Do It Yourself Solar Energy

DIY 3D Solar Panels

Almost everyone in the United States is currently paying higher electricity bills. This usually eats deep into your salary. Fortunately, switching to solar energy is one way to save money and make your home eco-friendly. In DIY 3D Solar Panel, a pioneer in the field of solar panels known as Zak Bennet will teach you exactly how to set up a 3D Solar Panels in your home within 24 hours. You can be able to do this using tools you can easily find in your garage. He will also show you other tools you need to make this dream of living off-the-grid and saving money on electricity bill come true. This course contains an eBook and video guide. It is very affordable and you can get a refund if you don't like it. Read more...

DIY 3D Solar Panels Summary


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Renewable energy policy and climate policy interactions

This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even when CO2 emissions are appropriately priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate-change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals that both CO2 prices and the measures to deploy renewable electricity create wealth transfers between electric utilities and their customers, although in opposite directions. This may be important when considering the political economy of the interactions between CO2 pricing and renewable energy support in the future.

Commercializing Clean Energy Technologies

Commercialization is defined as the creation of self-sustaining markets that thrive in a level-playing field with other technologies without subsidies. Without commercial status, clean energy technologies are not only a constant drain on public finances, but they will also not benefit from the dynamism and innovation of the private economy. Private capital mobilization and commercialization are results of policy instruments such as eco-taxes and emissions markets as well as guiding principles that can affect the design of these policies.

Stimulating a Clean Energy Revolution

The 'perfect storm' of climate change, political instability in key energy regions, and high oil prices has created a demand for a new energy path. The advent of promising new technologies capable of turning abundant domestic energy sources - including solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, biomass and ocean energy - into transportation fuels, electricity and heat offer a path to an unprecedented energy revolution. Renewable energy technologies, combined with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, have the potential to rapidly and economically transform the world's energy system.

Solar Power Generation Systems

In this section, the main kinds of established solar power systems, including small-(individual) and large-scale residential power generation are classified as shown in Figure 4.2 and analyzed in terms of their overall and component performance. A typical solar-driven heat engine system for residential power (and heat) generation consists of a solar concentrating collector that drives a heat engine (e.g., a Rankine cycle). The heat engine produces shaft work at an expander that in turn drives an electrical generator additionally, the rejected heat may serve a useful purpose (e.g., water heating). Such a system can be connected to the grid or can work independently with energy storage in various ways, as will be discussed in the next section of this chapter. Even though they are conceptually similar, large-scale solar systems differ from small-scale systems through the fact that they use a central power plant. In large systems, a field of collectors is used to capture the solar energy,...

Steam Network Optimization by Utilizing Biomass and Solar Energy Sources in an Oil Refinery

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial processes contribute significantly to global warming. A reduction in GHG emissions can only be achieved by a conversion to renewable energy sources and a simultaneous increase in energy efficiency therefore, the application of renewable energies for evaluating the site utility systems and environmental aspects should be considered. Site utility systems involve complex interactions. For improving the systems, a structured approach is needed. Steam generators are important components of site utility systems that affect the thermal performance of chemical and petrochemical industry processes. To overcome the above drawbacks, renewable energies can be integrated into plant for generating steam. Renewable energy offers important potential benefits. Solar energy as the abundant resource has a viable option for consumption that can free up larger quantities of oil. Moreover, there is growing recognition that...

The Clean Energy New Deal

We have a limited supply of fossil fuels, especially oil. Our burning of fossil fuels is destroying a livable climate. The two key questions are, first, will we voluntarily give up fossil fuels in the next couple of decades, rather than being forced to do so helter-skelter after it is too late to stop the catastrophe Second, when we do give them up, will the United States be a global leader in creating jobs and exports in clean energy technologies or will we be importing them from Europe, Japan, and the likely clean energy leader in our absence, China. For more than a quarter century, conservatives have blocked or scaled back efforts by progressives to spend more on clean energy development and deployment. As a result, while we lead the world in virtually every type of clean energy through the early 1980s, now we are playing catch up across the board, even in technologies that we invented, like the solar cell and the efficient lightbulb. At last we...

Renewable energy options for the future

Primary energy sources are those that contain energy in a form (high potential) that enables them to be converted directly to lower forms of energy that are directly usable by people. These include fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and renewable resources such as biofuels, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, solar power, tidal power, and wind power. Fossil fuels will Solar power uses solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, utilizing the most steady source of energy in the solar system. Sunlight can heat water or air in solar panels, create steam using parabolic mirrors, or be used in a more passive way, utilizing the light entering windows to heat buildings. Solar power is most efficient in places where the solar radiation is the highest. Places like the sunny desert southwestern United States are much more suited for solar power than the Pacific Northwest, which is shrouded in clouds many days of the year. Solar panels operate at different efficiencies, depending on the...

Gibbs Free Energy Minimizations

Several methods to estimate the P-T conditions of methane hydrate stability by searching for the state which minimizes the Gibbs Free Energy of the system have been developed. These programs are computationally intensive and require sophisticated computer programming. However, computer programs to carry-out these calculations are now readily available. Sloan (1990, 1998) presents a detailed description of CSMHYD, a PC-DOS based computer program. His textbook includes a floppy disk with an executable version of the program. In addition to calculations of the stability temperature at a given pressure (or vice-versa) in pure water, the program also includes a variable composition salt component to allow seawater and pore-water predictions. We refer the reader to the textbook for the details of how the program works. Output from CSMHYD is shown in figure 5 for a pure methane hydrate in equilibrium Zatsepina and Buffet (1997, 1998) present an alternate Gibbs Free Energy minimization...

Smallscale Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Filtration Plants

Membrane-driven processes account for over half the existing renewable energy powered desalination in existence. Some of the reasons for this include that they are a modular technology, easy to install, compact in size, and simple to operate. Many of these advantages are also mirrored by renewable energy microgenerators, such as PV modules. These are also modular, contain no moving parts, have a long life ( 20-year warranty) and involve low maintenance. The modularity of both of these technologies has also assisted in cost reduction being achieved via economies-of-scale. Wind turbines are also available in a wide variety of sizes (from 100 W up to MW scale) and multiple turbines can be included in a system design. Therefore, it is possible to scale a renewable energy powered membrane system to almost any size. These factors, combined with RO and NF exhibiting a very low SEC for seawater and brackish water, respectively, makes membranes an obvious choice when powering such systems with...

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

The solar energy Industry Association (SEIA) is an American trade association for the solar industry, working to expand markets, strengthen and develop research, and improve education for the employment of solar energy. SEIA is affiliated with the PVNow coalition of photovoltaic companies, which aims to expand the North American-distributed, grid-connected photovoltaic market opportunities and eliminate market barriers. They are pursuing this goal through lobbying key state legislatures, utility rate-making authorities, and other state energy policymaking agencies. SEIA represents over 700 companies and 20,000 employees in the U.S. energy sector. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation. and small businesses. SEIA chapters have up-to-date information on retailers and...

Renewable Energy Potential

Although renewable energy technologies are unreliable for the world's present energy demand, the market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. Approximately 74,223 MW of power is generated from windmills worldwide. Several European countries and the United States produce the largest percentage of wind energy. Denmark is the world leader in this technology. The present worldwide manufacturing output of the photovol-taics (PV) industry is more than 2,000 MW per year. Japan, Germany, and the United States contribute 90 percent of all photovoltaic installations in the world. Solar energy use is also growing at a faster rate in developing countries, such as Kenya and India. Worldwide, approximately 8,000 MW capacity of geothermal power plants are in operation. A 750 MW geothermal power plant, The Geysers in California, is the largest in the world. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world. It produces ethanol (biofuel) from sugarcane, contributing 18...

Renewable Energy In The World Today

Solar Energy Locations

Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation (GWth) and bio-fuel production (units GL year) 4 . Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation (GWth) and bio-fuel production (units GL year) 4 . generation 3 . Fig. 1 below shows the world renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008 4 . From Fig. 1, it can be seen that wind power has an installed capacity of 121 MW worldwide. The wind industry this is growing at annual rate of 30 , with widespread use in Europe and the USA 4 . The annual manufacturing output of the photovoltaics (PV) industry reached a record 6.9 GW in 2008, bringing the installed capacity to 13 MW with the largest solar farms'' operating Germany, Spain, and Portugal. Several large solar thermal power plants operate in USA and Spain with the largest of these being the 354 MW SEGS...

International solar Energy society IsEs

THE INTERNATIoNAL soLAR Energy Society is an international nonprofit, nongovernmental organization with a focus on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies. The society has 30,000 members globally from industry, research, and government there are national sections in 54 countries. The following goals are stated in the society's mandate to encourage the use and acceptance of renewable energy technologies to realize a global community of industry, individuals, and institutions in support of renewable energy to create international structures to facilitate cooperation and exchange to create and distribute publications for various target groups to support the dissemination of renewable energy technologies to bring together industry, science, and politics in workshops, conferences, and summits on renewable energy, and to advise governments and organizations in policy, implementation, and sustainability of renewable energy activities world-wide. The motto of the ISES...

Renewable Energy A Definition

It is clear therefore, that in due time renewable energies1 will dominate the world's energy supply system, due to their inherent advantages such as mitigation of climate change, generation of employment and reduction of poverty, as well as increased energy security and supply. Renewable energy technologies are well suited to respond to the limitations of current energy patterns and contribute to the further modernisation of the energy sector. increasing energy needs, thereby ensuring a sustainable security of supply. Furthermore, renewable energy sources can help improve the competitiveness of industries and have a positive impact on regional development and employment. Renewable energy technologies are suitable for off-grid services, serving those in remote areas of the world without having to build or extend expensive and complicated grid infrastructure. The earth receives solar energy as radiation from the sun, in a quantity far exceeding mankind's use. By heating the planet, the...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with states and firms to help them develop their renewable portfolio. The organization also provides expert information to consumers to improve energy efficiency and guide their transition to alternative energy options. To promote sales of renewable energy products and services, REPP created a buyer's guide and consumer directory for approximately 5,000 businesses. REPP was initiated with support from the Energy Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy. While financial support is determined on an...

Renewable Energy Sources As An Alternative To Nuclear Power

New Nuclear Construction Global Picture

Building and commissioning massive, complex nuclear plants requires huge government subsidies. Contrast this with wind or solar energy that are distributed and less dense supplies of energy. The amount of solar panels produced on an annual basis is equivalent to the construction of two nuclear facilities. The renewable solar approach seems simpler and safer, and not one requiring subsidies. Such sound Renewable energy is everywhere, easy to tap, cheap to harness, and above all, human and climate friendly. It has the added bonus of feeding surplus electricity back into the electric grid. Nuclear power, however, provides tough competition with its powerful lobby claiming it is the best carbon displacer. A 2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology study revealed that people concerned about global warming are neutral on the role of nuclear as either a solution or a problem in the climate crisis debate. What is not highlighted for the public is that for every 1,000 spent on nuclear...

Space lunar solar power systems

It is extremely difficult to gather diffuse, irregular solar power on Earth and make it available as a dependable source of commercially competitive standalone power. The challenges increase as irregular terrestrial solar power becomes a larger fraction of total regional or global commercial electric power. Research indicates that terrestrial solar may provide 5 to 17 of renewable power to conventional small power grids. Fifty percent supply of power by terrestrial solar, and wind, is conceivable. However, an increasing fraction of renewable power is limited by the higher cost of renewable sources, high costs of storage and transmission of renewable power, institutional resistance, and regulator effects (Wan and Parsons, 1993).

Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many proven technologies available to produce renewable energy, and some new technologies are under development. One of the most promising renewable energy technologies for electricity generation is wind energy that uses airflows to run wind turbines. In good wind regimes, cost-wise, wind power is comparable to fossil alternatives, particularly when economic or environmental concerns are considered. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 KW to 5 MW of rated power. Most common wind turbines for commercial use are of a rated capacity of 1.5-3 MW. Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy in the world. Since 1993, it is growing on average 30 percent a year. Windmills typically run at 2535 percent of their capacity over the course of a year. A photovoltaic module composed of multiple photovoltaic cells or arrays is used to convert sun light directly into electricity. Photovoltaic power is also widely viewed as cost competitive, like wind power. As energy from the...

Solar Energy and the Environment

The attributes of solar energy technologies (e.g., modularity, flexibility, low operating costs) differ considerably from those for traditional, fossil fuel-based energy technologies. Solar energy technologies can provide cost-effective and environmentally beneficial alternatives to conventional power systems. Some of the benefits that make solar energy systems attractive follow (e.g., Dincer, 2000 and McGowan, 1990) Their comparable environmental impact is minor and the variety of solar technologies provides a flexible array of options. They cannot be depleted. If used appropriately, solar energy resources are reliable and sustainable. Solar energy resources do have some characteristics that lead to problems, but they are often solvable technical and economic challenges generally diffuse, not fully accessible, sometimes intermittent, and regionally variable. The potential for overall benefits is often overlooked for solar energy technologies. They are often assessed as less...

Characteristics of Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many renewable energy technologies. This chapter does not provide a basic summary description of each of the technologies themselves. Such information can be found in Cassedy (2000), Johansson et al. (1993), and on the Internet at 80 . We will focus here on the characteristics of the technologies that relate to their potential to address climate change. This includes summarizing their cost and performance, looking at the breadth of technologies and applications, and reviewing the size and characteristics of the renewable resources.

A sustainable energy governance example coordinating renewable energy expansion

Governance complexities soon become apparent even if we simplify to a supply-side example like renewable energy. Widespread renewable energy systems pose a considerable policy challenge. The policy 'object' - viable renewable energy systems - brings with it many coordination challenges. There are various renewable energy technologies to choose from (wind, solar, biomass, marine, and others), each of which can be configured at various scales in different ways, and each of which is already developed to various degrees. The innovation and deployment of renewable energy technologies involves a mix of established energy utilities and new business models and firms. Renewable energy projects like wind farms can involve large and protracted planning processes. Other projects involve smaller planning applications, but these can prove just as protracted and debilitating for the applicant (such as those for solar water heating panels in UK conservation areas). Both make demands upon the existing...

US potential for renewable energy

In contrast those in Europe, US renewable energy policies over the past two decades have been an uneven and ever-changing patchwork of regulations and subsidies. Abrupt changes in direction at both the state and federal levels have deterred investors and led dozens of companies into bankruptcy. Embracing the path of renewable energy is not only an environmental necessity, it also makes good economic sense, allowing both companies and individuals to save money, and generating high-wage jobs in a rapidly growing technological industry. Renewable resources are sometimes dismissed as serious options because it is argued their growth will be constrained by the underlying resource base. In fact, statistics show that the US has a very large resource base for wind, solar, geothermal and other renewables, and the land area required would be modest (see Figure 19.4). Recent studies show that if wind energy technology were to be fully implemented in only three states, it would generate enough...

Synergy Between Renewable Energy Resource And Water Supply

It is critical to recognize that there can be synergies between the availability of a renewable energy and water resources. Table 1 Comparison of all existing renewable energy powered desalination technologies Australia. A further advantage of solar technologies is that peak energy production in the summer months coincides with peak water demand. A second example, in Townsville, Australia, involves the addition of a water recycling aspect to the existing Cleveland Bay Purification Plant, enabling up to 20 ML of water per day to be recycled from the main treatment plant. Currently, the treatment plant discharges the treated waters into Cleveland Bay, however, future limits on water and nutrient disposal necessitate the utility to develop a water recycling program in conjunction with private sector partners 28 . A further driver is the security of clean drinking water throughout periods of drought by reducing Townsville's raw water demand. A preliminary study indicated that both the...

Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Technologies

The most common renewable energy technologies for powering water treatment systems in the past have been PV, solar thermal energy, and wind energy. This is shown in Fig. 6 for the following desalination technologies reverse osmosis (RO) including nanofiltration, multieffect distillation (MED), electrodialysis (ED), multistage flash (MSF), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC). Although, no examples of renewable energy powered water recycling schemes exist at the present time, there are plans to develop such schemes. An Australian scheme is described in a section below. Figure 6 Breakdown of renewable energy powered desalination system technologies implemented worldwide Ref. 10 . Table 1 compares all existing renewable energy powered desalination technologies, highlighting the energy consumption and disadvantages of each technology. For RO and NF systems, the major energy requirement is for pressurising the feedwater, with brackish water systems typically operating at pressures of...

Integration of Renewable Energy

The rapid deployment of renewable energy technologies and their larger deployment in the near future, raise challenges and opportunities regarding their integration into energy supply systems. Energy systems aim at meeting the demands for a broad range of services (such as household and industry needs, transportation and storage). Energy systems include an energy supply sector and the end-use technology to provide the aforementioned energy services. In the EU and other industrialised countries, the existing energy supply system is mainly composed of large power units, mostly fossil fuelled and centrally controlled, with average capacities of hundreds of MW. Renewable energy sources are geographically widely distributed and if embedded in distribution networks are often closer to the customers. Locating renewable and distributed generators downstream in the distribution network is known as distributed generation. placing the concept of economy of scale for large units by economy of...

Concentrating Solar Power 581 Technology Description and Status

There are three types of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology trough, parabolic-dish and power tower.9 Trough and power tower technologies apply primarily to large, central power generation systems, although trough technology can also be used in smaller systems for heating and cooling and for power generation. The systems use either thermal storage or back-up fuels to offset solar intermittency and thus to increase the commercial value of the energy produced. The conversion path of concentrating solar power technologies relies on four basic elements concentrator, receiver, and transport-storage and power conversion. The concentrator captures and concentrates solar radiation, which is then delivered to the receiver. The receiver absorbs the concentrated sunlight, transferring its heat to a working fluid. The transport-storage system passes the fluid from the receiver to the power-conversion system in some solar-thermal plants a portion of the thermal energy is stored for later...

The Role for Renewable Energy

The ideal solution to global warming would be a technological one that allows the world to switch quickly from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and geo-thermal, which emit zero or low levels of carbon dioxide. Each of these sources, however, has its limitations. According to many experts, wind power is the most promising source of clean energy. Turbines capture the energy of the wind using propeller-like blades positioned on 100-foot-high towers, and the moving blades are connected to turbines to generate electricity. Supporters say even a small wind tower could produce more than half of the electricity used by an average home, but more massive wind farms could contribute a significant share to utility grids. Denmark, for example, already generates 20 percent of its electricity from wind. Unfortunately, the wind does not blow all the time, causing a problem of intermittent and unreliable electricity generation, and many people think large wind...

Cost of renewable energy

Some forms of renewable energy, like hydroelectricity and biomass, have been cost-competitive for many years in certain applications and provide a substantial energy supply worldwide. Others, like passive solar building design, are cost competitive, but haven't yet overcome all the market factors that currently preclude their widespread use. Technologies like wind and geothermal are currently cost competitive at their best resource sites, but need further improvements and support to reach their full market potential. A few, like photovoltaics, have identified niche off-grid electric markets that the industry is building to the point where it can competitively address retail power markets. Still others, like ethanol from biomass, are evolving both in the laboratory and the marketplace to the point where they will be competitive without price supports. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the general renewable energy technologies and their economics. In reality, there are a large variety of...

Renewable energy prospects

Out of this total, biomass and waste accounted for 1186 Mtoe and hydraulic power 261 Mtoe. These two energy sources, which make the largest contribution to the renewable energy balance, have already been used for many years. The main development hopes concern wind and solar power, which still only represent a minor proportion of energy production (respectively, 0.34 and 0.09Mtoe in France in 2007). The disadvantage with these

Energy Efficiency and Clean Energy as New Hitech Markets

Energy efficiency and clean energy may provide an opportunity to participate and create a new market. Patrick Mazza from Climate Solutions, an advocacy group, suggests that 'Clean energy generation and end-use efficiency represent a USD 3.5 trillion market over the coming 20 years, even with no new public priority'.26 There will be plenty of business opportunities in resource efficiency and productivity in the energy, water, agriculture, transportation and forest product industries. Examples of these opportunities include fuel cells, enzyme-based water treatment systems, precision farming technologies and bio-based fuels and speciality chemicals. It is estimated that the combined value of the resource productivity and efficiency market of these industries exceeds USD 60 billion and is growing rapidly.

The promise of solar energy

Solar energy is the main renewable energy resource throughout the world. Other renewable energy sources, e.g. biomass energy and wind energy, are derived directly from it. It is an abundant energy source. Our planet receives from the sun the equivalent of 15 000 times the energy consumed in the world, but this energy is diffuse and intermittent. Solar energy can be captured as either heat or electricity using the photovoltaic effect. There is considerable scope for the development of low-temperature thermal solar energy in the short term. Heat is supplied by solar sensors consisting of a black absorbent surface which transfers the heat to a heat exchange fluid, generally a mixture of water and glycol to prevent the possibility of freezing. A glazed surface is fitted over the absorbent surface to block the infrared radiation re-emitted. In the housing sector, thermal solar energy is used mainly to provide sanitary hot water. It may also be used to cater for a certain proportion of...

Prospects for Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

The second-generation of renewables has been commercially deployed, usually with incentives in place intended to ensure further cost reductions through increased scale and market learning. Offshore wind power, advanced biomass, solar PV and concentrating solar power technologies are being deployed now. All have benefited from R&D investments by IEA countries, mainly the 1980s. Markets for these technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. Some of the technologies are already fully competitive in favorable circumstances, but for others, and for more general deployment, further cost reductions are needed. The challenge is to continue to reduce costs and broaden the market base to ensure continued rapid market growth worldwide. Third-generation renewables, such as advanced biomass gasification, hot dry-rock geothermal power, and ocean energy, are not yet widely demonstrated or commercialized. They are on the horizon and may have estimated high potential comparable to...

Solar Photovoltaic

The key environmental impacts associated with significant adoption of solar energy are the land area required, impacts due to the production and disposal of the solar collectors, and impacts associated with increased requirements for energy storage. As an indication of the scale of production that may be necessary, the IEA BLUE Map scenario projects a need to install, each year until 2050, an average of 215 million m2 (about 86 mi2) of solar panels world-wide to meet the 4,750 TWh year of solar electricity generation they project will be needed to displace a portion of fossil-fuel-generated electricity 4 . This is in addition to concentrated solar thermal power plants. In the U.S., the average amount of peak solar energy that reaches the surface is on the order of 1 kW m2. For photovoltaic (PV) systems, conversion efficiency is typically no higher than about 20 , so each m2 of PV could produce no more than about 200 W of power. When combined with the changing azimuth of the sun over...

Solar Energy

The total solar energy incident on the surface of the earth averages about 86,000 terawatts (TW), which is more than 5,000 times the 15 TW of energy currently used by humans (of which roughly 12 TW now comes from fossil fuels) and more than 100 times larger than the energy potential of the next largest renewable source, wind energy (Hermann, 2006). Hence, the potential resource of solar energy is essentially limitless, which has led many to conclude that it is the best energy resource to rely on in the long run. Currently, this resource is exploited on a limited scale total installed worldwide solar energy production totaled 15 gigawatts (GW) in 2008,2 or just 0.1 percent of total energy production, with similar penetration in the United States (EIA, 2009). Solar energy can be used to generate electricity and heat water for domestic use. Passive solar heating can be used in direct heating and cooling of buildings. There are two main classes of solar energy technology used to generate...

Free Energy

Will a certain food provide energy when utilized by microorganisms If the answer is yes, then the food will be eaten and if it is in a wastewater, the wastewater will be cleaned up. The answer to this question can now be quantified by the combination of the concept of enthalpy and entropy. This combination is summed up in a term called free energy. Free energy G is defined as energy (represented by S) has been subtracted from the energy content. Thus, the term free energy. Biological processes are carried out at a given constant temperature as well as constant pressure. Thus, differentiating the free-energy equation at constant temperature, Note In order for G to be a maximum (i.e., to be a free energy), Q must be the Qrev as depicted in the equation.

Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic is a novel technology that helps reduce the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere as it uses solar energy which is free from pollutions. Solar energy can be utilized into two ways (i) photovoltaic and The photovoltaic systems can be classified according to their use and applications. These systems can broadly be classified into two types (1) photovoltaic (PV) systems and (2) photovoltaic thermal (PV T) systems. The first type can further be classified into space applications, stand-alone PV systems, grid-connected PV systems, photovoltaic hydrogen production systems, and miscellaneous small-scale applications whereas the second type can further be classified as PV T air collector and PV T water collector systems and others. Further, the stand-alone PV applications can be classified into two, agricultural water pumping and community or rural electrification. The PV T air collectors can be used for agricultural greenhouse drying and space or room heating applications...

Renewable energy

For centuries people have been harnessing the energy of wind and flowing water to power windmills and watermills. This technology has now been updated to drive electricity generators. Solar energy and even volcanic heat can also be turned into electricity. Such energy sources are described as renewable because they never run out. They may not be able to provide all our energy needs, but most of them do not release any of the greenhouse gases that are causing climate change.

Passive Solar Energy

Also, solar energy can be put into use by incorporating appropriate designs in buildings to maximize utilization of solar energy for various purposes such as lighting, air conditioning, and water and space heating cooling and thereby reduce external energy inputs. PV cells require high exposure to direct sunlight. To assure maximum exposure to the sun throughout the day, a phyrheliom-eter is used to calculate how much sun exposure a location experiences. This information is useful in determining whether or not a specific location is suitable for solar energy, as well as what direction the cells should face. In many cases, these cells are placed on rooftops.

Questions and Comments

Von Goerne We should have fixed taxes for specific purposes. If taxes on petroleum products are not uniform, then people would drive across the border to get the cheaper fuel, as happens now in some European states. Also some European taxes on gasoline go into the treasuries of retirement funds instead of renewable energy.

Conclusion Of Report On Solar Parabolic Collector

This chapter presents a review and analysis of solar-driven heat engines for power generation with relevance to residential applications. The impact of solar systems on sustainable development is quantified based on fossil fuel vs solar energy utilization factors predicted over the next decades and by sustainability factor as introduced also in other works, e.g., by Dincer and Rosen (2005). The established large-scale and small-scale systems are presented and analyzed based on their The optimization of the solar-driven heat engine is important for obtaining a low-levelized electricity cost and augmented CO2 mitigation through solar power generation. With this fact in mind we developed here a model for a solar heat engine and optimization and identified the important optimization parameters which are the quality of the optical system expressed in terms of angular error S, the concentration ratio C, the rim angle (, the collector temperature corroborated with the insolation, as...

Parabolic Solar Dish System

Receiver Dish Solar

In what follows, we illustrate the benefits of solar power generation on sustain-ability, on reducing greenhouse gas emission and on reducing global warming by a case study. The study refers to a residential (single) unit for solar power conversion based on a paraboloidal mirror that is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The solar dish concentrates the insolation on a glazed tube receiver that plays the role of desorber for an ammonia-water Rankine cycle. For expansion and work production, a scroll machine is capable of operating in a two-phase regime. The rejected heat of the The first step in solar energy system modeling and its design calculations is to determine the solar collector geometry and characteristics for maximum performance. This, in fact, is to maximize the collector efficiency. The derivation of the collector's efficiency results from the energy balance stating In Eq. (4.4), the intercept factor y JZpTa which represents the ratio between solar energy flux absorbed by the...

System Description and Control Strategy

Solar Absorption Chiller Schematic

A schematic diagram of the system studied is represented in Fig. 28.1. The system consists of a solar collector, a storage tank, an absorption chiller, heat exchanger, and auxiliary units. The system operates in four different modes. When solar energy is available for collection and there is a load demand, heat is supplied directly from the collector to the heating or cooling unit. When solar energy is available for collection and there is no heat or cooling demand, heat is stored in the storage unit. On the other hand, if solar energy is not available for collection and there is a load demand, storage then supplies heat to the heating or cooling

Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea

Global Solar Towns

Energy consumption causes a range of environmental pollution. Furthermore, with the increase in energy demand, the issue of energy shortage becomes increasingly serious. Since there is more and more concern on energy conservation and environmental protection, interest has been increasingly focused on the use of renewable energy. This is considered as a key source for the future, not only for South Korea but also for the world (Ulgen and Hepbasli, 2002). Especially, solar energy as a clean energy source and one kind of renewable energy is abundant in South Korea. Therefore, the precise measurement of the local solar radiation is required. Also, the solar radiation data are a fundamental input for solar energy applications such as photovoltaics, solar thermal systems, and passive solar design. The data should be contemporary, reliable, and readily available for design, optimization, and performance evaluation of solar technologies for any particular geographical location (Bulut and...

Results and Discussion

Solar Radiation Variability

The thermal performance of a solar system is usually measured by the solar fraction (F). Solar fraction is defined as the fraction of load met by solar energy. Figure 28.3 shows the variation of the solar fraction of space heating (Fs), domestic water heating (FD), and cooling load (FAc) as well as the total solar fraction (Ft) with collector area. As seen from the figure, a significant portion of the solar fraction for space heating and domestic water heating is satisfied at areas around 38 m2. Conversely, the space cooling requires much greater areas. The variation of total solar fraction, life cycle savings, and overall system efficiency (ratio of solar energy provided to the total incident radiation) with collector area is presented in Fig. 28.4. This typical figure shows the choice of optimum collector area which is approximately equal to 38 m2 in this case. It is The present results should encourage governments for wide installation of solar heating and cooling systems in...

Mr Ramiro Ramirez Environmental Policy Analyst OPEC

What we can foresee of this new carbon constrained world is the creation of new markets one for renewable energy technology and the other for carbon emission permits. However, none of these address the concerns of developing nations because they have nothing to gain from such a market at least in the way they are conceived today.

Electricity Generation from Renewables

There are many conventional and non-conventional ways by which electricity can be produced. One of the conventional ways is to produce electricity by using fossil fuels. Coal-based power plants are the mostly used method to produce electricity. They are also referred to as thermal power plants. Though the energy produced by a thermal power plant is more economical as compared to non-conventional sources, it also causes greenhouse gas emission at a higher rate and hence called dirty. On the contrary the photovoltaic system causes no harm to the environment as it uses solar energy which is also called clean energy but the electricity produced by it is not economical as the photovoltaic material used to produce solar cells are costly and for off sunshine period the energy needs to be stored in a storage device like battery. In this section we will discuss both the non-conventional and conventional sources for electricity generation. The solar energy can be utilized either to convert the...

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment

The cost of CO2 gas mitigation using renewable energy technologies depends on both the difference between the generation costs of the renewable energy systems and the costs of conventional energy generation and the carbon emissions that are displaced by the renewable energy generation. The mitigation costs are usually expressed in units of the cost per unit fossil carbon emissions that are avoided.

Dr Peter Mombaur Beiten Burkhardt Belgium

Therefore, I would like to introduce a very interesting report concerning solar power for the Mediterranean region. This study was made in April 2005 by the German Aerospace Center Institute of Technical Thermodynamics with contributions of researchers from Jordan, Morocco, Egypt, Oman, Bahrain and Algeria. A summary of their report is as follows 1- In the MENA region economic and social development is the first priority. 2-Although climate change is a serious concern, sustainability must also be achieved in terms of economy, affordability, technology, health and social compatibility. A strategy for power and water security must match the time horizon of all sustainability considerations, which is 50 to 100 years and more. 3- By 2050, fossil fired plants will only be used for what they are best suited for peaking demand. Because of this reduction to their key function their use will become environmentally compatible, and their availability will be prolonged for centuries. The...

Necessary Policy Measures at the International Level

To make a significant increase in the share of renewable energy-to-energy supply become reality, advanced policy measures have to be adopted globally. Governments from all over the world need to implement necessary minimum policy measures to guarantee the further deployment of renewable energy technologies and additional commitments on the international level have to be made. The states that are currently actively promoting renewable energy sources should set up legally binding targets for renewable energy sources in their governing areas. The mandatory targets can also be complemented by financial incentives in the respective countries. This too would be an effective policy to address security of supply, technology development, employment and climate objectives. In the current development policy, the developing countries' governments put little emphasis on RES. One of the main aims should be to create sustainable development in developing countries (access to energy in order to fight...

Public Perception

Recognition of the need for major CO2 emission reductions. It also depends upon CCS being seen as one part of a wider strategy for achieving significant cuts in CO2 emissions. A portfolio including renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency and lifestyle change to reduce demand, was generally favoured. CCS can be part of such a portfolio but wind, wave, tidal, solar and energy efficiency were generally preferred as options. As a stand alone option, it was felt that CCS might delay more far-reaching and necessary long-term changes in society's use of energy. The notion of CCS as a bridging strategy to a hydrogen-based energy system was welcomed.

Economic Analysis

Where P1 is the factor relating life cycle fuel cost to first-year fuel cost savings, P2 is the factor relating life cycle by additional capital investment to initial investmet, CA is the solar energy investment cost which is directly proportional to collector area, CE is the solar energy investment cost which is independent of collector area, CF is the unit cost of delivered conventional energy for the first year of analysis, L is the total load, and Ft is the total solar fraction of the solar system. For a particular

Case Study

An example of solar technology is adopted to demonstrate the link between sus-tainability and efficiency. An effective way to maintain a good electrical efficiency by removing heat from the solar panels and to have a better overall efficiency of a photovoltaic system is to utilize both the technologies simultaneously. This kind of system is known as hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV T) system and can be beneficial for low-temperature thermal applications like water heating, air heating, agricultural crop drying, solar greenhouses, space heating, etc., along with electricity generation that can further be beneficial for rural electrification and agricultural applications like solar water pumping, etc. In this case study we are giving a simple demonstration on how both the technologies together give better efficiency which directly relates to better sustainability. Based on the first law of thermodynamics, the energy efficiency of a PV T system can be defined as a ratio of total energy...

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear fission is one of the few large-scale carbon-free energy sources and currently provides 7 of global primary energy (17 of electricity) without any CO2 waste. Its costs are now well known and are unaffected The accident at Chernobyl raised around the world the fear that nuclear power was not safe enough to use and made the licensing process much more difficult and uncertain. Fully amortized, operating nuclear plants remain very competitive and have built a good safety record since, so that even countries that had decided to abandon nuclear power have not closed these. Indeed, in many cases life extension is being pursued, but orders for new plants have dried up. If gas prices were to remain at their former low levels, and no CO2 controls were required, nuclear power would continue to have a hard time to competing in deregulated markets with up-to-date combined-cycle gas turbines. But recent price increases have demonstrated that such long-term price stability of oil and gas is...

What Exactly Is Global Warming

Fact Companies worldwide that are already reducing their carbon emissions are finding that cutting pollution can be economically beneficial. For example, utility companies switching to wind power are creating new jobs, boosting their economies. Using skills and ingenuity can start new industries geared toward carbon-free technology and production. Even the world's major oil companies are currently getting involved in developing renewable energy resources.

Interrelationships between adaptation and mitigation can exist at each level of decisionmaking

Adaptation actions can have (often unintended) positive or negative mitigation effects, whilst mitigation actions can have (also often unintended) positive or negative adaptation effects 18.4.2, 18.5.2 . An example of an adaptation action with a negative mitigation effect is the use of air-conditioning (if the required energy is provided by fossil fuels). An example of a mitigation action with a positive adaptation effect could be the afforestation of degraded hill slopes, which would not only sequester carbon but also control soil erosion. Other examples of such synergies between adaptation and mitigation include rural electrification based on renewable energy sources, planting trees in cities to reduce the heat-island effect, and the development of agroforestry systems 18.5.2 .

Box 12 The Kyoto Protocol And Forestry Carbon Sinks

Need to undertake measures to reduce their domestic emissions unless they are in surplus and in a position to sell allowances. Countries have policy choices ranging from the introduction of mandatory requirements for power generation by renewable energy, and the subsidization of renewable energy, to the introduction of a carbon tax or mandatory cap and trade schemes. All countries are interested in adopting policy approaches that do least damage to their economies and this is where carbon taxes and cap and trade have an advantage over trying to 'pick winners' and subsidizing them.

Rethinking energy governance for sustainability

While 'low carbon' energy services dominate visions of sustainable energy futures, it is important to remember that there are other energy-related local and regional issues affecting communities and ecosystems, such as acidification, particulate emissions, and the impacts of producing biomass energy crops. Moreover, sustainable development has important social dimensions that imply equitable access to clean energy services, both within generations globally and between generations over the long term. The energy system can no longer be solely about supplying fuel and electricity. The overall sustainability of energy services has to become a policy priority.

Energy policy in the UK 19452000

Since 2000 a dearth of new generating investment, combined with a switch in price advantage to coal over gas, has meant a swing back to coal in power generation. As a result, UK CO2 emissions started to increase after 2000 (DTI, 2003c, p. 25). Though increasing UK emissions do not threaten its 2008-12 commitment, recent attempts to cut carbon emissions elsewhere in the economy, especially via energy saving and renewable energy, have had modest success. Section 5.2 argues that this outcome was far from inevitable, and reflects a failure on the part of government to deliver on policies developed in the early years of the new century.

The Nature Of Offsets

In contemplating making a contribution to tackling climate change, individuals and households have choices. They may decide to reduce their carbon footprint by reducing greenhouse emissions at source, for example by cutting back on car use or upgrading to a smaller and more fuel-efficient vehicle or at home, by installing insulation or solar panels to reduce reliance on electricity from coal fired utilities. Such actions prevent, right now, an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases and make a contribution to mitigating global warming and climate change. Such actions may also save the household money, especially if subsidies on expensive options such as solar power installation are generous and if the household is credited for supplying power to the grid.

Greenhouse Gas Capture and Sequestration

Carbon can also be removed either before or during combustion. In this case, there are two basic methods for carbon capture and removal. The first involves carbon separation from the fossil energy source before combustion. For example, one technology already in a relatively mature state of development is steam reforming of methane (natural gas) followed by a shift reaction that results in a mixture of CO2 and H2. After separation, the CO2 could be stored, while the H2 could be used as a very clean energy carrier for electricity production in gas turbines, in fuel cells, for heat production, or in chemical uses. The main challenge is cost reduction.

Policymaking 20003 Earning consent for change

While taking energy security as an important objective, the PIU report concluded that threats to security were, in practice, limited and that reliance on the operation of the energy markets would take care of security problems (PIU, 2002). It argued that competitive energy suppliers would have a strong self-interest in security and would behave in ways that would ensure sufficient security without major new public policy intervention. This left climate change as the dominant public policy objective in energy policymaking and the Energy Review made a range of detailed policy recommendations in pursuit of emission reductions. The recommendations majored on a need to pursue energy savings more vigorously, and to continue to support the diffusion of renewable energy. It also pointed to the need for much more radical action in the area of transport, where carbon emissions were rising rapidly. It was lukewarm on the role of nuclear power, which was in any case in a dormant state both in the...

Introduction and Overview

Reducing carbon emissions to levels consistent with the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere will require enormous amounts of clean energy supplies to displace current fossil fuel combustion. Renewable energy supplies are one source of such clean energy. This chapter focuses on terrestrially based renewable energy options. As used here, renewable energy is defined simply as any form of energy that can be used without diminishing the resource. Some forms of renewable energy, like solar and wind, are essentially limitless. Others, like geothermal, may be depleted in the short term, but are eventually regenerated. Some, like hydroelectricity, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, and biomass must be regenerated continually. But none are totally depleted forever. Renewable energy is generally clean. Most forms of renewable energy do not involve combustion and, therefore, do not emit gases to the atmosphere. In particular, renewables are attractive because they...

Technology Description and Status

Photovoltaic (PV) cells are based on semiconductors and convert light directly into electricity. They are usually encapsulated within modules with a power up to several hundred watts that can be combined into larger power arrays. These systems are connected to consumers or to the grid via electronics. Solar-photovoltaic technologies include off-grid and on-grid applications. PV systems are made either from crystalline semiconductor modules or from thin films, and PV technologies are characterized by their modularity.

Advanced Noncarbon Technologies

Advanced noncarbon technologies, such as nuclear fission or fusion, space solar power, and geoengineering, could potentially play an important role in climate stabilization. Several of these technologies are controversial, in early stages of development, or both. Until an option can be shown not to be viable, however, we should work to understand the option's potential benefits and drawbacks. Nuclear fission is an existing technology that could help stabilize climate. In some countries (e.g., France) nuclear power generates a substantial fraction of electricity, thus displacing CO2 emissions that might otherwise occur. Fission involves generating electricity by splitting heavy atomic nuclei, most commonly U235, into lighter atomic nuclei. Present nuclear reactor technology provides CO2-free electricity while posing unresolved problems of waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. The supply of fissile material, which depends on price, can be extended greatly through the use of...

Challenges to Future Deployment

As solar energy is intermittent, storage systems are needed for stand-alone solar systems. However, solar power generation may work well as part of a diversified power supply system. The system compatibility depends on the shape of the electricity load curve. In sunny regions with an electricity demand peak during summer days (often caused by air conditioning), the peak contribution of solar can be high.

Cost and Potential for Cost Reductions

Since concentrating solar power uses direct sunlight, the best conditions for this technology are in arid or semi-arid climates, including Southern Europe, North and Southern Africa, the Middle East, Western India, Western Australia, the Andean Plateau, Northeastern Brazil, Northern Mexico, and the Southwest United States. The cost of concentrating solar power generated with up-to-date technology at superior locations is between USD 0.10 and USD 0.15 per kWh. CSP technology is still too expensive to compete in domestic markets without subsidies. The goal of ongoing RD&D is to reduce the cost of CSP systems to USD 0.05-USD 0.08 per kWh within 10 years and to below USD 0.05 in the long term. Improved manufacturing technologies are needed to reduce the cost of key components, especially for first plant applications where economies of scale are not yet available. Field demonstration of the performance and reliability of stirling engines are critical.

Barriers Opportunities and Market Potential for New Technologies and Practices

Therefore, the opportunities section has to start with a description of the technical potential of different renewable energy resources. 6.4.1 Basis of opportunities The technical potential of renewable energy The proper parameter to describe the technical potential of renewable energy forms is the energy flux density, here given in Watts per square meter (Wm-2). A densely populated and developed country like Germany has an energy supply system with about 1.5 Wm-2 primary energy flux density, of which about 90 percent are fossil fuel based. In comparison, the geothermal energy flux density reaches only 0.08 Wm-2 on average in Germany. Hence, geothermal energy can only become a small part of a renewable energy supply system. In addition, the comparably low temperatures of only several hundred C make geothermal energy not very attractive for electric energy generation (only about 20 percent efficiency). Therefore, geothermal energy will mainly be useful for heating of buildings and...

Global Environment Facility GEF

Renewable energy is one of the most promising substitutes for fossil fuels, which are responsible for the largest share of greenhouse gas emissions. GEF helps countries remove barriers to developing markets for renewable energies wherever cost-effective. GEF funds projects which promote the use of renewable energy, such as small hydropower generating plants, and the development of cost-effective solar voltaic cells. Such opportunities can be found in on-grid and off-grid situations, as well as in heating for industrial and other applications using renewable energy sources. In addition to renewable energies and energy efficiency, new technologies are critical to help prevent dangerous levels of greenhouse gas emissions, while allowing for economic development. GEF provides support for such new technologies that are not yet cost effective. The current portfolio ranges from large-scale solar power plants, to distributed power generation in fuel cells,...

Irreversible Thermo Chemical Processes

The development of appropriated technologies, which avoid the production of pollutants and other problems, while maximizing process efficiency, permits the sustainable disposal of solid olive-mill wastes. There are three main thermo-chemical processes by which this renewable energy source can be utilized, namely gasification, briquetting, and combustion (direct firing) or co-combustion (co-firing) see Chapter 10 Uses , section Generation of energy .

Honest brokering to foster open deliberation

The conventional view of the 'pure scientist' is of someone without any stake in politics, or perhaps a 'science arbiter' providing positive, value-free advice on those policy issues that can be resolved through science. These roles are, however, applicable only in situations of high value consensus and low uncertainty. Many, if not most, of the questions relevant to energy transitions involve high uncertainty and significant value conflicts. Scientific knowledge cannot tell us whether to build new nuclear power, to invest in highly decentralised systems of renewable energy production, or whether a combination of the two would be most desirable. Neither can expert knowledge decide on whether emissions trading is an appropriate way of allocating responsibilities for carbon reduction across the globe, not least because of the ethical and cultural considerations involved.

Reactor Configuration

The feasibility and efficiency of other types of bioreactors, such as completely mixed tank reactor (CMTR) in development of aerobic granular sludge have not been sufficiently demonstrated so far. In a hydrody-namic sense, column-type upflow reactor and CMTR have very different hydrodynamic behaviors in terms of interactive patterns between flow and microbial aggregates, as illustrated in Fig. 5.8a. According to the thermodynamics, the circular flow could force microbial aggregates to be shaped as regular granules that have a minimum surface free energy, provided those aggregates could be kept in the reactors under given dynamic conditions. Thermodynamically, such a phenomenon is very similar to the formation of benthic round-shape boulders in a natural flowing river system. It is obvious that in a column-type upflow reactor a higher ratio of reactor height to diameter can ensure a longer circular flowing trajectory, which in turn creates a more effective hydraulic attrition to...

Life Cycle Assessment Methods4

The impacts of a product (or process) on the environment come not only when the product is being used for its intended purpose, but also as the product is manufactured and as it is disposed of at the end of its useful life. Efforts to account for the full set of environmental impacts of a product, from production of raw materials through manufacture and use to its eventual disposition, are referred to as life-cycle analysis (LCA). LCA is an important tool for identifying opportunities for reducing GHG emissions and also for examining trade-offs between GHG emissions and other environmental impacts. LCA has been used to examine the GHG emissions and land use requirements of renewable energy technologies (e.g., NRC, 2009) and other technolo

Effects of forest cover change on ecosystem services and society

Fire also increases albedo (short-wave reflectance), which reduces the amount of solar energy absorbed by the land surface and transferred to the atmosphere. This occurs in spring due to removal of the tree canopy, exposing the more reflective snow-covered ground, and in the summer due to replacement of the dark complex

Scenarios for the Future

Renewable energy is frequently viewed as part of the future solution to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels. In fact, the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the World Energy Council (WEC), as well as Shell Oil's renowned scenario developers have all developed scenarios that present futures for the 21st century in which much, if not most, world primary energy is derived from renewable energy (see Figure 5.9). Moreover, these scenarios are not considered to be outlying scenarios by their developers. The Shell Sustained Growth Scenario was essentially Shell's business-as-usual scenario when developed in the mid-1990s (Kassler, 1994). Perhaps more remarkable, the IPCC Coal-Intensive Scenario from the Second Assessment Report6 (SAR) shows non-hydro renewables contributing 60 of all worldwide primary energy use by 2100 (IPCC, 1996). Inasmuch as these...

Systemlevel Deployment

The levels of renewable energy use described in the above scenarios may require some major energy infrastructure changes. For example, the number of renewable energy technologies available today to directly displace petroleum use in the transportation sector is limited largely to ethanol and, perhaps, biodiesel. To meet the growing worldwide demand for transportation services in the second half of the 21st century, when world petroleum production will probably be in decline, will require other options. In the next few paragraphs, we briefly introduce what some of these major market shifts might entail for all energy sectors. We introduce market concepts in which alternative transportation forms reduce the need for liquid fuels, hydrogen becomes the common energy carrier, electric vehicles represent a means to use renewable energy more extensively, and superconducting transmission and storage are used to address the intermittency of leading non-hydro renewable energy technologies....

Emissions from manure

Enhancing the production of CH4 and capturing the biogas is an abatement strategy, generally referred to as anaerobic digestion. The captured gas can then be used as fuel for heating, lighting, transport or production of electricity or can be burned without beneficial use (flaring). The positive greenhouse gas emission effect is based on the conversion of CH4 (GWP of 21-25) to CO2 and the replacement of electricity from fossil fuels by renewable energy in the form of CH4.

Largescale Applications

Pilot- and full-scale studies using solar illumination and reactor volumes of 100-300 gal have been investigated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Pacheco and Holms 94 describe engineering-scale experiments for the detoxification of solvent-contaminated groundwaters. Two reactors were used a parabolic concentrating trough (7 ft by 120 ft with a 51-fold concentration efficiency) and a falling film reactor. PCO of a model compound, salicylic acid, was examined. The light intensity ranged from 1032 to 484 W m2 for clear to cloudy days, respectively. Results for the two reactors are presented in Figure 6, where the exposure time is given as the total time multiplied by the ratio of light-exposed water volume to total water volume. Thus less than 3 min exposure to illumination was required for effective removal of this compound. The temperature of the suspension rose from 7 to 53 C as a result of the applied concentrated solar illumination, which may...

Playing to national strengths The UK example

As this chapter has noted, UK policy mechanisms that are supposed to be technology neutral such as the Renewables Obligation end up favouring those options that are nearest to market. There is little evidence that mechanisms of this kind are sufficient to also encourage innovation in the next generation of renewable energy technologies. Options such as wave and tidal power and thin film PV require more than this. The government already recognises this to some extent with additional forms of support, for example through the Carbon Trust's 'Marine Energy Accelerator'. The Renewables Obligation itself is being reformed with bands that provide more support to emerging technologies and less for commercialised options (DTI, 2006b). This will revive a principle that was used in the obligation's predecessor support policy, the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation.

The melting curve of iron

To determine the melting curve of iron, Alfe et al. 1999, 2001, 2002b, 2003, 2004 calculated the chemical potential j of pure iron as a function of pressure and temperature for both solid and liquid. In a one component system this is the same as the Gibbs free energy per atom G N. In fact, Alfe et al. 1999, 2001, 2002b, 2003, 2004 calculated the Helmholtz free energy F as a function of volume and temperature and then obtained G from its usual relation G F + pV. As mentioned above, for any fixed pressure the continuity of G with respect to temperature defines the melting transition, which is found by the point where the Gibbs free energies of liquid and solid become equal, Gl(p, Tm) Gs(p, Tm).

Introduction and background

Landfill CH4 accounts for approximately 1.3 per cent (0.6Gt CO2-eq yr1) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49Gt (Monni et al, 2006 US EPA, 2006 Bogner et al, 2007 Rogner et al, 2007). For countries with a history of controlled landfill-ing, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of anthropogenic CH4 for example, US landfills are currently the second largest source of anthropogenic CH4 after ruminant animals (US EPA, 2008). In general, landfill CH4 emissions are decreasing in developed countries (Deuber et al, 2005 US EPA, 2008). Because CH 4 has both a relatively high GWP and a relatively short atmospheric lifetime of about 12 years (Forster et al, 2007), many countries have targeted reductions in landfill CH4 emissions as part of a strategy to stabilize and reduce atmospheric CH4 concentrations. Historically, landfill CH4 has been commercially recovered and utilized since 1975 in many countries to...

Green companies do better

New market indexes for alternative energy are used to track the performance of alternative energy companies and can be compared to other market indices, such as the Dow Jones Industrial Average (Keehner, 2006). The numbers suggest that alternative energy indices (and companies) do better than many non-green indices. One index, Global Climate 100, increased 10 per cent over the first half of 2006, while the Morgan Stanley International World index was up 6 per cent. Another green index, Wilderhill Clean Energy, increased 24 per cent, compared to Standard & Poor's 500-stock index, which rose only 4 per cent (Keehner, 2006). As a whole, green companies are doing better than many other corporations, and many businesses are beginning to realize that being pro-environment can also be profitable.

Standards in voluntary forestry offsets

Note The share of afforestation reforestation (A R) plantations remained steady at 2 in 2007 but mixed species plantation fell sharply from 2006 to 2007. Renewable energy, energy efficiency and fuel switching became more popular. 'Fugitive' emissions are from leaks in equipment, pipeline seals or valves. Note The share of afforestation reforestation (A R) plantations remained steady at 2 in 2007 but mixed species plantation fell sharply from 2006 to 2007. Renewable energy, energy efficiency and fuel switching became more popular. 'Fugitive' emissions are from leaks in equipment, pipeline seals or valves.

International efforts

European countries have recently received a great deal of attention for their use of renewable energy particularly wind power to decrease their carbon emissions. Europeans have also embraced the diesel engine as a way to conserve oil resources. Currently, 25 40 per cent of all Western European vehicles run on diesel, and that number is expected to grow to 50 per cent by 2010 (Falk, 2000). Consumers are increasingly running these vehicles on biodiesel, an even cleaner and more environmentally sustainable fuel (Styles, 2005).

Making Every Building a Power Plant

World Energy Use in 2005 and Annual Renewable Energy Potential with Current Technologies to use more energy or to spend their savings on other goods that require energy. This is known as the rebound effect or leakage, and it is measured by the difference between projected and actual energy savings that result from an increase in efficiency. Evidence suggests that in developing countries the rebound effect can be 100 percent or greater, meaning that efficiency improvements have at best no impact on energy use. In mature or wealthier markets, however, efficiency improvements in electrical equipment result in energy savings that are 60-100 percent of projected levels. Case studies in the United States have concluded that energy savings in commercial buildings from schools to office towers have frequently been greater than projected. Perhaps most promising are more-efficient, or even zero-net-energy, buildings.10 A zero-energy, zero-carbon building is one that produces all its...

The overall photosynthetic process

Thylakoid membrane system, hydrogen is withdrawn from water and passed along a series of hydrogen carriers to NADP, so that NADPH2 is formed and oxygen is liberated. Associated with this hydrogen (or electron) transport there is a conversion of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate to ATP (adenosine triphosphate), probably two (or, on average, some fractional number between one and two) ATP molecules being formed for every two electrons transferred or molecule of NADP reduced. These chemical changes are associated with a considerable increase in free energy this is made possible by the light energy absorbed by the chloroplast pigments. Thus we may summarize the light reactions by the equation In the dark reactions, which take place in the stroma of the chloroplast, the NADPH2 produced in the light reactions is used to reduce CO2 to the level of carbohydrate. This too is associated with an increase in free energy, the energy being supplied by the concomitant breakdown of...

Progress across the North

While also an active participant in the debate on climate change and renewable energy, Iceland has strongly encouraged cooperation among scientists and public officials in the North. As one aspect of this effort, Iceland's Ambassador Gunnar Paulsson served as chair of the Arctic Council during completion of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, which summarized the environmental concerns and the evolution of what is happening in the Arctic. For the future, we will be encouraging even more active cooperation and links among the Northern Territories and the Arctic countries. We need to further draw Russia into the

A35 Electronics Industry Emissions

The 1996 IPCC Guidelines and the GPG2000, described methods for estimating emissions from semiconductor manufacturing alone for seven fluorinated carbon compounds CF4, C2F6, CHF3, C3F8, c-C4F8, NF3 and SF6. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines expands that scope to include additional manufacturing sectors and more gases, updates the Tier 1 methodology and emission factors, and provides explicit estimates of uncertainties for emissions factors and activity data. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines incorporates emissions from liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing, photovoltaic (PV) cell manufacturing and the use of heat transfer fluids in semiconductor

An Example Analysis of Potential Reductions in CO2 Emissions from the US Cement Industry

In a cap and trade framework, allowance price is a primary metric for deciding on emission reduction levels. Figure 8.8 reflects that CO2 allowance price (in 2013 for example) for various reduction levels range from about 10 to 35 per short ton of CO2. A recent analysis of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, reflects a price range of 13-24 per metric ton in 2015 51 . Considering this

Appendix 6A Economic and technical assumptions used in model scenarios 2020 United States electricity and

Solar photovoltaic 1500 kWp To conduct these studies we modeled an energy system potentially drawing on a range of resources, both conventional and renewable, and supplying electricity and transportation fuels. The model can be set up to represent an entirely conventional system, a system that relies entirely on renewable energy, or any mixture. When modeling a renewable system, the model includes a fuel cell to cover peak electric demands. In these analyses the system was always configured to reliably serve the electric load.

Climate change and the small island developing states

In November 2000, the Climate Institute and its partners including the Organization of American States, the Energy and Security Group established the Global Sustainable Energy Islands Initiative to assist the small islands states in developing and implementing comprehensive sustainable energy plans that would transform their energy systems from fossil fuels to a renewable energy base and reduce their reliance on imported diesel. This program is currently active in four Caribbean and two Pacific island nations with plans to expand to another three islands states in 2008-2009. The donors of this initiative include the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the United Nations Foundation, the government of Italy, Austria and the US Agency for International Development.

Implications for developing nations

In other countries, a focus on renewable energy development will be more effective. As the experiences of the small island developing states demonstrate, renewable generation can be achieved in a variety of ways. Some countries will focus on biofuels from a variety of sources others will focus on emerging technologies like wind and solar power to undergird their development. Either method will reduce potential fossil fuel consumption while countries work at the same time to further improve their standards of living, thus striking a balance between considerations of equity and efficiency.

Geoengineering Strategy Reduce Solar Irradiance

Proposed to loft into outer space a 10 mm thick and 2,000 km in diameter shield constructed of lunar materials and locate it at the L1 point. A more recent study proposed to launch 800,000 m-sized reflective objects manufactured on Earth to the L1 point, creating a 100,000 km diameter reflective cloud to deflect solar energy 21 . Both studies discussed the challenge of maintaining the delicate balance between the opposing gravitational fields, centripetal acceleration from orbiting the sun, and the forcing associated with the deflection of solar photons. In the 22 report, the list of proposed objects to be placed into LEO included a large solar-reflective screen, thousands of mirrors, and clouds of dust. Due to instability in orbit, the NAS committee ruled out the dust cloud proposal as impractical.

National Association of energy Service companies NAESco

NAESCO wants to play a major role in devising innovative policies for a changing marketplace. It represents the various parts of the energy services industry and advocates for the cost-effective supply of inclusive energy services to all types of customers. In order to promote industry quality, NAESCO has organized a meticulous endorsement program for ESCOs (Energy Service Providers and Energy Efficiency Contractors) to identify capabilities and experience. The Association has the ambition to gather the broadest spectrum of market participants in the energy industry. Its membership includes about 75 companies that deliver over 4 billion of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and distributed generation projects across the United States every year. NAESCO also tries to go beyond American national boundaries, acting as a forum for energy service-providers from around the world on how to facilitate market opportunities. The association has members in Israel, China, and Mexico.

Geoengineering Strategy Increase the Planetary Albedo

Pinatubo, a volcano in the Philippines, explosively erupted. The volcanic plume lofted approximately 20 Tg of gaseous sulfur dioxide into the upper troposphere and stratosphere. During the subsequent weeks, the volcanic sulfur dioxide dispersed across the globe, while photochemically oxidizing to form sulfate aerosols. These aerosols had both significant direct and indirect effects on the Earth's radiative balance - directly scattering solar radiation to outer space and indirectly affecting climate by enhancing cloud reflectivity in the upper troposphere. Two months after the eruption, the Earth's albedo had increased, on average, by 6 . Cloud-free regions, which otherwise absorb a large fraction of the earth's incoming solar energy, saw a 20 increase in albedo due entirely to direct aerosol scattering. In the year to follow, global temperatures dropped by an estimated 0.7 C (relative to 1991). As the volcanic aerosols settled out of the stratosphere and...

Success and Failure of PCM Lessons Learnt

One may speculate on the reasons why most clean energy technologies do not commercialize, or commercialize very slowly, and why in some cases the commercialization process is even hindered by efforts to promote these technologies. Clean energy technologies suffer from a mix of disadvantages, including programmes on environmental issues, and those parties, which focus on the environment, are not necessarily familiar with, or in favour of, technological options and Lack of expertise Clean energy technologies are still niche fields in most universities, businesses and governments.

Rethinking causalities

In a second step this approach requires the adjustment of the economic incentive system in order to induce decisions which meet the desired energy structures. The level of energy prices in general will have to be raised to provide incentives for switching to energy-efficient technologies. Prices for renewable energy sources will have to be lower than for exhaustible resources. Prices for final energy consumption will also have to reflect the impact on the environment and their exergy content. If markets are not able to process this information adjustments by selective taxes will have to be made.

Solutions for Global Warming

If, as most scientists believe, human carbon emissions are a major cause of rising global temperatures, then only human action to reduce those emissions will be effective in solving the problem. Many people hope that technology and new renewable energy sources will provide an easy solution, but scientists and energy experts are not confident that this can occur quickly enough. Instead, most experts think that immediate caps on human carbon emissions are also necessary to prevent a future global warming disaster. For this reason, the IPCC has urged that governments adopt multiple strategies for radically cutting carbon emissions from fossil fuels. So far, however, there has been only modest progress in this direction.

The Safe Climate Act of 2007

The Safe Climate Act of2007 (H.R. 1590), introduced by Representative Henry Waxman, Democrat from California, is a bill designed to take action to avoid the predicted, most severe effects of global warming on the environment. The bill focuses on increasing reliance on renewable energy sources and efficient energy. It establishes pollution reduction targets that aim to keep temperatures below the 2 F (1.2 C) tipping point that scientists refer to as the dangerous point beyond which drastic climate changes will be unavoidable. In order to stay below the tipping point, the concentrations of global warming pollutants must not exceed 450 ppm by 2100. In order to reach these goals, the bill requires an increased reliance on clean, renewable energy sources, improved energy efficiency, and clean cars. It directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to establish national standards requiring 20 percent of electricity to be generated from renewable energy resources by 2020. It also requires utilities...

Sky Radiance and Diffuse Fraction

It is well known that the atmosphere scatters shorter wavelengths of solar energy much more than longer wavelengths, and that the scattering increases with SZA (Iqbal, 1983). Usually, more than half of the UV-B irradiance arriving on earth is from diffuse radiation from the sky. The greater fraction of radiance from the sky has profound implications for the amount of UV-B irradiance in urban ecosystems.

Which options are available to reduce methane emissions and what are the costs of the options

Pacala and Socolow (2004) have suggested that the policy gap between a business as usual (BAU) scenario and a stabilization scenario could be tackled stepwise through stabilization wedges, using current technologies. In a BAU scenario, carbon emissions are increasing by 1.5 to 2 per cent per year. In their view, every wedge contains a package of measures that reduces the emissions substantially. Wedges can be achieved from, for example, energy efficiency, the decarbonization of the supply of electricity and fuels by means of fuel shifting, carbon capture and storage, nuclear energy and renewable energy. With energy conservation and efficiency improvements, large reductions in carbon dioxide emissions have already been achieved in some sectors and regions. In industrialized countries, the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) of the total economy was 2 per cent per year over the last four decades, with a levelling off during the last 20 years (Schipper, 1998).

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Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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