this case. It is The present results should encourage governments for wide installation of solar heating and cooling systems in...

Mr Ramiro Ramirez Environmental Policy Analyst OPEC

What we can foresee of this new carbon constrained world is the creation of new markets one for renewable energy technology and the other for carbon emission permits. However, none of these address the concerns of developing nations because they have nothing to gain from such a market at least in the way they are conceived today.

Electricity Generation from Renewables

There are many conventional and non-conventional ways by which electricity can be produced. One of the conventional ways is to produce electricity by using fossil fuels. Coal-based power plants are the mostly used method to produce electricity. They are also referred to as thermal power plants. Though the energy produced by a thermal power plant is more economical as compared to non-conventional sources, it also causes greenhouse gas emission at a higher rate and hence called dirty. On the contrary the photovoltaic system causes no harm to the environment as it uses solar energy which is also called clean energy but the electricity produced by it is not economical as the photovoltaic material used to produce solar cells are costly and for off sunshine period the energy needs to be stored in a storage device like battery. In this section we will discuss both the non-conventional and conventional sources for electricity generation. The solar energy can be utilized either to convert the...

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment

The cost of CO2 gas mitigation using renewable energy technologies depends on both the difference between the generation costs of the renewable energy systems and the costs of conventional energy generation and the carbon emissions that are displaced by the renewable energy generation. The mitigation costs are usually expressed in units of the cost per unit fossil carbon emissions that are avoided.

Dr Peter Mombaur Beiten Burkhardt Belgium

Therefore, I would like to introduce a very interesting report concerning solar power for the Mediterranean region. This study was made in April 2005 by the German Aerospace Center Institute of Technical Thermodynamics with contributions of researchers from Jordan, Morocco, Egypt, Oman, Bahrain and Algeria. A summary of their report is as follows 1- In the MENA region economic and social development is the first priority. 2-Although climate change is a serious concern, sustainability must also be achieved in terms of economy, affordability, technology, health and social compatibility. A strategy for power and water security must match the time horizon of all sustainability considerations, which is 50 to 100 years and more. 3- By 2050, fossil fired plants will only be used for what they are best suited for peaking demand. Because of this reduction to their key function their use will become environmentally compatible, and their availability will be prolonged for centuries. The...

Necessary Policy Measures at the International Level

To make a significant increase in the share of renewable energy-to-energy supply become reality, advanced policy measures have to be adopted globally. Governments from all over the world need to implement necessary minimum policy measures to guarantee the further deployment of renewable energy technologies and additional commitments on the international level have to be made. The states that are currently actively promoting renewable energy sources should set up legally binding targets for renewable energy sources in their governing areas. The mandatory targets can also be complemented by financial incentives in the respective countries. This too would be an effective policy to address security of supply, technology development, employment and climate objectives. In the current development policy, the developing countries' governments put little emphasis on RES. One of the main aims should be to create sustainable development in developing countries (access to energy in order to fight...

Questions and Comments

Von Goerne We should have fixed taxes for specific purposes. If taxes on petroleum products are not uniform, then people would drive across the border to get the cheaper fuel, as happens now in some European states. Also some European taxes on gasoline go into the treasuries of retirement funds instead of renewable energy.

Public Perception

Recognition of the need for major CO2 emission reductions. It also depends upon CCS being seen as one part of a wider strategy for achieving significant cuts in CO2 emissions. A portfolio including renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency and lifestyle change to reduce demand, was generally favoured. CCS can be part of such a portfolio but wind, wave, tidal, solar and energy efficiency were generally preferred as options. As a stand alone option, it was felt that CCS might delay more far-reaching and necessary long-term changes in society's use of energy. The notion of CCS as a bridging strategy to a hydrogen-based energy system was welcomed.

Economic Analysis

Where P1 is the factor relating life cycle fuel cost to first-year fuel cost savings, P2 is the factor relating life cycle by additional capital investment to initial investmet, CA is the solar energy investment cost which is directly proportional to collector area, CE is the solar energy investment cost which is independent of collector area, CF is the unit cost of delivered conventional energy for the first year of analysis, L is the total load, and Ft is the total solar fraction of the solar system. For a particular

Case Study

An example of solar technology is adopted to demonstrate the link between sus-tainability and efficiency. An effective way to maintain a good electrical efficiency by removing heat from the solar panels and to have a better overall efficiency of a photovoltaic system is to utilize both the technologies simultaneously. This kind of system is known as hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV T) system and can be beneficial for low-temperature thermal applications like water heating, air heating, agricultural crop drying, solar greenhouses, space heating, etc., along with electricity generation that can further be beneficial for rural electrification and agricultural applications like solar water pumping, etc. In this case study we are giving a simple demonstration on how both the technologies together give better efficiency which directly relates to better sustainability. Based on the first law of thermodynamics, the energy efficiency of a PV T system can be defined as a ratio of total energy...

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear fission is one of the few large-scale carbon-free energy sources and currently provides 7 of global primary energy (17 of electricity) without any CO2 waste. Its costs are now well known and are unaffected The accident at Chernobyl raised around the world the fear that nuclear power was not safe enough to use and made the licensing process much more difficult and uncertain. Fully amortized, operating nuclear plants remain very competitive and have built a good safety record since, so that even countries that had decided to abandon nuclear power have not closed these. Indeed, in many cases life extension is being pursued, but orders for new plants have dried up. If gas prices were to remain at their former low levels, and no CO2 controls were required, nuclear power would continue to have a hard time to competing in deregulated markets with up-to-date combined-cycle gas turbines. But recent price increases have demonstrated that such long-term price stability of oil and gas is...

Challenges to Future Deployment

As solar energy is intermittent, storage systems are needed for stand-alone solar systems. However, solar power generation may work well as part of a diversified power supply system. The system compatibility depends on the shape of the electricity load curve. In sunny regions with an electricity demand peak during summer days (often caused by air conditioning), the peak contribution of solar can be high.

Global Environment Facility GEF

Renewable energy is one of the most promising substitutes for fossil fuels, which are responsible for the largest share of greenhouse gas emissions. GEF helps countries remove barriers to developing markets for renewable energies wherever cost-effective. GEF funds projects which promote the use of renewable energy, such as small hydropower generating plants, and the development of cost-effective solar voltaic cells. Such opportunities can be found in on-grid and off-grid situations, as well as in heating for industrial and other applications using renewable energy sources. In addition to renewable energies and energy efficiency, new technologies are critical to help prevent dangerous levels of greenhouse gas emissions, while allowing for economic development. GEF provides support for such new technologies that are not yet cost effective. The current portfolio ranges from large-scale solar power plants, to distributed power generation in fuel cells,...

US Climate Change Initiatives

In the United States, the federal response to global warming has been slow. The lack of federal efforts, however, has inspired states and localities to take action. Almost half of all states, for example, have created funds to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, and twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have mandated that electrical utility companies generate a certain percentage of their electricity from renewable sources. Twenty-nine states also have adopted climate plans to reduce their overall emissions, but California is the clear leader. In 2006, California enacted the first mandatory and enforceable statewide

Pressure for change at two export credit agencies ECAs

The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) is the principal ECA of the US. It has been under pressure for years to recognize the impacts of its financial operations on a number of areas, such as on human rights, indigenous peoples and the environment, particularly global warming. Even though it has been prohibited from providing direct investment loans to finance oil and gas extraction, in 2005 alone OPIC provided US 580 million of other support to oil and gas projects, including pipelines. Therefore, in 2007 legislation was proposed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions associated with OPIC projects, and to require OPIC to give preference to renewable energy and energy efficiency investments. While this was being considered by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee,24 OPIC announced an initiative 'to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in OPIC-supported projects by 20 per cent in the next ten years and shift emphasis to renewable and energy efficient projects'.25

Positive new directions to promote the transition

On the one hand, one might say not much. The 'pressure to lend' that has been in place since at least Robert McNamara's term as World Bank president has caused staff and board to measure job performance by the quantity of funding moved to the borrowers. This has meant that modest renewable energy and efficiency investments of appropriate scale are rarely viable in the race to place loans in amounts of hundreds of millions of dollars.27 In speeches, papers and personal communications, staff at all levels of the MDBs have long revealed a fixation with the need to lend money 'at the speed of business' and to become as efficient in making loans as the private sector in order to compete - to win a share of the loan business of developing countries. For example, new World Bank President Robert Zoellick's first public speech emphasized how the Bank 'would be simplifying the procedures and cutting interest rates We aim to be faster, better and cheaper.'28 But they have it exactly wrong....

Schneider Stephen H 1945

It was with his 1989 book, Global Warming Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century , that Schneider became a main figure in scientific debates about human effects on the environment. In clear language exempt from academic jargon, Schneider argued his case for global warming. The burning of fossil fuels, he claimed, causes a buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Those gases trap the solar energy reradiated by the earth that would otherwise escape into space. This phenomenon could have devastating effects such as droughts, more frequent and more powerful tropical storms, and a rise in sea level. Schneider believes that temperature change appears less noticeable than it would otherwise be thanks to the capacity of the oceans to absorb heat. He is persuaded of the necessity to improve climate models that will take fully into account the interactions between atmosphere and oceans.

Research and Development Organizations

However, several promising end-use technologies still require R&D support. In particular, a number of issues like an increased share of renewable energy, the efficiency of fossil-fuel-based power production, more efficient electricity networks, or vehicle efficiency, can only be alleviated through efficient research and demonstration activities in connection with other regulatory and economy-based measures.

The Coupling of Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate Forcings Feedbacks and Responses

The word climate is used loosely to mean the aggregate of all components of weather averaged over a lengthy period - usually decades, centuries, or longer. As discussed earlier in Chapters 1 and 7, all processes that contribute to the current climate are driven by the flow of energy from the sun. On very long time scales, the Earth's internal energy plays a role via its influence on tectonics and the size and location of the continents. Because the Earth absorbs some of the solar energy that it receives, and because over time scales of years to decades the heat balance of the Earth is in a steady state, the Stefan-Boltzmann equation can be used to define the global-mean or effective temperature of the Earth

Stockholm Environment Institute SEI

The center is organized into three programs the Climate and Energy Program, which conducts energy system analyses, examines environmental consequences of energy use such as global warming, and develops policies for a transition to efficient and renewable energy technology the Water Resources Program, which brings an integrated perspective to freshwater assessment one that seeks sustainable water solutions by balancing the needs for basic water services, development, and the environment and the Sustainable Development Studies Program, which takes a holistic perspective in assessing sustainability at the global, regional, and national levels.

From Evaluation to Performance Analysis

MIs have been active in the clean energy field for several decades, but the wealth of experience has not yet been collected in a systematic way. There is no comprehensive study evaluating the performance of MIs in this field. Resources spent by MIs on drawing lessons from completed projects are low compared to resources allocated for project development. Many MIs keep paper trails of documents relating to projects and activities, but these documents are rarely analyzed in depth after projects are concluded. After project completion, team members are required to focus their time and attention on new projects and are given little time and incentive to analyze completed ones. Even when evaluations are undertaken, the lessons hardly are incorporated in future projects and programmes, and are usually not disseminated widely. As a result, there is little learning across institutions.

Summary discussion and conclusions

The change in ratio of direct to diffuse radiation will also have an effect on solar energy production with technologies that make use of solar concentrators. Advances in solar energy production which operate efficiently in the presence of diffuse radiation are also possible, but a different technology is needed. Characterizing the consequences of geo-engineering for these technologies is worthwhile. As mentioned in Sections 12.1,12.2.2 and 12.2.4, larger aerosol particles exhibit significant absorption in the infrared part of the energy spectrum. The cooling resulting from the scattering of incoming solar energy is thus partly compensated for by the absorption in the infrared. The proclivity of this geo-engineering method to form large particles makes it a less efficient solution than it would be if small particles were easily generated and maintained.

Box 201 Role of local and indigenous knowledge in adaptation and sustainability research

Other issues of particular concern include ensuring energy services, promoting agriculture and industrialisation, promoting trade and upgrading technologies. Sustainable natural-resource management is a key to sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. It calls for clean energy sources and the nature and pattern of agriculture, industry and trade should not unduly impinge on ecological health and resilience. Otherwise, the very basis of economic growth will be shattered through environmental degradation, more so as a consequence of climate change (Sachs, 2005). Put another way by Swaminathan (2005), developing and employing 'eco-technologies' (based on an integration of traditional and frontier technologies including biotechnologies, renewable energy and modern management techniques) is a critical ingredient rooted in the principles of economics, gender, social equity and employment generation with due emphasis given to climate change.

Coming to Terms with Climate Change

To mitigate climate change, China's focus remains on improving energy efficiency, increasing the use of renewable energy and alternate energy sources such as hydropower, thermal power generation, and nuclear power and reviving the gains it had made in energy intensity through 2002. Beijing has set ambitious targets, such as reducing emissions by 20 percent by 2010, but it faces a severe challenge in getting provincial and local officials to enforce these measures. To date, Beijing has not issued genuine incentives to provincial leaders and businesses to cut emissions, or penalties for failure to do so, or to adopt environment-friendly technologies. Recently, however, Beijing has begun to evaluate local leaders on energy-efficiency improvements and has had some initial success.41 It may even consider how to use nongovernmental environmental groups as watchdogs on the activities of provincial and local leaders without threatening political stability. The June 2007 National Climate...

For fluorinated gases

PFC emissions comprise by-product emissions of CF4 and C2F6 from primary aluminium production and the use of PFCs, in particular for the manufacture of semiconductors, flat panel displays and photovoltaic cells (IPCC Source Sink Categories 2C, 2E and 2F) and SF6 emissions stem from various sources of SF6 use, of which the largest is the use and manufacture of Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) used in the electricity distribution networks (IPCC Source Sink Categories 2C and 2F).

Climate Effects of Other Nonbiomass Energy Sources

Energy sources other than coal, oil and gas comprise nuclear power and renewable energy sources such as wind, hydropower, geothermal energy, wave energy, solar radiation and biomass. Their shares of primary energy sources were given in table 13.1. Amongst them biomass related energy is discussed in more detail in chapter 13.5. The following refers mainly to the non-fossil-fuel but non-biomass energies. Photovoltaic For photovoltaic cells indirect GHG emissions of about 100 to 350 g CO2-eq. kWh were established due to the very high production. Moreover real costs of CO2 avoidance have to be considered. In case of photovoltaics costs are estimated at about EUR 1,000 per ton of CO2 avoided as compared with EUR 40 to 45 for power stations and 20 to 30 for waste to energy plants.

Energy Scenarios Past Present And Future

Energy demand is expected to grow in the 21st century. The energy demand will be met by a global energy mix that is undergoing a transition from the current dominance of fossil fuels to a more balanced distribution of energy sources. Motivation of energy diversification includes population growth, quality of life, clean energy, resources reserves. An understanding of the energy options available to us in the 21st century requires an understanding of a range of scientific theories. The scientific revolution will be based on fundamental changes of old paradigms - John R. Fanchi in Energy in the 21st Century , Gulf Professional Publisher, Austin (in print). This quote not only strongly demonstrates the conceivable energy scenario, but also the well-based prediction of the future role of crude oil and natural gas production consumption. The world energy demand was about 400 EJ (1018 J) at the end of the last century (OECD, 2002 US-DOE, 2004) and the share of hydrocarbons was roughly 60...

Policy instruments for sustainable energy

Direct regulation, market mechanisms, trading schemes, feed-in tariffs, voluntary agreements, codes of practice and certification schemes can all be used to good effect. However, there is an urgent need for more policy integration a coherent policy mix is needed so that policy instruments have their desired effect rather than offering window dressing for good intentions. A different 'policy space' is now needed. These arguments are developed here focusing on policy instruments that would promote the uptake of renewable energy and promote energy efficiency. Three broad classes of policy instruments are needed to support the uptake of new technologies R&D funding, stable performance-based financial incentives for market stimulation and grants and or subsidies for purchasers of low carbon technologies. Firstly, governments should step up funding of R&D for low carbon technologies in their initial development stages. This funding can be provided either through tax breaks or capital...

Environmental Impacts of Ocean Energy Converters

All energy generation technologies have environmental impacts, including renewable technologies, which may have larger footprints than fossil fuel technologies, because the energy density of most forms of renewable energy is low compared to these fossil fuels. However, ocean energy is one of the more 'dense' renewable energy forms and space requirements may be limited, when compared to wind farms and photovoltaic (PV) arrays.

Appraising energy technologies

Lastly, appraisals should be informed by technology-specific industrial policy considerations. The US, Germany and Japan have all taken this approach to help new industries become established and to gain competitive advantage in emerging technology markets. Appraisals should consider where national or regional-international comparative advantages lie, for example in terms of existing specialist skills or the availability of renewable energy resources. Opportunities for international collaboration on technology development and for technology export or 'transfer' arrangements should also be central considerations.

The Development of Anaerobic Granulation

The anaerobic granulation system has been known for its unique ability to convert highly objectionable wastes into useful products. With global concerns over energy shortages and greenhouse gas formation through combustion of fossil fuels, more efforts towards renewable energy supplies is clearly needed. Greater efforts are now needed for broader applications of anaerobic granulation system for relieving the environment of unwanted organic materials by converting them into methane, a renewable energy source. The anaerobic granulation process leading towards efficient methane production from wastewaters clearly fits this need.

International Initiatives

The WAVe Energy PLAnning and Marketing project (Waveplam) is another European Commission-funded consortium program with eight partners developing tools, methods and standards to speed up the introduction of ocean energy into the renewable energy market (http www.waveplam.eu). The project consortium includes European research organizers and device developers, who aim to address non-technological barriers to the establishment of ocean energy.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Wisconsin lawmakers have enacted a minimum renewable electricity standard that requires utilities to provide 22 percent of the state's power from renewable sources by 2011. To meet this goal, the Wisconsin Public Service Corporation installed 14 wind turbines in Kewanee County that are expected to provide enough electricity for 3,600 homes and generate tax revenue. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory also estimates Wisconsin as having the solar potential to provide electricity generation.

Energy Data Manager Statistician

The International Energy Agency, based in Paris, acts as energy policy advisor to 27 member countries in their effort to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for their citizens. Founded during the oil crisis of 1973-74, the IEA's initial role was to co-ordinate measures in times of oil supply emergencies. As energy markets have changed, so has the IEA. Its mandate has broadened to incorporate the Three E's of balanced energy policy making energy security, economic development and environmental protection. Current work focuses on climate change policies, market reform, energy technology collaboration and outreach to the rest of the world, especially major consumers and producers of energy like China, India, Russia and the OPEC countries.

Wither United States Leadership

In addition to Inhofe, vocal dissenters include Senators Larry Craig of Idaho, Kit Bond of Missouri and David McIntosh of Indiana who have raised concerns about efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions. For instance, during President Bush's first year in office, the Energy Information Administration housed within the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared a report at the request of Representative McIntosh who opposed mandatory cuts in greenhouse gas emissions that, in effect, ignored the findings of the DOE's much more thorough report, Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future,'' as well as input from independent reviewers and analysts at the Environmental Protection Agency'' (Hawkins 2001). Two years later, responding to the Senate's rejection of the McCain-Lieberman legislation that required industrial plants to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, Senator Craig publicly opposed a massive new regulatory process'' because he opposed the idea that carbon dioxide is a pollutant and therefore it...

Residential and Commercial Improving Building Operating Efficiency through Building Shell Improvements

Building shell improvements combined with on-site power generation using renewable energy sources (primarily wind, solar, or biomass), when designed as a system, can result in buildings that require no energy from external sources ( net-zero buildings ), and can even lead to a net generation of electricity as on-site demand and production allows. The environmental impacts of the specific technologies have been described above. Net-zero buildings are sometimes considered to be sustainable, although additional evaluations of broader environmental impacts are needed to determine the sustainability of net-zero or energy-producing buildings 133 .

Fuel vs Food and other Misbalances

Ecological sustainable production and consumption often conflict with other ethical imperatives. Philosophers refer to such situations where two (or more) actions that are both morally imperative (or forbidden) cannot be realized simultaneously -46 - A paradigm of such a situation provides the use of biomass as a substitute for fossil resources. The required land area competes with agriculturally used land. The tortilla crisis gave some insight into this steeply growing potential for conflict - growing, as due to depletion the price of fossil resources rises, caused by a steep increase of world population. This growth, the increasing standard of living and the growing demand for energy supply based on renewable sources will lead to a bottleneck of land area in the future. To widen the area for cultivation, the use of marine-based feedstock is another option. For example, given the same solar irradiation algae can yield up to ten times more than typical land crops, since algae are able...

Reporting and Documentation

W., DeWolf, S. and Beaucarne, G. (2004). Dry Etching and Texturing Processes for Cystalline Silicon Solar Cells Sustainability for Mass Production , presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 2004. Alsema, E. A., Bauman, A. E., Hill, R. and Patterson, M. H. (1997) Health, Safety and Environmental Issues in Thin Film Manufacturing , 14th European PV Solar Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain. 1997. IEA (2004). 'Trends in Photovoltaic Applications Survey report of selected IEA Countries between 1992 -2003', Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS), International Energy Agency, Report IEA-PVPS T1-13 2004, September 2004. Maycock, P. (2005) PV market update global PV production continues to increase , Renewable Energy World, Vol. 8 (4), pp 86-99. Rentsch, J., Schetter C., Schlemm H., Roth, K. and Preu, R. (2005). Industrialization of Dry Phosphorous Silicate Glass Etching and Edge Isolation for Crystalline Silicon Solar...

Thermohaline Circulation and Climate

Variations in formation and circulation of ocean water may cause some of the thousands of years to decadal scale variations in climate. Cold water forms in the Arctic and Weddell seas. This cold, salty water is denser than other water in the ocean, so it sinks to the bottom and gets ponded behind seafloor topographic ridges, periodically spilling over into other parts of the oceans. The formation and redistribution of North Atlantic cold bottom water accounts for about 30 percent of the solar energy budget input to the Arctic ocean every year. Eventually this cold bottom water works its way to the Indian and Pacific oceans, where it upwells, gets heated, and returns to the North Atlantic. Thermohaline circulation is the vertical mixing of seawater driven by density differences caused by variations in temperature and salinity. Variations in temperature and salinity are found in waters that occupy different ocean basins and those found at different levels in the water column. When the...

Table 41 Alternatives to Fossil Fuels for Heating and Cooling

Geothermal energy is used for everything from space heating and cooling to warming greenhouses and melting snow on roads and bridges. In France, Iceland, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, the United States, and other countries with high-temperature resources, geothermal heat is used for electricity generation, district heat, and industrial processes like pulp and paper production. Ground-source heat pumps, which can be used virtually anywhere, use the stored solar energy of Earth or well water as a heat sink in summer and heat source in winter. The United States has the world's largest heat pump market, with up to 60,000 systems installed annually.40 Lake Ontario provide district cooling to Toronto in Canada the system has the capacity to cool more than 3.2 million square meters of building space, avoiding 79,000 tons of CO2 annually. Many of the world's big cities are near large water bodies, which they could tap for cooling. And as paradoxical as it might seem, solar energy can...

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Operating revenue that could be generated from chemical separation or physical chemical separation processes for recycling Ni MH batteries was compared to a pyrometallurgical process in a report prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a DOE facility located in Golden, Colorado 34 , The pyrometallurgical process has similarities to the process operated by INMETCO. Revenues (or costs) were estimated for both AB2 and AB5 hydride alloy battery designs. Other general assumptions in the cost calculations were that the plant was sited in California and was processing 30,000 metric tons of EV batteries annually. The chemical process is based on an acid leach of the battery materials, followed by

Arctic Life Light Heat Cold and Moisture

In the Arctic, sunlight is available continually for periods of several months and then absent in intervening long periods till the sun rises again above the horizon. Even though annually there is more or less as much solar energy received on a surface in the Arctic as anywhere else, the amount of heat absorbed is much less, since the high albedo (reflectivity) of snow and ice results in less of the solar energy being absorbed. With certain exceptions, such as thermal springs and burning coal cliffs, Arctic winters freeze the terrestrial landscape, most ponds freezing solid, and only deeper ponds and lakes remaining liquid beneath thick ice. Much of the ocean surface also freezes, but the cold water below is no colder than waters well south of the Arctic. The lack of light prevents algal photosynthesis in fresh and ocean waters in winter, and cold prevents it on land even when light becomes available after the long winter night ends.

In Situ Subsurface Volatilization And Ventilation Combined Saturated Zone Sparging And In Situ Vadose Zone Vapor

To enhance vaporization, solar panels are occasionally used to heat the injected compressed air. Additional valves for limiting or increasing air flow and pressure are placed on individual reactor nest lines (radials) or, at some sites, on individual well points. Depending on groundwater depths and fluctuations, horizontal vacuum screens, stubbed screens, or multiple-depth completions can be applied. The system is dynamic positive and negative air flow can be shifted to different locations at the site to place the most remediation stress on the areas requiring it. Negative pressure is maintained at a suitable level to prevent the escape of vapors.

Electronics Industry Emissions 61 Introduction

Several advanced electronics manufacturing processes utilise fluorinated compounds (FCs) for plasma etching intricate patterns, cleaning reactor chambers, and temperature control. The specific electronic industry sectors discussed in this chapter include semiconductor, thin-film-transistor flat panel display (TFT-FPD), and photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing (collectively termed 'electronics industry').1

Analysis of conventional technologies for treatment of food processing wastewater

Treatment Abattoir Wastewater

Special features are the separation of biogas in two stages and the internal circulation driven by the produced gas. UASB reactors are widely applied in the treatment of food processing wastewaters because of their capacity to remove BOD and COD at high levels and to recover methane, a renewable energy source that can be directly reused in the food processing plant. Table 21.5 shows the removal efficiency for BOD and COD from food processing wastewaters. As these are characterised by high levels of easily biodegradable soluble organic compounds, efficiencies are very high, generally 90 .

The current renewables boom

In an absolute sense, the world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, which currently provide over 80 per cent of the energy on which global society depends. However, the annual growth rates of various energy sources show that change is on the way (see Figure 19.1). Since 2001, the growth rates of the solar photovoltaic (30 per cent), wind (26 per cent) and biofuel (17 per cent) sectors have been much larger than for the traditional sectors of coal (4.4 per cent), oil (1.6 per cent), natural gas (2.5 per cent) and even nuclear (1.1 per cent). This trend is characteristic of a new dynamic, namely the growing role that renewable energy sources are playing globally and in the US. Many of the new technologies that harness renewables are, or soon will be, economically competitive with fossil fuels. Although renewable energy currently provides only about 6 per cent of total US energy, there are compelling reasons to put these technologies to Figure 19.2 Global investment in renewable energy...

The Green Sahara Of The Past

Sahara Holoc

Why was the Sahara once so moist, and why did it dry out Bearing in mind the modeling evidence showing that the present-day desert climate is very sensitive to changes in conditions, climate-vcgctation scientists took on the challenge of modeling the past of the Sahara. From the models, it seems that there were several factors at work in producing this moist phase. The major one. giving most of the difference in rainfall, is the amount of sunlight the region gets in summer and does not itself depend on vegetation cover. Because of an asymmetry in the earth's orbit, there is a regular cycle of about 21.000 years in the amount of solar energy the northern hemisphere gets in summer and in winter. So, every 21,000 years there is a peak of summer input of radiation over North Africa the sun is 7 stronger at this time than during summers at the opposite point in the cycle. Climate models show that this increased summer radiation is enough to alter the monsoon How in the northern hemisphere....

Sunspots Flares And The Solar Cycle

The Sun produces a steady stream of electromagnetic radiation from the photosphere, essentially unchanging with time. Superimposed on this steady, quiet process are several dynamic, active, or changing events and cycles that show the Sun also has some unpredictable and explosive behavioral traits. These features are not significant in terms of total solar energy output but do influence the electromagnetic radiation received on Earth. They include sunspots, solar flares, magnetic storms, the solar cycle, and changes in the solar corona.

What Deforestation Does To Climate Within A Region

Closed Eyes Clipart

What will happen if a forest is removed and replaced with much more open vegetation, such as grassland or fields of crops In a general way, there will be two competing effects on local climate. First, albedo will be greater over the more open grassland or cropland with patches of lighter soil between the leaves. This will tend to cool down the surface because solar energy is reflected straight back to space. However, the smoother surface of a grassland or crop cover and the smaller total amount of leaf cover will tend to decrease evaporation of water. As mentioned above, roughness increases evaporation transpiration, and more leaves mean more surface area to evaporate water from, so decreasing these will decrease evaporation. This decrease tends to raise the local temperature because there isn't as much latent heat of evaporation being taken up.

Absorption of Radiation by Phytoplankton in the Upper Ocean

The effect of the absorption of solar energy by phytoplankton on upper-ocean thermal properties has been the subject of research for the past 20 years. While absorption of solar energy is dominated by absorption from seawater itself in many open ocean regions, the variability in the absorption and distribution of solar energy into the upper layers of the open ocean is controlled primarily by phytoplankton pigment concentrations (Platt, 1969 Smith and Baker, 1978). Lewis et al. (1983) were the first to demonstrate that nonuniform vertical distributions of phytoplankton pigments cause variations in local heating, and, under certain vertical chlorophyll profile conditions, could support the development of a thermal instability within the water column. Initial attempts (Paulson and Simpson, 1977) at addressing the effects of varying water quality types as described by Jerlov (1968) on the attenuation of irradiance in the ocean lead to a simple parameterization that characterizes...

The Future of Anaerobic Granulation

The anaerobic granulation system has been known for its unique ability to convert highly objectionable wastes into useful products. With global concerns over energy shortages and greenhouse gas formation through combustion of fossil fuels, more efforts towards renewable energy supplies is clearly needed. Greater efforts are now needed for broader applications of anaerobic granulation system for ridding the environment of unwanted organic materials by converting them into methane, a renewable energy source. The anaerobic granulation process leading towards efficient methane production from wastewaters clearly fits this need. Research towards even broader application is clearly of importance. Problems that need addressing are process reliability, toxicity causes and effects, odor production and control, and better understanding of refractory organic degradation.

Carbonless Energy Carriers

Electricity is the highest quality energy carrier, increasingly dominant throughout the world's energy infrastructure. Ultimately electricity use can expand to efficiently meet virtually all stationary energy applications, eliminating stationary end-use carbon emissions. This approach is unlikely to work in transportation, however, due to the high cost and low energy density of electricity storage. Chemical energy carriers, such as hydrogen, can more effectively serve transportation fuel and energy storage applications, offering much higher energy density at lower cost. Electrolytic hydrogen, extracted from steam with renewable energy, stored as a high pressure gas or cryogenic liquid, and reconverted to Renewable and fossil approaches may ultimately turn out to be complementary. Use of renewable sources would limit the sequestration burden to modest quantities using the most cost effective methods and reliable disposal sites. Previous analyses have concluded renewable electricity...

Distribution of incident solar radiation

It will help to first consider an airless planet, so that we don't at once have to deal with the possible effects of scattering of the solar beam by the atmosphere. If our planet is far from its Sun, as compared to the radius of the Sun, the sunlight encountering the planet comes in as a beam of parallel rays with flux L. Even if the surface of the planet is perfectly absorbing, the sunlight the planet intercepts is not spread uniformly over its surface per unit area, parts of the planet where the sun is directly overhead receive a great deal of energy, whereas parts where the Sun grazes the surface at a shallow angle receive little, because the small amount of sunlight intercepted is spread over a comparatively large area, as shown in Figure 7.3. The night side of the planet, of course, receives no solar energy at all. To obtain a general expression for the distribution of incident solar radiation per unit of surface area, we may divide up the surface of the planet into a great many...

An Overview of Satellite Measured Cloud Layer Structure and Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties

Clouds are the ever-changing features in the Earth's atmosphere as seen from space. They not only act as sources and sinks of the global water cycle, but also dominate the solar energy flows into the climate system while at the same time redistributing the diabatic heating in the system (Webster and Stephens, 1984 Stephens et al., 2002). Current modeling activities in accurately capturing the change of clouds due to climate warming have been slow. Little progress has been made in studying cloud feedbacks, as discussed in a critical review by Stephens (2005). As clouds can redistribute the energy and water in the climate system, even a small disturbance within them can have a large impact on the Earth's climate.

Alternative Energy Ethanol

With increasing uncertainty in the global fuel market, the search for gasoline substitutes is becoming more and more important. One viable option is using ethanol as an alternative fuel, unlike fossil fuels, it is a renewable energy source. There are many chemical compounds that make up ethanol the molecules contain a hydroxyl group, and are bonded to a Carbon atom. Ethanol that is made from cellulosic biomass instead of the usual starch crops is known as Bioetha-nol. Ethanol is in a liquid state, and is clear and colorless. As a diluted aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions, it has a burning taste.

Planetary Emission Temperature

Hoechst 33342 Wavelength

The Earth receives almost all of its energy from the Sun. At the present time in its evolution the Sun emits energy at a rate of Q 3.87 x 1026 W. The flux of solar energy at the Earth, called the solar constant, depends on the distance of the Earth from the Sun, r, and is given by the inverse square law, So Q 4nr2. Of course, because of variations in the Earth's orbit (see Sections 5.1.1 and 12.3.5) the solar constant is not really constant the terrestrial value

Networks For Climate Change

Partnerships have also been the preferred way of trying to encourage the uptake of renewable options that will be critical to the achievement of climate capitalism. Initially pushed by the German government, the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership is an international public-private partnership set up in 2002 and funded by governments, businesses and development banks. It is aimed at the development of market conditions that foster sustainable energy and energy efficiency and works to structure policy and regulatory initiatives for clean energy. Partnership can also be a euphemism for voluntary regulation, however. Proposed as an alternative to Kyoto - critics suggest it was designed to derail Kyoto - the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is a public-private partnership that brings together the governments and private sectors of countries that collectively account for more than half the world's economy, population and energy use including...

US Response to Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol

The Bush administration has proposed a voluntary program of reducing GHG intensity by 18 in the next 10 years (U.S. Department of State, 2002). GHG intensity is defined as the ratio of GHG emissions to economic output. The administration proposes to lower the current GHG intensity of 183 metric tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE) per million dollars of GDP to 151 MTCE per million dollars by 2012 through voluntary and incentive-based measures. A key component of the administration's proposal is the creation of tax incentives for the development of renewable energy, hybrid and fuel cell-powered vehicles, co-generation and landfill gas, and other new technologies. In response to this proposal, some businesses have developed their own voluntary initiatives to reduce GHG emissions (White House, 2003).

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