Do It Yourself Solar Energy

Smart Solar Box Home Energy System

Smart Solar Box Home Energy System helps you transition to an eco-friendly home. This video course will help you learn how you can make use of abandoned batteries in your garage to create a solar energy source that lasts longer than the current ones in the market and help you save 68% of your current energy bill. The video course was put together by Ryan Tanner who stumbled on his father's work during a monstrous Wisconsin blizzard. The video course will show you the tools you need, the methods you can use to produce more AC, and how to set up a completely solar-powered home. Read more...

Smart Solar Box Home Energy System Summary

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Solar Energy and the Environment

The attributes of solar energy technologies (e.g., modularity, flexibility, low operating costs) differ considerably from those for traditional, fossil fuel-based energy technologies. Solar energy technologies can provide cost-effective and environmentally beneficial alternatives to conventional power systems. Some of the benefits that make solar energy systems attractive follow (e.g., Dincer, 2000 and McGowan, 1990) They cannot be depleted. If used appropriately, solar energy resources are reliable and sustainable. Solar energy resources do have some characteristics that lead to problems, but they are often solvable technical and economic challenges generally diffuse, not fully accessible, sometimes intermittent, and regionally variable. The potential for overall benefits is often overlooked for solar energy technologies. They are often assessed as less cost-effective than traditional technology however, as commented by Dincer and Rosen (2005) comprehensive assessments show many more...

Renewable energy policy and climate policy interactions

This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even when CO2 emissions are appropriately priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate-change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals that both CO2 prices and the measures to deploy renewable electricity create wealth transfers between electric utilities and their customers, although in opposite directions. This may be important when considering the political economy of the interactions between CO2 pricing and renewable energy support in the future.

A sustainable energy governance example coordinating renewable energy expansion

Governance complexities soon become apparent even if we simplify to a supply-side example like renewable energy. Widespread renewable energy systems pose a considerable policy challenge. The policy 'object' - viable renewable energy systems - brings with it many coordination challenges. There are various renewable energy technologies to choose from (wind, solar, biomass, marine, and others), each of which can be configured at various scales in different ways, and each of which is already developed to various degrees. The innovation and deployment of renewable energy technologies involves a mix of established energy utilities and new business models and firms. Renewable energy projects like wind farms can involve large and protracted planning processes. Other projects involve smaller planning applications, but these can prove just as protracted and debilitating for the applicant (such as those for solar water heating panels in UK conservation areas). Both make demands upon the existing...

Integration of Renewable Energy

The rapid deployment of renewable energy technologies and their larger deployment in the near future, raise challenges and opportunities regarding their integration into energy supply systems. Energy systems aim at meeting the demands for a broad range of services (such as household and industry needs, transportation and storage). Energy systems include an energy supply sector and the end-use technology to provide the aforementioned energy services. In the EU and other industrialised countries, the existing energy supply system is mainly composed of large power units, mostly fossil fuelled and centrally controlled, with average capacities of hundreds of MW. Renewable energy sources are geographically widely distributed and if embedded in distribution networks are often closer to the customers. Locating renewable and distributed generators downstream in the distribution network is known as distributed generation. placing the concept of economy of scale for large units by economy of...

Prospects for Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

The second-generation of renewables has been commercially deployed, usually with incentives in place intended to ensure further cost reductions through increased scale and market learning. Offshore wind power, advanced biomass, solar PV and concentrating solar power technologies are being deployed now. All have benefited from R& D investments by IEA countries, mainly the 1980s. Markets for these technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. Some of the technologies are already fully competitive in favorable circumstances, but for others, and for more general deployment, further cost reductions are needed. The challenge is to continue to reduce costs and broaden the market base to ensure continued rapid market growth worldwide. Third-generation renewables, such as advanced biomass gasification, hot dry-rock geothermal power, and ocean energy, are not yet widely demonstrated or commercialized. They are on the horizon and may have estimated high potential...

Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many proven technologies available to produce renewable energy, and some new technologies are under development. One of the most promising renewable energy technologies for electricity generation is wind energy that uses airflows to run wind turbines. In good wind regimes, cost-wise, wind power is comparable to fossil alternatives, particularly when economic or environmental concerns are considered. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 KW to 5 MW of rated power. Most common wind turbines for commercial use are of a rated capacity of 1.5-3 MW. Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy in the world. Since 1993, it is growing on average 30 percent a year. Windmills typically run at 2535 percent of their capacity over the course of a year. light directly into electricity. Photovoltaic power is also widely viewed as cost competitive, like wind power. As energy from the Sun is free and the cost of the photovoltaic cells is dropping, a solar energy boom is likely in...

Characteristics of Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many renewable energy technologies. This chapter does not provide a basic summary description of each of the technologies themselves. Such information can be found in Cassedy (2000), Johansson et al. (1993), and on the Internet at www.eren.doe.gov 80 . We will focus here on the characteristics of the technologies that relate to their potential to address climate change. This includes summarizing their cost and performance, looking at the breadth of technologies and applications, and reviewing the size and characteristics of the renewable resources.

Cost of renewable energy

Some forms of renewable energy, like hydroelectricity and biomass, have been cost-competitive for many years in certain applications and provide a substantial energy supply worldwide. Others, like passive solar building design, are cost competitive, but haven't yet overcome all the market factors that currently preclude their widespread use. Technologies like wind and geothermal are currently cost competitive at their best resource sites, but need further improvements and support to reach their full market potential. A few, like photovoltaics, have identified niche off-grid electric markets that the industry is building to the point where it can competitively address retail power markets. Still others, like ethanol from biomass, are evolving both in the laboratory and the marketplace to the point where they will be competitive without price supports. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the general renewable energy technologies and their economics. In reality, there are a large variety of...

Concentrating Solar Power 581 Technology Description and Status

There are three types of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology trough, parabolic-dish and power tower.9 Trough and power tower technologies apply primarily to large, central power generation systems, although trough technology can also be used in smaller systems for heating and cooling and for power generation. The systems use either thermal storage or back-up fuels to offset solar intermittency and thus to increase the commercial value of the energy produced. The conversion path of concentrating solar power technologies relies on four basic elements concentrator, receiver, and transport-storage and power conversion. The concentrator captures and concentrates solar radiation, which is then delivered to the receiver. The receiver absorbs the concentrated sunlight, transferring its heat to a working fluid. The transport-storage system passes the fluid from the receiver to the power-conversion system in some solar-thermal plants a portion of the thermal energy is stored for later...

Energy Efficiency and Clean Energy as New Hitech Markets

Energy efficiency and clean energy may provide an opportunity to participate and create a new market. Patrick Mazza from Climate Solutions, an advocacy group, suggests that 'Clean energy generation and end-use efficiency represent a USD 3.5 trillion market over the coming 20 years, even with no new public priority'.26 There will be plenty of business opportunities in resource efficiency and productivity in the energy, water, agriculture, transportation and forest product industries. Examples of these opportunities include fuel cells, enzyme-based water treatment systems, precision farming technologies and bio-based fuels and speciality chemicals. It is estimated that the combined value of the resource productivity and efficiency market of these industries exceeds USD 60 billion and is growing rapidly.

Renewable energy prospects

Out of this total, biomass and waste accounted for 1186 Mtoe and hydraulic power 261 Mtoe. These two energy sources, which make the largest contribution to the renewable energy balance, have already been used for many years. The main development hopes concern wind and solar power, which still only represent a minor proportion of energy production (respectively, 0.34 and 0.09Mtoe in France in 2007). The disadvantage with these

The promise of solar energy

Solar energy is the main renewable energy resource throughout the world. Other renewable energy sources, e.g. biomass energy and wind energy, are derived directly from it. It is an abundant energy source. Our planet receives from the sun the equivalent of 15 000 times the energy consumed in the world, but this energy is diffuse and intermittent. Solar energy can be captured as either heat or electricity using the photovoltaic effect. There is considerable scope for the development of low-temperature thermal solar energy in the short term. Heat is supplied by solar sensors consisting of a black absorbent surface which transfers the heat to a heat exchange fluid, generally a mixture of water and glycol to prevent the possibility of freezing. A glazed surface is fitted over the absorbent surface to block the infrared radiation re-emitted. In the housing sector, thermal solar energy is used mainly to provide sanitary hot water. It may also be used to cater for a certain proportion of...

Commercializing Clean Energy Technologies

Commercialization is defined as the creation of self-sustaining markets that thrive in a level-playing field with other technologies without subsidies. Without commercial status, clean energy technologies are not only a constant drain on public finances, but they will also not benefit from the dynamism and innovation of the private economy. Private capital mobilization and commercialization are results of policy instruments such as eco-taxes and emissions markets as well as guiding principles that can affect the design of these policies.

Stimulating a Clean Energy Revolution

The 'perfect storm' of climate change, political instability in key energy regions, and high oil prices has created a demand for a new energy path. The advent of promising new technologies capable of turning abundant domestic energy sources - including solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, biomass and ocean energy - into transportation fuels, electricity and heat offer a path to an unprecedented energy revolution. Renewable energy technologies, combined with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, have the potential to rapidly and economically transform the world's energy system.

US potential for renewable energy

In contrast those in Europe, US renewable energy policies over the past two decades have been an uneven and ever-changing patchwork of regulations and subsidies. Abrupt changes in direction at both the state and federal levels have deterred investors and led dozens of companies into bankruptcy. Embracing the path of renewable energy is not only an environmental necessity, it also makes good economic sense, allowing both companies and individuals to save money, and generating high-wage jobs in a rapidly growing technological industry. Renewable resources are sometimes dismissed as serious options because it is argued their growth will be constrained by the underlying resource base. In fact, statistics show that the US has a very large resource base for wind, solar, geothermal and other renewables, and the land area required would be modest (see Figure 19.4). Recent studies show that if wind energy technology were to be fully implemented in only three states, it would generate enough...

The Role for Renewable Energy

The ideal solution to global warming would be a technological one that allows the world to switch quickly from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and geo-thermal, which emit zero or low levels of carbon dioxide. Each of these sources, however, has its limitations. According to many experts, wind power is the most promising source of clean energy. Turbines capture the energy of the wind using propeller-like blades positioned on 100-foot-high towers, and the moving blades are connected to turbines to generate electricity. Supporters say even a small wind tower could produce more than half of the electricity used by an average home, but more massive wind farms could contribute a significant share to utility grids. Denmark, for example, already generates 20 percent of its electricity from wind. Unfortunately, the wind does not blow all the time, causing a problem of intermittent and unreliable electricity generation, and many people think large wind...

Space lunar solar power systems

It is extremely difficult to gather diffuse, irregular solar power on Earth and make it available as a dependable source of commercially competitive standalone power. The challenges increase as irregular terrestrial solar power becomes a larger fraction of total regional or global commercial electric power. Research indicates that terrestrial solar may provide 5 to 17 of renewable power to conventional small power grids. Fifty percent supply of power by terrestrial solar, and wind, is conceivable. However, an increasing fraction of renewable power is limited by the higher cost of renewable sources, high costs of storage and transmission of renewable power, institutional resistance, and regulator effects (Wan and Parsons, 1993).

Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Technologies

The most common renewable energy technologies for powering water treatment systems in the past have been PV, solar thermal energy, and wind energy. This is shown in Fig. 6 for the following desalination technologies reverse osmosis (RO) including nanofiltration, multieffect distillation (MED), electrodialysis (ED), multistage flash (MSF), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC). Although, no examples of renewable energy powered water recycling schemes exist at the present time, there are plans to develop such schemes. An Australian scheme is described in a section below. Figure 6 Breakdown of renewable energy powered desalination system technologies implemented worldwide Ref. 10 . Table 1 compares all existing renewable energy powered desalination technologies, highlighting the energy consumption and disadvantages of each technology. For RO and NF systems, the major energy requirement is for pressurising the feedwater, with brackish water systems typically operating at pressures of...

Synergy Between Renewable Energy Resource And Water Supply

It is critical to recognize that there can be synergies between the availability of a renewable energy and water resources. Table 1 Comparison of all existing renewable energy powered desalination technologies A second example, in Townsville, Australia, involves the addition of a water recycling aspect to the existing Cleveland Bay Purification Plant, enabling up to 20 ML of water per day to be recycled from the main treatment plant. Currently, the treatment plant discharges the treated waters into Cleveland Bay, however, future limits on water and nutrient disposal necessitate the utility to develop a water recycling program in conjunction with private sector partners 28 . A further driver is the security of clean drinking water throughout periods of drought by reducing Townsville's raw water demand. A preliminary study indicated that both the cost and energy consumption of water recycling were about 10 lower than the only other alternative of pumping in 28 ML of water over a great...

Solar Power Generation Systems

In this section, the main kinds of established solar power systems, including small-(individual) and large-scale residential power generation are classified as shown in Figure 4.2 and analyzed in terms of their overall and component performance. A typical solar-driven heat engine system for residential power (and heat) generation consists of a solar concentrating collector that drives a heat engine (e.g., a Rankine cycle). The heat engine produces shaft work at an expander that in turn drives an electrical generator additionally, the rejected heat may serve a useful purpose (e.g., water heating). Such a system can be connected to the grid or can work independently with energy storage in various ways, as will be discussed in the next section of this chapter. Even though they are conceptually similar, large-scale solar systems differ from small-scale systems through the fact that they use a central power plant. In large systems, a field of collectors is used to capture the solar energy,...

Steam Network Optimization by Utilizing Biomass and Solar Energy Sources in an Oil Refinery

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial processes contribute significantly to global warming. A reduction in GHG emissions can only be achieved by a conversion to renewable energy sources and a simultaneous increase in energy efficiency therefore, the application of renewable energies for evaluating the site utility systems and environmental aspects should be considered. Site utility systems involve complex interactions. For improving the systems, a structured approach is needed. Steam generators are important components of site utility systems that affect the thermal performance of chemical and petrochemical industry processes. To overcome the above drawbacks, renewable energies can be integrated into plant for generating steam. Renewable energy offers important potential benefits. Solar energy as the abundant resource has a viable option for consumption that can free up larger quantities of oil. Moreover, there is growing recognition that...

The Clean Energy New Deal

We have a limited supply of fossil fuels, especially oil. Our burning of fossil fuels is destroying a livable climate. The two key questions are, first, will we voluntarily give up fossil fuels in the next couple of decades, rather than being forced to do so helter-skelter after it is too late to stop the catastrophe Second, when we do give them up, will the United States be a global leader in creating jobs and exports in clean energy technologies or will we be importing them from Europe, Japan, and the likely clean energy leader in our absence, China. For more than a quarter century, conservatives have blocked or scaled back efforts by progressives to spend more on clean energy development and deployment. As a result, while we lead the world in virtually every type of clean energy through the early 1980s, now we are playing catch up across the board, even in technologies that we invented, like the solar cell and the efficient lightbulb. At last we...

Renewable energy options for the future

Primary energy sources are those that contain energy in a form (high potential) that enables them to be converted directly to lower forms of energy that are directly usable by people. These include fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and renewable resources such as biofuels, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, solar power, tidal power, and wind power. Fossil fuels will Solar power uses solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, utilizing the most steady source of energy in the solar system. Sunlight can heat water or air in solar panels, create steam using parabolic mirrors, or be used in a more passive way, utilizing the light entering windows to heat buildings. Solar power is most efficient in places where the solar radiation is the highest. Places like the sunny desert southwestern United States are much more suited for solar power than the Pacific Northwest, which is shrouded in clouds many days of the year. Solar panels operate at different efficiencies, depending on the...

Gibbs Free Energy Minimizations

Several methods to estimate the P-T conditions of methane hydrate stability by searching for the state which minimizes the Gibbs Free Energy of the system have been developed. These programs are computationally intensive and require sophisticated computer programming. However, computer programs to carry-out these calculations are now readily available. Sloan (1990, 1998) presents a detailed description of CSMHYD, a PC-DOS based computer program. His textbook includes a floppy disk with an executable version of the program. In addition to calculations of the stability temperature at a given pressure (or vice-versa) in pure water, the program also includes a variable composition salt component to allow seawater and pore-water predictions. We refer the reader to the textbook for the details of how the program works. Output from CSMHYD is shown in figure 5 for a pure methane hydrate in equilibrium Zatsepina and Buffet (1997, 1998) present an alternate Gibbs Free Energy minimization...

Smallscale Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Filtration Plants

Membrane-driven processes account for over half the existing renewable energy powered desalination in existence. Some of the reasons for this include that they are a modular technology, easy to install, compact in size, and simple to operate. Many of these advantages are also mirrored by renewable energy microgenerators, such as PV modules. These are also modular, contain no moving parts, have a long life (> 20-year warranty) and involve low maintenance. The modularity of both of these technologies has also assisted in cost reduction being achieved via economies-of-scale. Wind turbines are also available in a wide variety of sizes (from 100 W up to MW scale) and multiple turbines can be included in a system design. Therefore, it is possible to scale a renewable energy powered membrane system to almost any size. These factors, combined with RO and NF exhibiting a very low SEC for seawater and brackish water, respectively, makes membranes an obvious choice when powering such systems...

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

The solar energy Industry Association (SEIA) is an American trade association for the solar industry, working to expand markets, strengthen and develop research, and improve education for the employment of solar energy. SEIA is affiliated with the PVNow coalition of photovoltaic companies, which aims to expand the North American-distributed, grid-connected photovoltaic market opportunities and eliminate market barriers. They are pursuing this goal through lobbying key state legislatures, utility rate-making authorities, and other state energy policymaking agencies. SEIA represents over 700 companies and 20,000 employees in the U.S. energy sector. and small businesses. SEIA chapters have up-to-date information on retailers and distributors in their area and frequently host workshops and discussion groups. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation through meaningful and appropriate incentive programs at...

Renewable Energy Potential

Although renewable energy technologies are unreliable for the world's present energy demand, the market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. Approximately 74,223 MW of power is generated from windmills worldwide. Several European countries and the United States produce the largest percentage of wind energy. Denmark is the world leader in this technology. The present worldwide manufacturing output of the photovol-taics (PV) industry is more than 2,000 MW per year. Japan, Germany, and the United States contribute 90 percent of all photovoltaic installations in the world. Solar energy use is also growing at a faster rate in developing countries, such as Kenya and India. Worldwide, approximately 8,000 MW capacity of geothermal power plants are in operation. A 750 MW geothermal power plant, The Geysers in California, is the largest in the world. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world. It produces ethanol (biofuel) from sugarcane, contributing 18...

Renewable Energy In The World Today

Solar Energy Locations

Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation (GWth) and bio-fuel production (units GL year) 4 . Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation (GWth) and bio-fuel production (units GL year) 4 . generation 3 . Fig. 1 below shows the world renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008 4 . From Fig. 1, it can be seen that wind power has an installed capacity of 121 MW worldwide. The wind industry this is growing at annual rate of 30 , with widespread use in Europe and the USA 4 . The annual manufacturing output of the photovoltaics (PV) industry reached a record 6.9 GW in 2008, bringing the installed capacity to 13 MW with the largest solar farms'' operating Germany, Spain, and Portugal. Several large solar thermal power plants operate in USA and Spain with the largest of these being the 354 MW SEGS...

International solar Energy society IsEs

THE INTERNATIoNAL soLAR Energy Society is an international nonprofit, nongovernmental organization with a focus on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies. The society has 30,000 members globally from industry, research, and government there are national sections in 54 countries. The following goals are stated in the society's mandate to encourage the use and acceptance of renewable energy technologies to realize a global community of industry, individuals, and institutions in support of renewable energy to create international structures to facilitate cooperation and exchange to create and distribute publications for various target groups to support the dissemination of renewable energy technologies to bring together industry, science, and politics in workshops, conferences, and summits on renewable energy, and to advise governments and organizations in policy, implementation, and sustainability of renewable energy activities world-wide. The motto of the ISES...

Renewable Energy A Definition

It is clear therefore, that in due time renewable energies1 will dominate the world's energy supply system, due to their inherent advantages such as mitigation of climate change, generation of employment and reduction of poverty, as well as increased energy security and supply. Renewable energy technologies are well suited to respond to the limitations of current energy patterns and contribute to the further modernisation of the energy sector. increasing energy needs, thereby ensuring a sustainable security of supply. Furthermore, renewable energy sources can help improve the competitiveness of industries and have a positive impact on regional development and employment. Renewable energy technologies are suitable for off-grid services, serving those in remote areas of the world without having to build or extend expensive and complicated grid infrastructure. The earth receives solar energy as radiation from the sun, in a quantity far exceeding mankind's use. By heating the planet, the...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with states and firms to help them develop their renewable portfolio. The organization also provides expert information to consumers to improve energy efficiency and guide their transition to alternative energy options. To promote sales of renewable energy products and services, REPP created a buyer's guide and consumer directory for approximately 5,000 businesses. REPP was initiated with support from the Energy Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy. While financial support is determined on an...

Renewable Energy Sources As An Alternative To Nuclear Power

New Nuclear Construction Global Picture

Building and commissioning massive, complex nuclear plants requires huge government subsidies. Contrast this with wind or solar energy that are distributed and less dense supplies of energy. The amount of solar panels produced on an annual basis is equivalent to the construction of two nuclear facilities. The renewable solar approach seems simpler and safer, and not one requiring subsidies. Such sound Renewable energy is everywhere, easy to tap, cheap to harness, and above all, human and climate friendly. It has the added bonus of feeding surplus electricity back into the electric grid. Nuclear power, however, provides tough competition with its powerful lobby claiming it is the best carbon displacer. A 2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology study revealed that people concerned about global warming are neutral on the role of nuclear as either a solution or a problem in the climate crisis debate. What is not highlighted for the public is that for every 1,000 spent on nuclear...

Passive Solar Energy

Also, solar energy can be put into use by incorporating appropriate designs in buildings to maximize utilization of solar energy for various purposes such as lighting, air conditioning, and water and space heating cooling and thereby reduce external energy inputs. PV cells require high exposure to direct sunlight. To assure maximum exposure to the sun throughout the day, a phyrheliom-eter is used to calculate how much sun exposure a location experiences. This information is useful in determining whether or not a specific location is suitable for solar energy, as well as what direction the cells should face. In many cases, these cells are placed on rooftops.

Renewable energy

For centuries people have been harnessing the energy of wind and flowing water to power windmills and watermills. This technology has now been updated to drive electricity generators. Solar energy and even volcanic heat can also be turned into electricity. Such energy sources are described as renewable because they never run out. They may not be able to provide all our energy needs, but most of them do not release any of the greenhouse gases that are causing climate change.

Solar energy

Solar energy refers to both electricity and thermal energy that is harnessed from the sun. Solar thermal energy can be harnessed either passively where no moving parts are required such as for passive solar building design or actively for a wide range ofapplications, including domestic hot water and space heating via solar thermal collectors. Direct current (DC) electricity can be generated directly from sunlight using photovoltaic (PV) or solar cells that contain no moving parts. In addition, photoelectrochem-ical cells can also be used to generate solar hydrogen, and while this offers interesting potential for energy storage, it is neither a mature nor widespread technology and will therefore not be mentioned further in this chapter.

Free Energy

Will a certain food provide energy when utilized by microorganisms If the answer is yes, then the food will be eaten and if it is in a wastewater, the wastewater will be cleaned up. The answer to this question can now be quantified by the combination of the concept of enthalpy and entropy. This combination is summed up in a term called free energy. Free energy G is defined as energy (represented by S) has been subtracted from the energy content. Thus, the term free energy. Biological processes are carried out at a given constant temperature as well as constant pressure. Thus, differentiating the free-energy equation at constant temperature, Note In order for G to be a maximum (i.e., to be a free energy), Q must be the Qrev as depicted in the equation.

Electricity Generation from Renewables

There are many conventional and non-conventional ways by which electricity can be produced. One of the conventional ways is to produce electricity by using fossil fuels. Coal-based power plants are the mostly used method to produce electricity. They are also referred to as thermal power plants. Though the energy produced by a thermal power plant is more economical as compared to non-conventional sources, it also causes greenhouse gas emission at a higher rate and hence called dirty. On the contrary the photovoltaic system causes no harm to the environment as it uses solar energy which is also called clean energy but the electricity produced by it is not economical as the photovoltaic material used to produce solar cells are costly and for off sunshine period the energy needs to be stored in a storage device like battery. In this section we will discuss both the non-conventional and conventional sources for electricity generation. The solar energy can be utilized either to convert the...

Necessary Policy Measures at the International Level

To make a significant increase in the share of renewable energy-to-energy supply become reality, advanced policy measures have to be adopted globally. Governments from all over the world need to implement necessary minimum policy measures to guarantee the further deployment of renewable energy technologies and additional commitments on the international level have to be made. The states that are currently actively promoting renewable energy sources should set up legally binding targets for renewable energy sources in their governing areas. The mandatory targets can also be complemented by financial incentives in the respective countries. This too would be an effective policy to address security of supply, technology development, employment and climate objectives. In the current development policy, the developing countries' governments put little emphasis on RES. One of the main aims should be to create sustainable development in developing countries (access to energy in order to fight...

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment

The cost of CO2 gas mitigation using renewable energy technologies depends on both the difference between the generation costs of the renewable energy systems and the costs of conventional energy generation and the carbon emissions that are displaced by the renewable energy generation. The mitigation costs are usually expressed in units of the cost per unit fossil carbon emissions that are avoided.

Dr Peter Mombaur Beiten Burkhardt Belgium

Therefore, I would like to introduce a very interesting report concerning solar power for the Mediterranean region. This study was made in April 2005 by the German Aerospace Center Institute of Technical Thermodynamics with contributions of researchers from Jordan, Morocco, Egypt, Oman, Bahrain and Algeria. A summary of their report is as follows 1- In the MENA region economic and social development is the first priority. 2-Although climate change is a serious concern, sustainability must also be achieved in terms of economy, affordability, technology, health and social compatibility. A strategy for power and water security must match the time horizon of all sustainability considerations, which is 50 to 100 years and more. 3- By 2050, fossil fired plants will only be used for what they are best suited for peaking demand. Because of this reduction to their key function their use will become environmentally compatible, and their availability will be prolonged for centuries. The...

Questions and Comments

Von Goerne We should have fixed taxes for specific purposes. If taxes on petroleum products are not uniform, then people would drive across the border to get the cheaper fuel, as happens now in some European states. Also some European taxes on gasoline go into the treasuries of retirement funds instead of renewable energy.

Conclusion Of Report On Solar Parabolic Collector

This chapter presents a review and analysis of solar-driven heat engines for power generation with relevance to residential applications. The impact of solar systems on sustainable development is quantified based on fossil fuel vs solar energy utilization factors predicted over the next decades and by sustainability factor as introduced also in other works, e.g., by Dincer and Rosen (2005). The established large-scale and small-scale systems are presented and analyzed based on their The optimization of the solar-driven heat engine is important for obtaining a low-levelized electricity cost and augmented CO2 mitigation through solar power generation. With this fact in mind we developed here a model for a solar heat engine and optimization and identified the important optimization parameters which are the quality of the optical system expressed in terms of angular error S, the concentration ratio C, the rim angle (, the collector temperature corroborated with the insolation, as...

Parabolic Solar Dish System

Receiver Dish Solar

In what follows, we illustrate the benefits of solar power generation on sustain-ability, on reducing greenhouse gas emission and on reducing global warming by a case study. The study refers to a residential (single) unit for solar power conversion based on a paraboloidal mirror that is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The solar dish concentrates the insolation on a glazed tube receiver that plays the role of desorber for an ammonia-water Rankine cycle. For expansion and work production, a scroll machine is capable of operating in a two-phase regime. The rejected heat of the The first step in solar energy system modeling and its design calculations is to determine the solar collector geometry and characteristics for maximum performance. This, in fact, is to maximize the collector efficiency. The derivation of the collector's efficiency results from the energy balance stating In Eq. (4.4), the intercept factor y JZpTa which represents the ratio between solar energy flux absorbed by the...

System Description and Control Strategy

Solar Absorption Chiller Schematic

A schematic diagram of the system studied is represented in Fig. 28.1. The system consists of a solar collector, a storage tank, an absorption chiller, heat exchanger, and auxiliary units. The system operates in four different modes. When solar energy is available for collection and there is a load demand, heat is supplied directly from the collector to the heating or cooling unit. When solar energy is available for collection and there is no heat or cooling demand, heat is stored in the storage unit. On the other hand, if solar energy is not available for collection and there is a load demand, storage then supplies heat to the heating or cooling

Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea

Energy consumption causes a range of environmental pollution. Furthermore, with the increase in energy demand, the issue of energy shortage becomes increasingly serious. Since there is more and more concern on energy conservation and environmental protection, interest has been increasingly focused on the use of renewable energy. This is considered as a key source for the future, not only for South Korea but also for the world (Ulgen and Hepbasli, 2002). Especially, solar energy as a clean energy source and one kind of renewable energy is abundant in South Korea. Therefore, the precise measurement of the local solar radiation is required. Also, the solar radiation data are a fundamental input for solar energy applications such as photovoltaics, solar thermal systems, and passive solar design. The data should be contemporary, reliable, and readily available for design, optimization, and performance evaluation of solar technologies for any particular geographical location (Bulut and...

Results and Discussion

Solar Radiation Variability

The thermal performance of a solar system is usually measured by the solar fraction (F). Solar fraction is defined as the fraction of load met by solar energy. Figure 28.3 shows the variation of the solar fraction of space heating (Fs), domestic water heating (FD), and cooling load (FAc) as well as the total solar fraction (Ft) with collector area. As seen from the figure, a significant portion of the solar fraction for space heating and domestic water heating is satisfied at areas around 38 m2. Conversely, the space cooling requires much greater areas. The variation of total solar fraction, life cycle savings, and overall system efficiency (ratio of solar energy provided to the total incident radiation) with collector area is presented in Fig. 28.4. This typical figure shows the choice of optimum collector area which is approximately equal to 38 m2 in this case. It is The present results should encourage governments for wide installation of solar heating and cooling systems in...

Mr Ramiro Ramirez Environmental Policy Analyst OPEC

What we can foresee of this new carbon constrained world is the creation of new markets one for renewable energy technology and the other for carbon emission permits. However, none of these address the concerns of developing nations because they have nothing to gain from such a market at least in the way they are conceived today.

Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic is a novel technology that helps reduce the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere as it uses solar energy which is free from pollutions. Solar energy can be utilized into two ways The photovoltaic applications can be beneficial wherever the electrical energy is needed. The photovoltaic technology has always had an upper edge on other technologies as it is pollution free and it uses solar energy that is freely and immensely available. Here, in this section, we are discussing various photovoltaic applications based on their performance in terms of efficiency. Another application of the PV technology is to use the PV panels on the rooftop of cars to harvest the solar energy and utilize the electricity produced to charge the batteries which further runs an electrical motor to power the car (Gaddy, 2003). This technology is still under development and can result in future generation automobiles. The street lights, traffic signals, solar lanterns, calculators, watches, dc...

Case Study

An example of solar technology is adopted to demonstrate the link between sus-tainability and efficiency. An effective way to maintain a good electrical efficiency by removing heat from the solar panels and to have a better overall efficiency of a photovoltaic system is to utilize both the technologies simultaneously. This kind of system is known as hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV T) system and can be beneficial for low-temperature thermal applications like water heating, air heating, agricultural crop drying, solar greenhouses, space heating, etc., along with electricity generation that can further be beneficial for rural electrification and agricultural applications like solar water pumping, etc. In this case study we are giving a simple demonstration on how both the technologies together give better efficiency which directly relates to better sustainability. Based on the first law of thermodynamics, the energy efficiency of a PV T system can be defined as a ratio of total energy...

Public Perception

Recognition of the need for major CO2 emission reductions. It also depends upon CCS being seen as one part of a wider strategy for achieving significant cuts in CO2 emissions. A portfolio including renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency and lifestyle change to reduce demand, was generally favoured. CCS can be part of such a portfolio but wind, wave, tidal, solar and energy efficiency were generally preferred as options. As a stand alone option, it was felt that CCS might delay more far-reaching and necessary long-term changes in society's use of energy. The notion of CCS as a bridging strategy to a hydrogen-based energy system was welcomed.

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear fission is one of the few large-scale carbon-free energy sources and currently provides 7 of global primary energy (17 of electricity) without any CO2 waste. Its costs are now well known and are unaffected The accident at Chernobyl raised around the world the fear that nuclear power was not safe enough to use and made the licensing process much more difficult and uncertain. Fully amortized, operating nuclear plants remain very competitive and have built a good safety record since, so that even countries that had decided to abandon nuclear power have not closed these. Indeed, in many cases life extension is being pursued, but orders for new plants have dried up. If gas prices were to remain at their former low levels, and no CO2 controls were required, nuclear power would continue to have a hard time to competing in deregulated markets with up-to-date combined-cycle gas turbines. But recent price increases have demonstrated that such long-term price stability of oil and gas is...

Economic Analysis

Where P1 is the factor relating life cycle fuel cost to first-year fuel cost savings, P2 is the factor relating life cycle by additional capital investment to initial investmet, CA is the solar energy investment cost which is directly proportional to collector area, CE is the solar energy investment cost which is independent of collector area, CF is the unit cost of delivered conventional energy for the first year of analysis, L is the total load, and Ft is the total solar fraction of the solar system. For a particular

International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA), an autonomous agency, was established in November 1974. Its primary mandate was - and is - two-fold to promote energy security amongst its member countries through collective response to physical disruptions in oil supply, and provide authoritative research and analysis on ways to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond. The IEA carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among its member countries, each of which is obliged to hold oil stocks equivalent to 90 days of its net imports. The Agency's aims include the following objectives

Development of a carbonconstrained world

Several other ETS are being developed, including in countries that are not Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. In the United States, the first regional scheme (i.e. in the Northeastern States) began on January 1, 2009. Others may follow. Further, on June 26, the House of Representatives passed the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES), a comprehensive draft climate change and energy legislation introduced by the House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Rep. Henry Waxman and Global Warming Subcommittee Chairman Ed Markley. The bill calls for a cap-and-trade programme covering 85 of US GHG emissions, including power, industry, transport, commercial and residential sectors. The targets are set against 2005 emission levels, at 3 reduction by The AP6, which groups Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea and the United States, is one of many initiatives. AP6 focuses on the emissions of specific sectors iron and steel, cement, aluminium, mining, buildings and appliances and the...

Raising Public Awareness

In the late 1990s, the ASE's public outreach campaign achieved an important series of successes, including three animated television spots that garnered 2.2 million in broadcast time in 49 states four radio spots airing in 45 states the Power mart consumer booklet an animated, interactive consumer website and a new educator website with free energy lesson plans. The campaign earned the ASE a National Energy Resources Organization award for public education.

Alternative energy solar

Solar energy refers to forms of energy emitted by the sun, including light, radio waves, and x-rays. Accounting for 99.8 percent of the mass in our solar system, the sun is a self-sustaining nuclear fusion reaction by which hydrogen is converted to helium. Every second, the sun converts over 4 million metric tons of matter into solar energy. This matter is converted and released from the sun in the form of radiation waves that travel through the void of space and eventually reach earth. The radiant energy that eventually reaches the earth's surface is estimated around 1,000 watts per sq. m. The sun is similar to a fusion reactor that emits 3,800 million, million, million, million watts of energy each second, which is 20,000 times the energy requirement of the world. Solar power, as an alternative fuel, involves transforming some of the sun's massive thermal energy into electricity. Individuals driven by environmental and other concerns encourage the implementation of policies that...

Alternative energy wind

WiND is A source of solar energy that does not rely on the condition of the sky. Unlike fossil fuels, wind energy can be collected during storms, snow, or the night. Wind power is the alteration of wind energy into more purposeful forms, usually electricity using wind turbines, and is a form of renewable The International Energy Agency (IEA) projects that, 2000-30, global energy consumption will increase and electricity use could double, placing pressure on nonrenewable resources, public health, international stability, and the natural environment. One solution lies in finding and utilizing alternative energy sources. Renewable energy sources pose lower costs, whether environmental or health-related. The use of alternative energies to generate electricity is especially advantageous to developing countries, because of the new employment opportunities it will create, as well as the stimulation of local economies by attracting investment. One of the resources leading the way to a more...

Geoengineering could we or should we make it work

Schemes to modify large-scale environment systems or control climate have been proposed for over 150 years to (i) increase temperatures in high latitudes, (ii) increase precipitation, (iii) decrease sea ice, (iv) create irrigation opportunities, or (v) offset potential global warming by injecting iron in the oceans or sea-salt aerosol in the marine boundary layer or spreading dust in the stratosphere to reflect away an amount of solar energy equivalent to the amount of heat trapped by increased greenhouse gases from human activities. These and other proposed geo-engineering schemes are briefly reviewed. Recent schemes to intentionally modify climate have been proposed as either cheaper methods to counteract inadvertent climatic modifications than conventional mitigation techniques such as carbon taxes or pollutant emissions regulations or as a counter to rising emissions as governments delay policy action. Whereas proponents argue cost-effectiveness or the need to be prepared if...

American Gas Association

Robert Gasch and Jochen Twele, eds., Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation (Earthscan Publications Ltd., 2004) Paul Gipe, Wind Power, Revised Edition Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business (Chelsea Green Publishing Co., 2004) P.M. Parker, The World Market for Liquefied Natural Gas A 2007 Global Trade Perspective (ICON Group International, Inc., 2006) Bob Shively and John Ferrare, Understanding Today's Natural Gas Business (Self, 2003) F.J. Sturm, Trading Natural Gas A Nontechnical Guide (Pennwell Books, 1997).

Powering the World Economy

In ancient times, human beings had a modest need for energy. They relied mainly on the energy from animal strength to do work. Humans first learned to control fire around one million BC and since then have used fire to cook food and to warm their shelters.8 There were water mills, wind mills and also solar energy for drying of foods. About 1000 BC, the Chinese discovered coal and started using it as a fuel, primarily for heating. Before the advent of coal, many regions experienced fuel crises due to the depletion of wood resources. The extraction and burning of coal made it possible to produce energy on a large scale and supply power to a growing economy. The stage is set for intense competition for resources among countries seeking to secure their energy supply by diversifying sources and areas of origin. According to projections of the World Energy Council, the fuels most widely used today coal, oil and natural gas will still account for two-thirds of primary energy even beyond six...

Governing Climate and Energy Instability Avenues for Preventative Diplomacy

It also provides an analysis on the steps needed to ensure an energy transition by focusing on the rapid deployment of clean energy technologies and how to address job insecurity created by the transition away from traditional energy sources. The section concludes by outlining the existing avenues where climate and energy insecurity issues can be addressed.

Other Solar System planets and satellites

Seasonal cycles of planets are discussed in general terms in Chapter 7. The very low solar radiation received at the distant orbits of Uranus and Neptune leads to extremely cold outer atmospheres, particularly in the case of Neptune. These planets provide an opportunity to examine the novel features of an atmosphere driven by an exceedingly weak trickle of solar energy, supplemented by an equally feeble trickle of heat from the interior. Despite the weak thermal driving, Neptune has by far the strongest winds in the Solar system, as well as a variety of interesting meteorological features. We will not say much about planetary winds, but as in the case of the gas giants, a good understanding of the thermal structure is a prerequisite for any attack on the meteorology.

Multivalence Positive Ionbonding Model

The multivalence positive ion-bonding model is based on a simple electrostatic interaction between negatively charged bacteria and positive ion. The DLVO1 theory postulates that when two surfaces carry a charge of the same sign, there is a free energy barrier between them, which acts as a repulsive force. This force could seriously prevent approach of one cell to another. A positive ion added to sludge would partially neutralize the negative charges on bacterial surfaces by adsorption, causing a significant reduction in the electrical repulsion between bacteria. The positive ion hence initiates cell-to-cell interaction which is a crucial initiation towards granulation.

Introduction and background

Solar radiation is typically measured underwater as irradiance, the energy striking a unit of surface area (e.g., W m 2), and is further characterized by its wavelength (units, nanometers, nm). Spectral irradiance is reported as energy integrated over a waveband, which may be narrow (e.g., 1 nm) or broad (e.g., UV-A, 320-400 nm UV-B, 280-320 nm). The solar UVR spectrum, about 10 of the incoming energy reaching the Earth's surface, includes UV-A and UV-B wavebands. Photosynthetic organisms use wavelengths starting at about 400 nm and extending to 700 nm (Photosynthetically Active Radiation or PAR) in the process of photosynthesis. Roughly half of the incoming solar energy is represented by infrared wavelengths from 700 to 2000 nm. Ozone in the atmosphere and DOM in natural waters strongly absorb UV-B wavelengths. Water molecules in the atmosphere and in aquatic systems strongly absorb far-red and infrared wavelengths.

The Climate System Exhibits Substantial Natural Variability

The Sun's output has been measured precisely by satellites since 1979, and these measurements do not show any overall trend in solar output over this period. Prior to the satellite era, solar output was estimated by several methods, including methods based on long-term records of the number of sunspots observed each year, which is an indirect indicator of solar activity. These indirect methods suggest that there was a slight increase in solar energy received by the Earth during the first few decades of the 20th century, which may have contributed to the global temperature increase during that period (see Figure 2.2).

The Greenhouse Effect

The Earth needs the natural greenhouse effect. It is the process in which the emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere warms the planet's surface. The atmosphere naturally acts as an insulating blanket, which is able to trap enough solar energy to keep the global average temperature in a comfortable range in which to support life. This insulating blanket is actually a collection of several atmospheric gases, some of them in such small amounts that they are referred to as trace gases.

The Economics of Energy Efficiency

The key economic question that will determine the pace of the widely anticipated energy revolution is the cost of improving EE relative to various forms of energy generation, such as for instance the cost of extracting fossil fuel and providing services through renewable energy sources. The fundamentals of EE are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 4. It is worth discussing three fundamental relationships here With increasing costs of energy generation, the adoption of EETs will become a viable alternative. Since the contribution of renewable energy sources is marginal to the total energy mix the main economic driver for EE remains the utilization offossil fuels. The more expensive the extraction of these fuels, the more attractive is the reduction in their use through efficiency measures.

Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

One policy response of particular interest is EE. This can be used to reduce the level of CO2 in the atmosphere by reducing the amount of fossil fuels combusted and therefore the amount of CO2 released. Together with renewable energy, transportation and forestry projects, EE is widely viewed as one of the most accessible and cost-effective opportunities to mitigate climate change.

Energy for a Sustainable Future

Its three fundamental constituent parts politics, economics and culture. Nature provides the sources of energy, which in turn enable development. Oil, a non-renewable energy source, is the outcome of prehistoric fossil disintegration and compression. A significant amount of economic activity revolves around naturally extracted forms of renewable and non-renewable forms of natural resources such as forests and coal. These factors of production and consumption form the environmental constraints for economic progress, and define the environmental aspects of sustainable development.

United States of America [29

In June 2009 the House of Representatives approved the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA), an energy bill that would establish a variant of a cap-and-trade plan for greenhouse gases to address climate change. The bill is also known as the Waxman-Markey Bill. It was approved by the House of Representatives, but until today (August 2009) has not yet been approved by the Senate.

Earlier energy crises

France was able to sustain a nuclear programme that brought about a major transformation of the country's energy balance. This was achieved by a strong central state with a commitment to economic planning and direct state investment in infrastructure, partnered by a powerful state-owned electricity company with close links to the country's heavy electrical engineering industry. Denmark embarked on a rather different, but arguably no less radical restructuring of its energy economy in the mid-1970s with the installation of combined heat and power (CHP) and district heating networks in most urban areas and a major expansion of renewable energy. The Danish approach was based on a more consensual style of politics, working with local authorities and a more decentralised energy sector.

Meeting Future Challenges

Each of the themes that emerged from the RAP on the carbon cycle tends to make the climate problem more difficult to solve. The role of land management in current sinks suggests that future sinks from CO2 fertilization will be smaller than past estimates. Inertia in the human system extends the timeline for developing and implementing solutions. Land ecosystems appear to be vulnerable to large releases of carbon, including releases from several mechanisms that have been absent from or incomplete in the models used for past assessments. Strategies for increased energy efficiency, carbon sequestration, and carbon-free energy are abundant, but no single technology is likely to solve the climate problem completely in the next few decades. A portfolio approach is the best option, but many of the elements of the portfolio are implicitly present in economic scenarios that fail to meet stabilization targets. Finally, each of the strategies for increased energy efficiency, carbon...

What Exactly Is Global Warming

Fact Companies worldwide that are already reducing their carbon emissions are finding that cutting pollution can be economically beneficial. For example, utility companies switching to wind power are creating new jobs, boosting their economies. Using skills and ingenuity can start new industries geared toward carbon-free technology and production. Even the world's major oil companies are currently getting involved in developing renewable energy resources.

World Energy Consumption

Before considering each energy source in detail it is useful to compare their contributions to world energy consumption. This serves to keep their relative importance in perspective. Figures 1.3 and 1.4 and Table 1.1 provide some figures for past consumption and estimates for the future. The four main producers are coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear, with smaller contributions from other sources. Hydro is the next in importance but as it is limited by the number of suitable rivers its contribution remains almost constant and its relative contribution decreases. The contribution of the remaining sources is rather small. The 'traditional' renewable energy sources such as wood, straw and dung (biomass) amounted to 0.9 GTOE in 1990. Modern biomass is growing special crops such as willow for subsequent burning.

Understanding Tradeoffs for a Successful Energy Policy

A broader development-oriented approach is possible only if various stakeholders, namely, politicians, planners, equipment manufacturers, financial institutions and researchers begin, without delay, to channel the available human, technical and financial resources into the mass production and marketing of energy-efficient and environment-friendly technologies. This path bears the potential of providing employment opportunities, as these technologies are labour intensive. The implementation of such a system requires the reorientation of energy planning and the priorities of governments and utilities, a multiplying of research efforts for clean, renewable energy systems, and changing the mindset of consumers. Efficiency measures are, on an average, less capital-intensive per kilowatt than supply side options. Although many are aware of this truism, the knowledge about who can and should do what is lacking.

Interrelationships between adaptation and mitigation can exist at each level of decisionmaking

Adaptation actions can have (often unintended) positive or negative mitigation effects, whilst mitigation actions can have (also often unintended) positive or negative adaptation effects 18.4.2, 18.5.2 . An example of an adaptation action with a negative mitigation effect is the use of air-conditioning (if the required energy is provided by fossil fuels). An example of a mitigation action with a positive adaptation effect could be the afforestation of degraded hill slopes, which would not only sequester carbon but also control soil erosion. Other examples of such synergies between adaptation and mitigation include rural electrification based on renewable energy sources, planting trees in cities to reduce the heat-island effect, and the development of agroforestry systems 18.5.2 .

Box 12 The Kyoto Protocol And Forestry Carbon Sinks

Need to undertake measures to reduce their domestic emissions unless they are in surplus and in a position to sell allowances. Countries have policy choices ranging from the introduction of mandatory requirements for power generation by renewable energy, and the subsidization of renewable energy, to the introduction of a carbon tax or mandatory cap and trade schemes. All countries are interested in adopting policy approaches that do least damage to their economies and this is where carbon taxes and cap and trade have an advantage over trying to 'pick winners' and subsidizing them.

Germany on the road to a lowcarbon economy

Germany is making good progress in climate protection, with greenhouse gas reduction currently at 18 per cent, largely meeting the Kyoto target for 20082012. The privatization of East German energy supply and its consequent modernization in the 1990s, the Ecological Tax Reform in 1999 (German Government, 2002a), the Renewable Energy Sources Act in 2000 (German Government, 2000), the Combined Heat and Power Act in 2002 (German Government, 2002b) and the launching of emissions trading in 2005 have been important milestones in German climate policy.

Revolutionizing energy generation

The key to the success so far has been the Renewable Energy Sources Act (German Government, 2004), which guarantees the feed-in of electricity from renewables at a fair and fixed fee. Thus, the additional costs of renewable energies are apportioned among all electricity consumers. The act has since served as a model for more than 30 countries. The expansion of renewables also shows how countries can profit from fostering climate-friendly technologies. This has enabled German industry to win an important competitive margin in a lead market, with positive effects for other sectors too. In terms of employment, more than 400,000 jobs are expected to be created in the field by 2020.

Brief History of Climate Policy

The development ofthe UNFCCC and other international environmental treaties was accompanied by the establishment of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as a joint venture of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), (UNEP) and the World Bank. For the past 12 years, the GEF has been one of the main sources of international funding for clean energy and other measures to address climate change. The GEF does not implement environmental projects itself, but it provides grants and concessional funds for projects. Apart from climate change, the GEF also funds projects in areas, such as biological diversity, international waters and the depletion of the ozone layer. and renewable energy technologies in developing countries and countries in transition. Although much project information exists in published and electronic form, no systematic review of these projects exists.17

Operational Cap And Trade And The Benefit Of Offsets

Offsets may be included in cap and trade schemes at both the global and national levels. An offset is a project initiated by a country or a company that will decrease emissions in another location or jurisdiction. Offsets encompass a range of projects, including the substitution of low emission fuels, the introduction of renewable energy to replace electricity from coal

Governing energy at the global level

The way in which WTO rules impinge upon government action, in terms of such measures as tariffs, taxation, subsidies and government purchasing, may well limit the repertoire of policies available to national authorities. Attempts to promote the development of renewable energy or to protect local industries facing competition from exporters unencumbered by environmental regulations (the 'border tax' being an example) can fall foul of international trade obligations (Sell et al., 2005 Selivanova, 2007). Indeed the issue of how environmental policy obligations can be reconciled with the commitment to trade liberalisation has proved a

Samuel S Butcher and Sharon E Anthony

Another property of the system, G, the free energy, or the Gibbs free energy, is related to enthalpy and entropy by The second law also describes the equilibrium state of a system as one of maximum entropy and minimum free energy. For a system at constant temperature and pressure the equilibrium condition requires that the change in free energy is zero In practice, G and H for a substance are defined relative to the G and H for the constituent elements of that substance. These relative values are known as free energy of formation and enthalpy of formation for standard conditions and symbolized as AG0 and AH0. So where we indicated values of G and H in Equations (1) and (2), in practice we would use a free energy and enthalpy of formation, which are themselves a special kind of AG and AH. Values for these functions may be obtained from standard tables of thermodynamic data, usually for the reference temperature of 298.2 K and a pressure of 1.0 bar. The Chemical Rubber Company handbook...

Renewables in the food industry

There are a number of slightly different definitions of renewable energy. The US Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2005) defines renewable energy as 'Energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible (unlike, for example, fossil fuels, of which there is a finite supply). Renewable sources of energy include wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy'. The definition presented by the Texas Renewable Energy Industries Association (TREIA, 2005) carries a more detailed description 'Any energy resource that is naturally regenerated over a short time scale and derived directly from the sun (such as thermal, photochemical, and photoelectric), indirectly from the sun (such as wind, hydropower, and photosynthetic energy stored in biomass), or from other natural movements and mechanisms of the environment (such as geothermal and tidal energy). Renewable energy does not include energy resources derived from fossil fuels, waste products from fossil...

Making energy and climate policy A multilevel challenge

To the extent that climate issues require an overarching framework, the UNFCCC regime may be, despite some faults, a better basis for cooperation than starting anew. However, it is important that the current structures of climate diplomacy need to work better and be deployed to facilitate international cooperation in areas such as technology transfer (see Chapter 12) and, possibly, sector specific arrangements to foster renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Archives of Surface Solar Radiation Measurements

Data from the US is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Resource Data Center (RReDC, at website www. nrel.gov rredc). Although solar radiation has been measured in the US for about 75 a, first class long term data is available for only few of the stations in their network.

Exploitation of Surface Albedo Derived From the Meteosat Data to Characterize Land Surface Changes

Abstract Land surface albedo constitutes a critical climatic variable, since it largely controls the actual amount of solar energy available to the Earth system. From a mathematical point of view, the determination of the surface albedo corresponds to the estimation of a boundary condition for the radiation transfer problem in the coupled surface-atmosphere system. A relatively large database of 10 years or more of Meteosat data has been accumulated by EUMETSAT. These data, collected at half-hourly intervals over the entire Earth disk visible from longitude 0 degree, constitute a unique resource to describe the anisotro-py of the coupled surface-atmosphere system, and provide the opportunity to document changes in surface albedo which may have occurred in these regions over that period. An advanced algorithm to retrieve the radiative properties of terrestrial surfaces sampled by the Meteosat visible instrument has been derived and a preliminary analysis of a one-year (1996) set of...

Solar Radiation Use Efficiency

As the values in Table 2.8 indicate, solar radiation use efficiency under the current crop production systems is very low. It is much below the theoretically estimated (8 to 10 percent) upper limit (Mavi, 1994). The efficiency of the conversion of photosynthetically active radiation by C3 plants falls off with increasing intensity. This decrease is caused by finite resistance to diffusion of CO2 through the leaf to the chloroplast. However, an increase in the productivity of direct solar energy can be achieved if, by redistribution, it is intercepted at more uniform and lower intensity by a greater portion of the leaf area of a crop. Aikman (1989) developed a model which

Marketbased Climate Policy

Warwick McKibbin and Peter Wilcoxen argue that mitigation policies, which do not minimize cost, are doomed to failure. For example, they propose coal market reform through reducing coal subsidies and trade barriers as a solution that will generate both economic and environmental benefits. According to their calculations, if western Europe and Japan would remove their coal production subsidies and import restrictions, OECD GHG emissions would decrease by 13 per cent and global emissions by 5 per cent by 2005.24 Whilst price reform of this kind may disadvantage fossil fuel industries, the renewable energy sector can anticipate inflows of capital that would otherwise go to carbon-intensive industries. With regard to pollution permit trading, there is a clear incentive for decreasing emissions because there is a monetary value attached to allowances. Emission trading systems stimulate research and development, as the business sector can anticipate profitable emissions abatement....

Climate and energy scenarios

Alternative energy and emission scenarios aimed at phasing out nuclear and fossil energies have consistently put their emphasis on two pillars massive expansion of energy efficiency and of renewable energies. Two recently released studies are from Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) (Greenpeace and EREC, 2007) and from the German government's Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU, 2007). Their scenarios, projecting future energy, are based on the need to cut global greenhouse gas emissions consistent with the IPCC findings. They also assume the same global primary energy consumption as today, with 50 per cent coming from energies produced from fossil fuels. Such a scenario would have only a slim chance of keeping the global average temperature rise below 2 C. Both scenarios call for a massive energy-efficiency revolution and a massive increase in renewable energy. The Greenpeace EREC scenario sees a tenfold increase of global bioenergy use for electricity...

Mitigation Of Coalbased pOLLuTION

First, many nations are investing in renewable energy technologies. These include electricity generation by wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, and tidal and wave action. In recent years, renewable energy technology has become more affordable and widely utilized however renewable technologies only account for a small portion of the world's total electricity supply. U.S. policies such as production tax credits for renewable technology, and state-mandated renewable portfolio standards, are lessening the need to use coal technologies and promoting the use of renewable ones.

Advantages of membrane distillation

The main advantages of membrane distillation over conventional distillation processes are lower operating temperatures, compact modules, mist elimination, and the possibility of overcoming corrosion problems by using plastic equipment. This process can use available energy sources such as solar energy or waste energy in industrial processes. However, the process still has shortcomings such as membrane wetting and high membrane cost. Development of new membranes, membrane coatings, and increased competition among manufacturers should reduce the latter drawback.

Continued Warming Predicted

The most optimistic IPCC scenario, for example, assumes that emissions can be dramatically lowered as a result of a rapid change toward a service and information economy and a quick shift toward clean energy technologies. Under these conditions, the IPCC predicts a likely range of 0.5 to 1.6 degrees Fahrenheit (0.3 to 0.9 degree Celsius), and a best estimate temperature rise of about 1.1 degrees Fahrenheit (0.62 degree Celsius) by 2100.

Why is energy efficiency important

Four issues will be crucial in determining the amount of energy needed in the future, and hence the amount of carbon-free energy to meet climate targets Carbon Free Energy Needed to Meet a 450 ppm Carbon Dioxide Target Carbon Free Energy Needed to Meet a 450 ppm Carbon Dioxide Target Figure 4.1 Model predictions of required carbon free energy for a 450 ppm CO2 target (Source Azar and Dowlatabadi, 1998). Figure 4.1 Model predictions of required carbon free energy for a 450 ppm CO2 target (Source Azar and Dowlatabadi, 1998).

Todays problems yesterdays governance

This is evident, for example, in the slow pace of change of regulations to enable the connection of micro-generation technologies to electricity networks. Up until very recently in the UK, for example, the government and its chief energy markets regulator, Ofgem, were preoccupied by competitive access between owners of very large power stations, and not thousands, potentially millions, of household sources like solar pho-tovoltaics (PV) or micro-CHP. In the case of renewable energy, in 2007 the UK government consulted on reforming its 'Renewables Obligation' in order to help the many renewable energy technologies that are currently less competitive than wind farms (see Chapter 8). For good or ill, however, UK policy remains wedded to a 'banded' market instrument, rather than more direct and assured supports like feed-in tariffs or a suite of technology-specific measures. In contrast, countries like Germany and Spain have adopted feed-in tariffs as more appropriate to their...

Radical shifts in energy governance in the past

In principle, policymakers had direct access to the energy system. In practice, the effectiveness and efficiency of these chains of command were open to considerable debate. Outwardly, UK energy policy institutions could appear monolithic, slow, and resistant to new issues, outside voices, or alternative approaches. This was especially apparent to alternative technology activists who campaigned unsuccessfully for renewable energy and energy efficiency responses to the fuel crises of the 1970s. Yet bureaucratic opacity merely hid many heated, often debilitating, internal debates and arguments over directions and priorities for the energy system. Internal realities were occasionally glimpsed through the procedures of parliamentary oversight. Yet, for good or ill, this negotiated hierarchy oversaw the development of much of the UK's current energy system.

Glacial theory and early global climate models

Greenhouse effect, and the British scientist John Tyndall was trying to figure out how this actually worked. At the time, most scientists believed that the gases in the atmosphere were transparent, but in his laboratory he had shown that carbon dioxide was, in fact, opaque. It could thus help the atmosphere keep solar energy that would otherwise reflect back into space. There is very little carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and Tyn-dall did not think change in its concentration would be sufficient to cause an ice age. Water vapor was another matter and if something dried up the atmosphere then that could be the explanation Remove for a single summer-night the aqueous vapour from the air and the sun would rise upon an island held fast in the iron grip of frost, he wrote about England in a paper in 1863.2 The scientific community involved in the 19th century ice-age debate was also aware that snow and ice covering a region during an ice age would reflect sunlight back into space and...

Fossil Energy Sources

The consumption of energy is the main source of the GHG emissions. More than 60 of the global GHG emissions are caused by energy and 32 by agriculture and forestry (without energy) (EPA 2006). Since at present only 6 of the total primary energy consumption in Europe bases on renewable energy (BMU 2007), nearly all energy used in agriculture comes from fossil sources and has to be considered in the GHG balance.

Department of Energy uS

The Office of Policy and International Affairs, a part of the Department of Energy, is the watchdog office for climate change. Within this Office, there are six initiatives regarding global warming and climate change. These initiatives are the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum, the Clean Energy Initiative, Climate VISION, Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidelines, the Security and Prosperity Partnership North American Energy Working Group , and the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. Clean Energy and Sustainable Development. By combining economics, industry, and research, the CSLF works to limit the amount of carbon dioxide release into the atmosphere. It does so in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. One plan is to store carbon instead of releasing it carbon would be stored in the spaces left behind by underground oil fields as they are depleted. Initial research carried out by the DOE has suggested that these deep geologic storage chambers...

Climate Change Technology

Along these lines, the office was set to manage a 2 million grant for promoting renewable energy sources that would be used by 15 pre-selected Native American nations, including Alaskan villages. Of these 15 groups, nine will begin to establish renewable energy sources, while the other six will research the feasibility of such a project on their lands. The Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program recognizes that burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. This program, part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, therefore, works to make clean solar energy available to regions that previously relied on fossil fuels. Specifically, the program champions photovoltaic (PV) energy converters that transform solar energy into electricity via superconductors. The program also investigates the themes of concentrating solar power to run turbines that would generate electricity, solar heating whereby...

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