Do It Yourself Solar Energy

DIY Home Energy System

The D.I.Y. Home Energy is a digital book written by Jeff Davis. It includes practical video footage on how to build your solar panels, which Jeff created with Tim Baker, who is a solar and wind energy expert. Since Jeff discovered the secret on how to save power, he has installed hundreds of residential solar panels. He has the skills and secrets to help you do it using high quality and professional solar parts. The book gives you results in 30 days. Your power bills reduce drastically, and you will never have to worry about big bills. Besides, no more sudden blackouts and power outages; you are in control of your home's electrical power supply. The simple guide combined with detailed videos will take you step by step. You do not need any technical skills; everything is explained and demonstrated for you. It is the first step towards your freedom from the monopoly of energy companies. Read more...

DIY Home Energy System Summary

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Author: Jeff Davis
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Solar Power Generation Systems

In this section, the main kinds of established solar power systems, including small-(individual) and large-scale residential power generation are classified as shown in Figure 4.2 and analyzed in terms of their overall and component performance. A typical solar-driven heat engine system for residential power (and heat) generation consists of a solar concentrating collector that drives a heat engine (e.g., a Rankine cycle). The heat engine produces shaft work at an expander that in turn drives an electrical generator additionally, the rejected heat may serve a useful purpose (e.g., water heating). Such a system can be connected to the grid or can work independently with energy storage in various ways, as will be discussed in the next section of this chapter. Even though they are conceptually similar, large-scale solar systems differ from small-scale systems through the fact that they use a central power plant. In large systems, a field of collectors is used to capture the solar energy,...

Steam Network Optimization by Utilizing Biomass and Solar Energy Sources in an Oil Refinery

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial processes contribute significantly to global warming. A reduction in GHG emissions can only be achieved by a conversion to renewable energy sources and a simultaneous increase in energy efficiency therefore, the application of renewable energies for evaluating the site utility systems and environmental aspects should be considered. Site utility systems involve complex interactions. For improving the systems, a structured approach is needed. Steam generators are important components of site utility systems that affect the thermal performance of chemical and petrochemical industry processes. To overcome the above drawbacks, renewable energies can be integrated into plant for generating steam. Renewable energy offers important potential benefits. Solar energy as the abundant resource has a viable option for consumption that can free up larger quantities of oil. Moreover, there is growing recognition that...

The Clean Energy New Deal

We have a limited supply of fossil fuels, especially oil. Our burning of fossil fuels is destroying a livable climate. The two key questions are, first, will we voluntarily give up fossil fuels in the next couple of decades, rather than being forced to do so helter-skelter after it is too late to stop the catastrophe Second, when we do give them up, will the United States be a global leader in creating jobs and exports in clean energy technologies or will we be importing them from Europe, Japan, and the likely clean energy leader in our absence, China. For more than a quarter century, conservatives have blocked or scaled back efforts by progressives to spend more on clean energy development and deployment. As a result, while we lead the world in virtually every type of clean energy through the early 1980s, now we are playing catch up across the board, even in technologies that we invented, like the solar cell and the efficient lightbulb. At last we...

Renewable energy options for the future

Primary energy sources are those that contain energy in a form (high potential) that enables them to be converted directly to lower forms of energy that are directly usable by people. These include fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and renewable resources such as biofuels, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, solar power, tidal power, and wind power. Fossil fuels will Solar power uses solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, utilizing the most steady source of energy in the solar system. Sunlight can heat water or air in solar panels, create steam using parabolic mirrors, or be used in a more passive way, utilizing the light entering windows to heat buildings. Solar power is most efficient in places where the solar radiation is the highest. Places like the sunny desert southwestern United States are much more suited for solar power than the Pacific Northwest, which is shrouded in clouds many days of the year. Solar panels operate at different efficiencies, depending on the...

Gibbs Free Energy Minimizations

Several methods to estimate the P-T conditions of methane hydrate stability by searching for the state which minimizes the Gibbs Free Energy of the system have been developed. These programs are computationally intensive and require sophisticated computer programming. However, computer programs to carry-out these calculations are now readily available. Sloan (1990, 1998) presents a detailed description of CSMHYD, a PC-DOS based computer program. His textbook includes a floppy disk with an executable version of the program. In addition to calculations of the stability temperature at a given pressure (or vice-versa) in pure water, the program also includes a variable composition salt component to allow seawater and pore-water predictions. We refer the reader to the textbook for the details of how the program works. Output from CSMHYD is shown in figure 5 for a pure methane hydrate in equilibrium Zatsepina and Buffet (1997, 1998) present an alternate Gibbs Free Energy minimization...

Smallscale Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Filtration Plants

Membrane-driven processes account for over half the existing renewable energy powered desalination in existence. Some of the reasons for this include that they are a modular technology, easy to install, compact in size, and simple to operate. Many of these advantages are also mirrored by renewable energy microgenerators, such as PV modules. These are also modular, contain no moving parts, have a long life ( 20-year warranty) and involve low maintenance. The modularity of both of these technologies has also assisted in cost reduction being achieved via economies-of-scale. Wind turbines are also available in a wide variety of sizes (from 100 W up to MW scale) and multiple turbines can be included in a system design. Therefore, it is possible to scale a renewable energy powered membrane system to almost any size. These factors, combined with RO and NF exhibiting a very low SEC for seawater and brackish water, respectively, makes membranes an obvious choice when powering such systems with...

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

The solar energy Industry Association (SEIA) is an American trade association for the solar industry, working to expand markets, strengthen and develop research, and improve education for the employment of solar energy. SEIA is affiliated with the PVNow coalition of photovoltaic companies, which aims to expand the North American-distributed, grid-connected photovoltaic market opportunities and eliminate market barriers. They are pursuing this goal through lobbying key state legislatures, utility rate-making authorities, and other state energy policymaking agencies. SEIA represents over 700 companies and 20,000 employees in the U.S. energy sector. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation. and small businesses. SEIA chapters have up-to-date information on retailers and...

Renewable Energy Potential

Although renewable energy technologies are unreliable for the world's present energy demand, the market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. Approximately 74,223 MW of power is generated from windmills worldwide. Several European countries and the United States produce the largest percentage of wind energy. Denmark is the world leader in this technology. The present worldwide manufacturing output of the photovol-taics (PV) industry is more than 2,000 MW per year. Japan, Germany, and the United States contribute 90 percent of all photovoltaic installations in the world. Solar energy use is also growing at a faster rate in developing countries, such as Kenya and India. Worldwide, approximately 8,000 MW capacity of geothermal power plants are in operation. A 750 MW geothermal power plant, The Geysers in California, is the largest in the world. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world. It produces ethanol (biofuel) from sugarcane, contributing 18...

Renewable Energy In The World Today

Solar Energy Locations

Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation (GWth) and bio-fuel production (units GL year) 4 . Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation (GWth) and bio-fuel production (units GL year) 4 . generation 3 . Fig. 1 below shows the world renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008 4 . From Fig. 1, it can be seen that wind power has an installed capacity of 121 MW worldwide. The wind industry this is growing at annual rate of 30 , with widespread use in Europe and the USA 4 . The annual manufacturing output of the photovoltaics (PV) industry reached a record 6.9 GW in 2008, bringing the installed capacity to 13 MW with the largest solar farms'' operating Germany, Spain, and Portugal. Several large solar thermal power plants operate in USA and Spain with the largest of these being the 354 MW SEGS...

International solar Energy society IsEs

THE INTERNATIoNAL soLAR Energy Society is an international nonprofit, nongovernmental organization with a focus on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies. The society has 30,000 members globally from industry, research, and government there are national sections in 54 countries. The following goals are stated in the society's mandate to encourage the use and acceptance of renewable energy technologies to realize a global community of industry, individuals, and institutions in support of renewable energy to create international structures to facilitate cooperation and exchange to create and distribute publications for various target groups to support the dissemination of renewable energy technologies to bring together industry, science, and politics in workshops, conferences, and summits on renewable energy, and to advise governments and organizations in policy, implementation, and sustainability of renewable energy activities world-wide. The motto of the ISES...

Renewable Energy A Definition

It is clear therefore, that in due time renewable energies1 will dominate the world's energy supply system, due to their inherent advantages such as mitigation of climate change, generation of employment and reduction of poverty, as well as increased energy security and supply. Renewable energy technologies are well suited to respond to the limitations of current energy patterns and contribute to the further modernisation of the energy sector. increasing energy needs, thereby ensuring a sustainable security of supply. Furthermore, renewable energy sources can help improve the competitiveness of industries and have a positive impact on regional development and employment. Renewable energy technologies are suitable for off-grid services, serving those in remote areas of the world without having to build or extend expensive and complicated grid infrastructure. The earth receives solar energy as radiation from the sun, in a quantity far exceeding mankind's use. By heating the planet, the...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with states and firms to help them develop their renewable portfolio. The organization also provides expert information to consumers to improve energy efficiency and guide their transition to alternative energy options. To promote sales of renewable energy products and services, REPP created a buyer's guide and consumer directory for approximately 5,000 businesses. REPP was initiated with support from the Energy Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy. While financial support is determined on an...

Renewable Energy Sources As An Alternative To Nuclear Power

New Nuclear Construction Global Picture

Building and commissioning massive, complex nuclear plants requires huge government subsidies. Contrast this with wind or solar energy that are distributed and less dense supplies of energy. The amount of solar panels produced on an annual basis is equivalent to the construction of two nuclear facilities. The renewable solar approach seems simpler and safer, and not one requiring subsidies. Such sound Renewable energy is everywhere, easy to tap, cheap to harness, and above all, human and climate friendly. It has the added bonus of feeding surplus electricity back into the electric grid. Nuclear power, however, provides tough competition with its powerful lobby claiming it is the best carbon displacer. A 2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology study revealed that people concerned about global warming are neutral on the role of nuclear as either a solution or a problem in the climate crisis debate. What is not highlighted for the public is that for every 1,000 spent on nuclear...

Space lunar solar power systems

Introduction to solar electric power from space It is extremely difficult to gather diffuse, irregular solar power on Earth and make it available as a dependable source of commercially competitive standalone power. The challenges increase as irregular terrestrial solar power becomes a larger fraction of total regional or global commercial electric power. Research indicates that terrestrial solar may provide 5 to 17 of renewable power to conventional small power grids. Fifty percent supply of power by terrestrial solar, and wind, is conceivable. However, an increasing fraction of renewable power is limited by the higher cost of renewable sources, high costs of storage and transmission of renewable power, institutional resistance, and regulator effects (Wan and Parsons, 1993). Conversely, above the atmosphere of Earth and beyond Earth's cone of shadow the sunlight is constant. In space, very thin structures that would be destroyed by water vapor, oxygen, winds, and other hostile...

Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many proven technologies available to produce renewable energy, and some new technologies are under development. One of the most promising renewable energy technologies for electricity generation is wind energy that uses airflows to run wind turbines. In good wind regimes, cost-wise, wind power is comparable to fossil alternatives, particularly when economic or environmental concerns are considered. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 KW to 5 MW of rated power. Most common wind turbines for commercial use are of a rated capacity of 1.5-3 MW. Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy in the world. Since 1993, it is growing on average 30 percent a year. Windmills typically run at 2535 percent of their capacity over the course of a year. A photovoltaic module composed of multiple photovoltaic cells or arrays is used to convert sun light directly into electricity. Photovoltaic power is also widely viewed as cost competitive, like wind power. As energy from the...

Solar Energy and the Environment

The attributes of solar energy technologies (e.g., modularity, flexibility, low operating costs) differ considerably from those for traditional, fossil fuel-based energy technologies. Solar energy technologies can provide cost-effective and environmentally beneficial alternatives to conventional power systems. Some of the benefits that make solar energy systems attractive follow (e.g., Dincer, 2000 and McGowan, 1990) There are three main points that make solar technology sustainable Their comparable environmental impact is minor and the variety of solar technologies provides a flexible array of options. They cannot be depleted. If used appropriately, solar energy resources are reliable and sustainable. Solar energy resources do have some characteristics that lead to problems, but they are often solvable technical and economic challenges generally diffuse, not fully accessible, sometimes intermittent, and regionally variable. The potential for overall benefits is often overlooked for...

A sustainable energy governance example coordinating renewable energy expansion

Governance complexities soon become apparent even if we simplify to a supply-side example like renewable energy. Widespread renewable energy systems pose a considerable policy challenge. The policy 'object' - viable renewable energy systems - brings with it many coordination challenges. There are various renewable energy technologies to choose from (wind, solar, biomass, marine, and others), each of which can be configured at various scales in different ways, and each of which is already developed to various degrees. The innovation and deployment of renewable energy technologies involves a mix of established energy utilities and new business models and firms. Renewable energy projects like wind farms can involve large and protracted planning processes. Other projects involve smaller planning applications, but these can prove just as protracted and debilitating for the applicant (such as those for solar water heating panels in UK conservation areas). Both make demands upon the existing...

US potential for renewable energy

In contrast those in Europe, US renewable energy policies over the past two decades have been an uneven and ever-changing patchwork of regulations and subsidies. Abrupt changes in direction at both the state and federal levels have deterred investors and led dozens of companies into bankruptcy. Embracing the path of renewable energy is not only an environmental necessity, it also makes good economic sense, allowing both companies and individuals to save money, and generating high-wage jobs in a rapidly growing technological industry. Renewable resources are sometimes dismissed as serious options because it is argued their growth will be constrained by the underlying resource base. In fact, statistics show that the US has a very large resource base for wind, solar, geothermal and other renewables, and the land area required would be modest (see Figure 19.4). Recent studies show that if wind energy technology were to be fully implemented in only three states, it would generate enough...

Synergy Between Renewable Energy Resource And Water Supply

It is critical to recognize that there can be synergies between the availability of a renewable energy and water resources. Table 1 Comparison of all existing renewable energy powered desalination technologies Australia. A further advantage of solar technologies is that peak energy production in the summer months coincides with peak water demand. A second example, in Townsville, Australia, involves the addition of a water recycling aspect to the existing Cleveland Bay Purification Plant, enabling up to 20 ML of water per day to be recycled from the main treatment plant. Currently, the treatment plant discharges the treated waters into Cleveland Bay, however, future limits on water and nutrient disposal necessitate the utility to develop a water recycling program in conjunction with private sector partners 28 . A further driver is the security of clean drinking water throughout periods of drought by reducing Townsville's raw water demand. A preliminary study indicated that both the...

Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Technologies

The most common renewable energy technologies for powering water treatment systems in the past have been PV, solar thermal energy, and wind energy. This is shown in Fig. 6 for the following desalination technologies reverse osmosis (RO) including nanofiltration, multieffect distillation (MED), electrodialysis (ED), multistage flash (MSF), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC). Although, no examples of renewable energy powered water recycling schemes exist at the present time, there are plans to develop such schemes. An Australian scheme is described in a section below. Figure 6 Breakdown of renewable energy powered desalination system technologies implemented worldwide Ref. 10 . Table 1 compares all existing renewable energy powered desalination technologies, highlighting the energy consumption and disadvantages of each technology. For RO and NF systems, the major energy requirement is for pressurising the feedwater, with brackish water systems typically operating at pressures of...

Integration of Renewable Energy

The rapid deployment of renewable energy technologies and their larger deployment in the near future, raise challenges and opportunities regarding their integration into energy supply systems. Energy systems aim at meeting the demands for a broad range of services (such as household and industry needs, transportation and storage). Energy systems include an energy supply sector and the end-use technology to provide the aforementioned energy services. In the EU and other industrialised countries, the existing energy supply system is mainly composed of large power units, mostly fossil fuelled and centrally controlled, with average capacities of hundreds of MW. Renewable energy sources are geographically widely distributed and if embedded in distribution networks are often closer to the customers. Locating renewable and distributed generators downstream in the distribution network is known as distributed generation. placing the concept of economy of scale for large units by economy of...

Concentrating Solar Power 581 Technology Description and Status

There are three types of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology trough, parabolic-dish and power tower.9 Trough and power tower technologies apply primarily to large, central power generation systems, although trough technology can also be used in smaller systems for heating and cooling and for power generation. The systems use either thermal storage or back-up fuels to offset solar intermittency and thus to increase the commercial value of the energy produced. The conversion path of concentrating solar power technologies relies on four basic elements concentrator, receiver, and transport-storage and power conversion. The concentrator captures and concentrates solar radiation, which is then delivered to the receiver. The receiver absorbs the concentrated sunlight, transferring its heat to a working fluid. The transport-storage system passes the fluid from the receiver to the power-conversion system in some solar-thermal plants a portion of the thermal energy is stored for later...

The Role for Renewable Energy

Middletown Geysers

The ideal solution to global warming would be a technological one that allows the world to switch quickly from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and geo-thermal, which emit zero or low levels of carbon dioxide. Each of these sources, however, has its limitations. According to many experts, wind power is the most promising source of clean energy. Turbines capture the energy of the wind using propeller-like blades positioned on 100-foot-high towers, and the moving blades are connected to turbines to generate electricity. Supporters say even a small wind tower could produce more than half of the electricity used by an average home, but more massive wind farms could contribute a significant share to utility grids. Denmark, for example, already generates 20 percent of its electricity from wind. Unfortunately, the wind does not blow all the time, causing a problem of intermittent and unreliable electricity generation, and many people think large wind...

Cost of renewable energy

Some forms of renewable energy, like hydroelectricity and biomass, have been cost-competitive for many years in certain applications and provide a substantial energy supply worldwide. Others, like passive solar building design, are cost competitive, but haven't yet overcome all the market factors that currently preclude their widespread use. Technologies like wind and geothermal are currently cost competitive at their best resource sites, but need further improvements and support to reach their full market potential. A few, like photovoltaics, have identified niche off-grid electric markets that the industry is building to the point where it can competitively address retail power markets. Still others, like ethanol from biomass, are evolving both in the laboratory and the marketplace to the point where they will be competitive without price supports. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the general renewable energy technologies and their economics. In reality, there are a large variety of...

Renewable energy prospects

Out of this total, biomass and waste accounted for 1186 Mtoe and hydraulic power 261 Mtoe. These two energy sources, which make the largest contribution to the renewable energy balance, have already been used for many years. The main development hopes concern wind and solar power, which still only represent a minor proportion of energy production (respectively, 0.34 and 0.09Mtoe in France in 2007). The disadvantage with these

Energy Efficiency and Clean Energy as New Hitech Markets

Energy efficiency and clean energy may provide an opportunity to participate and create a new market. Patrick Mazza from Climate Solutions, an advocacy group, suggests that 'Clean energy generation and end-use efficiency represent a USD 3.5 trillion market over the coming 20 years, even with no new public priority'.26 There will be plenty of business opportunities in resource efficiency and productivity in the energy, water, agriculture, transportation and forest product industries. Examples of these opportunities include fuel cells, enzyme-based water treatment systems, precision farming technologies and bio-based fuels and speciality chemicals. It is estimated that the combined value of the resource productivity and efficiency market of these industries exceeds USD 60 billion and is growing rapidly.

The promise of solar energy

Solar energy is the main renewable energy resource throughout the world. Other renewable energy sources, e.g. biomass energy and wind energy, are derived directly from it. It is an abundant energy source. Our planet receives from the sun the equivalent of 15 000 times the energy consumed in the world, but this energy is diffuse and intermittent. Solar energy can be captured as either heat or electricity using the photovoltaic effect. There is considerable scope for the development of low-temperature thermal solar energy in the short term. Heat is supplied by solar sensors consisting of a black absorbent surface which transfers the heat to a heat exchange fluid, generally a mixture of water and glycol to prevent the possibility of freezing. A glazed surface is fitted over the absorbent surface to block the infrared radiation re-emitted. In the housing sector, thermal solar energy is used mainly to provide sanitary hot water. It may also be used to cater for a certain proportion of...

Prospects for Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

The second-generation of renewables has been commercially deployed, usually with incentives in place intended to ensure further cost reductions through increased scale and market learning. Offshore wind power, advanced biomass, solar PV and concentrating solar power technologies are being deployed now. All have benefited from R&D investments by IEA countries, mainly the 1980s. Markets for these technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. Some of the technologies are already fully competitive in favorable circumstances, but for others, and for more general deployment, further cost reductions are needed. The challenge is to continue to reduce costs and broaden the market base to ensure continued rapid market growth worldwide. Third-generation renewables, such as advanced biomass gasification, hot dry-rock geothermal power, and ocean energy, are not yet widely demonstrated or commercialized. They are on the horizon and may have estimated high potential comparable to...

Renewable energy policy and climate policy interactions

This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even when CO2 emissions are appropriately priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate-change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals that both CO2 prices and the measures to deploy renewable electricity create wealth transfers between electric utilities and their customers, although in opposite directions. This may be important when considering the political economy of the interactions between CO2 pricing and renewable energy support in the future.

Stimulating a Clean Energy Revolution

The 'perfect storm' of climate change, political instability in key energy regions, and high oil prices has created a demand for a new energy path. The advent of promising new technologies capable of turning abundant domestic energy sources - including solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, biomass and ocean energy - into transportation fuels, electricity and heat offer a path to an unprecedented energy revolution. Renewable energy technologies, combined with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, have the potential to rapidly and economically transform the world's energy system.

Commercializing Clean Energy Technologies

Commercialization is defined as the creation of self-sustaining markets that thrive in a level-playing field with other technologies without subsidies. Without commercial status, clean energy technologies are not only a constant drain on public finances, but they will also not benefit from the dynamism and innovation of the private economy. Private capital mobilization and commercialization are results of policy instruments such as eco-taxes and emissions markets as well as guiding principles that can affect the design of these policies.

Solar Energy

The total solar energy incident on the surface of the earth averages about 86,000 terawatts (TW), which is more than 5,000 times the 15 TW of energy currently used by humans (of which roughly 12 TW now comes from fossil fuels) and more than 100 times larger than the energy potential of the next largest renewable source, wind energy (Hermann, 2006). Hence, the potential resource of solar energy is essentially limitless, which has led many to conclude that it is the best energy resource to rely on in the long run. Currently, this resource is exploited on a limited scale total installed worldwide solar energy production totaled 15 gigawatts (GW) in 2008,2 or just 0.1 percent of total energy production, with similar penetration in the United States (EIA, 2009). Solar energy can be used to generate electricity and heat water for domestic use. Passive solar heating can be used in direct heating and cooling of buildings. There are two main classes of solar energy technology used to generate...

Free Energy

Will a certain food provide energy when utilized by microorganisms If the answer is yes, then the food will be eaten and if it is in a wastewater, the wastewater will be cleaned up. The answer to this question can now be quantified by the combination of the concept of enthalpy and entropy. This combination is summed up in a term called free energy. Free energy G is defined as energy (represented by S) has been subtracted from the energy content. Thus, the term free energy. Biological processes are carried out at a given constant temperature as well as constant pressure. Thus, differentiating the free-energy equation at constant temperature, Note In order for G to be a maximum (i.e., to be a free energy), Q must be the Qrev as depicted in the equation.

Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic is a novel technology that helps reduce the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere as it uses solar energy which is free from pollutions. Solar energy can be utilized into two ways (i) photovoltaic and The photovoltaic systems can be classified according to their use and applications. These systems can broadly be classified into two types (1) photovoltaic (PV) systems and (2) photovoltaic thermal (PV T) systems. The first type can further be classified into space applications, stand-alone PV systems, grid-connected PV systems, photovoltaic hydrogen production systems, and miscellaneous small-scale applications whereas the second type can further be classified as PV T air collector and PV T water collector systems and others. Further, the stand-alone PV applications can be classified into two, agricultural water pumping and community or rural electrification. The PV T air collectors can be used for agricultural greenhouse drying and space or room heating applications...

Renewable energy

For centuries people have been harnessing the energy of wind and flowing water to power windmills and watermills. This technology has now been updated to drive electricity generators. Solar energy and even volcanic heat can also be turned into electricity. Such energy sources are described as renewable because they never run out. They may not be able to provide all our energy needs, but most of them do not release any of the greenhouse gases that are causing climate change.

Passive Solar Energy

Also, solar energy can be put into use by incorporating appropriate designs in buildings to maximize utilization of solar energy for various purposes such as lighting, air conditioning, and water and space heating cooling and thereby reduce external energy inputs. PV cells require high exposure to direct sunlight. To assure maximum exposure to the sun throughout the day, a phyrheliom-eter is used to calculate how much sun exposure a location experiences. This information is useful in determining whether or not a specific location is suitable for solar energy, as well as what direction the cells should face. In many cases, these cells are placed on rooftops.

Solar Photovoltaic

The key environmental impacts associated with significant adoption of solar energy are the land area required, impacts due to the production and disposal of the solar collectors, and impacts associated with increased requirements for energy storage. As an indication of the scale of production that may be necessary, the IEA BLUE Map scenario projects a need to install, each year until 2050, an average of 215 million m2 (about 86 mi2) of solar panels world-wide to meet the 4,750 TWh year of solar electricity generation they project will be needed to displace a portion of fossil-fuel-generated electricity 4 . This is in addition to concentrated solar thermal power plants. In the U.S., the average amount of peak solar energy that reaches the surface is on the order of 1 kW m2. For photovoltaic (PV) systems, conversion efficiency is typically no higher than about 20 , so each m2 of PV could produce no more than about 200 W of power. When combined with the changing azimuth of the sun over...

Conclusion Of Report On Solar Parabolic Collector

This chapter presents a review and analysis of solar-driven heat engines for power generation with relevance to residential applications. The impact of solar systems on sustainable development is quantified based on fossil fuel vs solar energy utilization factors predicted over the next decades and by sustainability factor as introduced also in other works, e.g., by Dincer and Rosen (2005). The established large-scale and small-scale systems are presented and analyzed based on their The optimization of the solar-driven heat engine is important for obtaining a low-levelized electricity cost and augmented CO2 mitigation through solar power generation. With this fact in mind we developed here a model for a solar heat engine and optimization and identified the important optimization parameters which are the quality of the optical system expressed in terms of angular error S, the concentration ratio C, the rim angle (, the collector temperature corroborated with the insolation, as...

Parabolic Solar Dish System

Receiver Dish Solar

In what follows, we illustrate the benefits of solar power generation on sustain-ability, on reducing greenhouse gas emission and on reducing global warming by a case study. The study refers to a residential (single) unit for solar power conversion based on a paraboloidal mirror that is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The solar dish concentrates the insolation on a glazed tube receiver that plays the role of desorber for an ammonia-water Rankine cycle. For expansion and work production, a scroll machine is capable of operating in a two-phase regime. The rejected heat of the The first step in solar energy system modeling and its design calculations is to determine the solar collector geometry and characteristics for maximum performance. This, in fact, is to maximize the collector efficiency. The derivation of the collector's efficiency results from the energy balance stating In Eq. (4.4), the intercept factor y JZpTa which represents the ratio between solar energy flux absorbed by the...

System Description and Control Strategy

Solar Absorption Chiller Schematic

A schematic diagram of the system studied is represented in Fig. 28.1. The system consists of a solar collector, a storage tank, an absorption chiller, heat exchanger, and auxiliary units. The system operates in four different modes. When solar energy is available for collection and there is a load demand, heat is supplied directly from the collector to the heating or cooling unit. When solar energy is available for collection and there is no heat or cooling demand, heat is stored in the storage unit. On the other hand, if solar energy is not available for collection and there is a load demand, storage then supplies heat to the heating or cooling

Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea

Global Solar Towns

Energy consumption causes a range of environmental pollution. Furthermore, with the increase in energy demand, the issue of energy shortage becomes increasingly serious. Since there is more and more concern on energy conservation and environmental protection, interest has been increasingly focused on the use of renewable energy. This is considered as a key source for the future, not only for South Korea but also for the world (Ulgen and Hepbasli, 2002). Especially, solar energy as a clean energy source and one kind of renewable energy is abundant in South Korea. Therefore, the precise measurement of the local solar radiation is required. Also, the solar radiation data are a fundamental input for solar energy applications such as photovoltaics, solar thermal systems, and passive solar design. The data should be contemporary, reliable, and readily available for design, optimization, and performance evaluation of solar technologies for any particular geographical location (Bulut and...

Results and Discussion

Singapore Millenials Labour Force

The thermal performance of a solar system is usually measured by the solar fraction (F). Solar fraction is defined as the fraction of load met by solar energy. Figure 28.3 shows the variation of the solar fraction of space heating (Fs), domestic water heating (FD), and cooling load (FAc) as well as the total solar fraction (Ft) with collector area. As seen from the figure, a significant portion of the solar fraction for space heating and domestic water heating is satisfied at areas around 38 m2. Conversely, the space cooling requires much greater areas. The variation of total solar fraction, life cycle savings, and overall system efficiency (ratio of solar energy provided to the total incident radiation) with collector area is presented in Fig. 28.4. This typical figure shows the choice of optimum collector area which is approximately equal to 38 m2 in this case. It is The present results should encourage governments for wide installation of solar heating and cooling systems in...

Mr Ramiro Ramirez Environmental Policy Analyst OPEC

What we can foresee of this new carbon constrained world is the creation of new markets one for renewable energy technology and the other for carbon emission permits. However, none of these address the concerns of developing nations because they have nothing to gain from such a market at least in the way they are conceived today.

Electricity Generation from Renewables

There are many conventional and non-conventional ways by which electricity can be produced. One of the conventional ways is to produce electricity by using fossil fuels. Coal-based power plants are the mostly used method to produce electricity. They are also referred to as thermal power plants. Though the energy produced by a thermal power plant is more economical as compared to non-conventional sources, it also causes greenhouse gas emission at a higher rate and hence called dirty. On the contrary the photovoltaic system causes no harm to the environment as it uses solar energy which is also called clean energy but the electricity produced by it is not economical as the photovoltaic material used to produce solar cells are costly and for off sunshine period the energy needs to be stored in a storage device like battery. In this section we will discuss both the non-conventional and conventional sources for electricity generation. The solar energy can be utilized either to convert the...

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment

The cost of CO2 gas mitigation using renewable energy technologies depends on both the difference between the generation costs of the renewable energy systems and the costs of conventional energy generation and the carbon emissions that are displaced by the renewable energy generation. The mitigation costs are usually expressed in units of the cost per unit fossil carbon emissions that are avoided.

Dr Peter Mombaur Beiten Burkhardt Belgium

Therefore, I would like to introduce a very interesting report concerning solar power for the Mediterranean region. This study was made in April 2005 by the German Aerospace Center Institute of Technical Thermodynamics with contributions of researchers from Jordan, Morocco, Egypt, Oman, Bahrain and Algeria. A summary of their report is as follows 1- In the MENA region economic and social development is the first priority. 2-Although climate change is a serious concern, sustainability must also be achieved in terms of economy, affordability, technology, health and social compatibility. A strategy for power and water security must match the time horizon of all sustainability considerations, which is 50 to 100 years and more. 3- By 2050, fossil fired plants will only be used for what they are best suited for peaking demand. Because of this reduction to their key function their use will become environmentally compatible, and their availability will be prolonged for centuries. The...

Necessary Policy Measures at the International Level

To make a significant increase in the share of renewable energy-to-energy supply become reality, advanced policy measures have to be adopted globally. Governments from all over the world need to implement necessary minimum policy measures to guarantee the further deployment of renewable energy technologies and additional commitments on the international level have to be made. The states that are currently actively promoting renewable energy sources should set up legally binding targets for renewable energy sources in their governing areas. The mandatory targets can also be complemented by financial incentives in the respective countries. This too would be an effective policy to address security of supply, technology development, employment and climate objectives. In the current development policy, the developing countries' governments put little emphasis on RES. One of the main aims should be to create sustainable development in developing countries (access to energy in order to fight...

Questions and Comments

Von Goerne We should have fixed taxes for specific purposes. If taxes on petroleum products are not uniform, then people would drive across the border to get the cheaper fuel, as happens now in some European states. Also some European taxes on gasoline go into the treasuries of retirement funds instead of renewable energy.

Public Perception

Recognition of the need for major CO2 emission reductions. It also depends upon CCS being seen as one part of a wider strategy for achieving significant cuts in CO2 emissions. A portfolio including renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency and lifestyle change to reduce demand, was generally favoured. CCS can be part of such a portfolio but wind, wave, tidal, solar and energy efficiency were generally preferred as options. As a stand alone option, it was felt that CCS might delay more far-reaching and necessary long-term changes in society's use of energy. The notion of CCS as a bridging strategy to a hydrogen-based energy system was welcomed.

Economic Analysis

Where P1 is the factor relating life cycle fuel cost to first-year fuel cost savings, P2 is the factor relating life cycle by additional capital investment to initial investmet, CA is the solar energy investment cost which is directly proportional to collector area, CE is the solar energy investment cost which is independent of collector area, CF is the unit cost of delivered conventional energy for the first year of analysis, L is the total load, and Ft is the total solar fraction of the solar system. For a particular

Case Study

An example of solar technology is adopted to demonstrate the link between sus-tainability and efficiency. An effective way to maintain a good electrical efficiency by removing heat from the solar panels and to have a better overall efficiency of a photovoltaic system is to utilize both the technologies simultaneously. This kind of system is known as hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV T) system and can be beneficial for low-temperature thermal applications like water heating, air heating, agricultural crop drying, solar greenhouses, space heating, etc., along with electricity generation that can further be beneficial for rural electrification and agricultural applications like solar water pumping, etc. In this case study we are giving a simple demonstration on how both the technologies together give better efficiency which directly relates to better sustainability. Based on the first law of thermodynamics, the energy efficiency of a PV T system can be defined as a ratio of total energy...

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear fission is one of the few large-scale carbon-free energy sources and currently provides 7 of global primary energy (17 of electricity) without any CO2 waste. Its costs are now well known and are unaffected The accident at Chernobyl raised around the world the fear that nuclear power was not safe enough to use and made the licensing process much more difficult and uncertain. Fully amortized, operating nuclear plants remain very competitive and have built a good safety record since, so that even countries that had decided to abandon nuclear power have not closed these. Indeed, in many cases life extension is being pursued, but orders for new plants have dried up. If gas prices were to remain at their former low levels, and no CO2 controls were required, nuclear power would continue to have a hard time to competing in deregulated markets with up-to-date combined-cycle gas turbines. But recent price increases have demonstrated that such long-term price stability of oil and gas is...

Water and Energy

Scientists assert that climate change is driven by the burning of fossil fuels, which emit greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. The National Resources Defense Council (NRDC), an environmental group, notes that Coal-burning power plants are the largest U.S. source of carbon dioxide pollution. One of the main suggestions scientists have proposed for reducing fossil fuel, therefore, is to move away from coal and petroleum and toward renewable energy resources As the NRDC says, We can increase our reliance on renewable energy sources such as wind, sun and geothermal. 1 Another potential source of renewable energy is water power, or hydropower. Water power comes in a number of different forms.

Energy from Water

Although scientists are concerned about the impact of global warming on world water supplies, they are also hopeful that energy from water may help to moderate climate change. There are several ways to harness the power of water to produce clean energy without the burning of fossil fuels. Among them are tidal power and wave power.

Reporting and Documentation

W., DeWolf, S. and Beaucarne, G. (2004). Dry Etching and Texturing Processes for Cystalline Silicon Solar Cells Sustainability for Mass Production , presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 2004. Alsema, E. A., Bauman, A. E., Hill, R. and Patterson, M. H. (1997) Health, Safety and Environmental Issues in Thin Film Manufacturing , 14th European PV Solar Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain. 1997. IEA (2004). 'Trends in Photovoltaic Applications Survey report of selected IEA Countries between 1992 -2003', Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS), International Energy Agency, Report IEA-PVPS T1-13 2004, September 2004. Leu, C-H., (2004) SF6 Abatement Strategy in Taiwan , presented at SF6 Power Reduction Partnership for Electric Power Systems, Scottsdale, Az., 1-3 December 2004. Maycock, P. (2005) PV market update global PV production continues to increase , Renewable Energy World, Vol. 8 (4), pp 86-99. Phylipsen, G. J....

Thermohaline Circulation and Climate

Variations in formation and circulation of ocean water may cause some of the thousands of years to decadal scale variations in climate. Cold water forms in the Arctic and Weddell seas. This cold, salty water is denser than other water in the ocean, so it sinks to the bottom and gets ponded behind seafloor topographic ridges, periodically spilling over into other parts of the oceans. The formation and redistribution of North Atlantic cold bottom water accounts for about 30 percent of the solar energy budget input to the Arctic ocean every year. Eventually this cold bottom water works its way to the Indian and Pacific oceans, where it upwells, gets heated, and returns to the North Atlantic. Thermohaline circulation is the vertical mixing of seawater driven by density differences caused by variations in temperature and salinity. Variations in temperature and salinity are found in waters that occupy different ocean basins and those found at different levels in the water column. When the...

Table 41 Alternatives to Fossil Fuels for Heating and Cooling

Geothermal energy is used for everything from space heating and cooling to warming greenhouses and melting snow on roads and bridges. In France, Iceland, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, the United States, and other countries with high-temperature resources, geothermal heat is used for electricity generation, district heat, and industrial processes like pulp and paper production. Ground-source heat pumps, which can be used virtually anywhere, use the stored solar energy of Earth or well water as a heat sink in summer and heat source in winter. The United States has the world's largest heat pump market, with up to 60,000 systems installed annually.40 Lake Ontario provide district cooling to Toronto in Canada the system has the capacity to cool more than 3.2 million square meters of building space, avoiding 79,000 tons of CO2 annually. Many of the world's big cities are near large water bodies, which they could tap for cooling. And as paradoxical as it might seem, solar energy can...

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Operating revenue that could be generated from chemical separation or physical chemical separation processes for recycling Ni MH batteries was compared to a pyrometallurgical process in a report prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a DOE facility located in Golden, Colorado 34 , The pyrometallurgical process has similarities to the process operated by INMETCO. Revenues (or costs) were estimated for both AB2 and AB5 hydride alloy battery designs. Other general assumptions in the cost calculations were that the plant was sited in California and was processing 30,000 metric tons of EV batteries annually. The chemical process is based on an acid leach of the battery materials, followed by

In Situ Subsurface Volatilization And Ventilation Combined Saturated Zone Sparging And In Situ Vadose Zone Vapor

Situ Air Sparging

To enhance vaporization, solar panels are occasionally used to heat the injected compressed air. Additional valves for limiting or increasing air flow and pressure are placed on individual reactor nest lines (radials) or, at some sites, on individual well points. Depending on groundwater depths and fluctuations, horizontal vacuum screens, stubbed screens, or multiple-depth completions can be applied. The system is dynamic positive and negative air flow can be shifted to different locations at the site to place the most remediation stress on the areas requiring it. Negative pressure is maintained at a suitable level to prevent the escape of vapors.

Electronics Industry Emissions 61 Introduction

Several advanced electronics manufacturing processes utilise fluorinated compounds (FCs) for plasma etching intricate patterns, cleaning reactor chambers, and temperature control. The specific electronic industry sectors discussed in this chapter include semiconductor, thin-film-transistor flat panel display (TFT-FPD), and photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing (collectively termed 'electronics industry').1

Analysis of conventional technologies for treatment of food processing wastewater

Treatment Abattoir Wastewater

Special features are the separation of biogas in two stages and the internal circulation driven by the produced gas. UASB reactors are widely applied in the treatment of food processing wastewaters because of their capacity to remove BOD and COD at high levels and to recover methane, a renewable energy source that can be directly reused in the food processing plant. Table 21.5 shows the removal efficiency for BOD and COD from food processing wastewaters. As these are characterised by high levels of easily biodegradable soluble organic compounds, efficiencies are very high, generally 90 .

The current renewables boom

In an absolute sense, the world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, which currently provide over 80 per cent of the energy on which global society depends. However, the annual growth rates of various energy sources show that change is on the way (see Figure 19.1). Since 2001, the growth rates of the solar photovoltaic (30 per cent), wind (26 per cent) and biofuel (17 per cent) sectors have been much larger than for the traditional sectors of coal (4.4 per cent), oil (1.6 per cent), natural gas (2.5 per cent) and even nuclear (1.1 per cent). This trend is characteristic of a new dynamic, namely the growing role that renewable energy sources are playing globally and in the US. Many of the new technologies that harness renewables are, or soon will be, economically competitive with fossil fuels. Although renewable energy currently provides only about 6 per cent of total US energy, there are compelling reasons to put these technologies to Figure 19.2 Global investment in renewable energy...

The Green Sahara Of The Past

Tropical Sahara

Why was the Sahara once so moist, and why did it dry out Bearing in mind the modeling evidence showing that the present-day desert climate is very sensitive to changes in conditions, climate-vcgctation scientists took on the challenge of modeling the past of the Sahara. From the models, it seems that there were several factors at work in producing this moist phase. The major one. giving most of the difference in rainfall, is the amount of sunlight the region gets in summer and does not itself depend on vegetation cover. Because of an asymmetry in the earth's orbit, there is a regular cycle of about 21.000 years in the amount of solar energy the northern hemisphere gets in summer and in winter. So, every 21,000 years there is a peak of summer input of radiation over North Africa the sun is 7 stronger at this time than during summers at the opposite point in the cycle. Climate models show that this increased summer radiation is enough to alter the monsoon How in the northern hemisphere....

Sunspots Flares And The Solar Cycle

The Sun produces a steady stream of electromagnetic radiation from the photosphere, essentially unchanging with time. Superimposed on this steady, quiet process are several dynamic, active, or changing events and cycles that show the Sun also has some unpredictable and explosive behavioral traits. These features are not significant in terms of total solar energy output but do influence the electromagnetic radiation received on Earth. They include sunspots, solar flares, magnetic storms, the solar cycle, and changes in the solar corona.

What Deforestation Does To Climate Within A Region

Closed Eyes Clipart

What will happen if a forest is removed and replaced with much more open vegetation, such as grassland or fields of crops In a general way, there will be two competing effects on local climate. First, albedo will be greater over the more open grassland or cropland with patches of lighter soil between the leaves. This will tend to cool down the surface because solar energy is reflected straight back to space. However, the smoother surface of a grassland or crop cover and the smaller total amount of leaf cover will tend to decrease evaporation of water. As mentioned above, roughness increases evaporation transpiration, and more leaves mean more surface area to evaporate water from, so decreasing these will decrease evaporation. This decrease tends to raise the local temperature because there isn't as much latent heat of evaporation being taken up.

Absorption of Radiation by Phytoplankton in the Upper Ocean

The effect of the absorption of solar energy by phytoplankton on upper-ocean thermal properties has been the subject of research for the past 20 years. While absorption of solar energy is dominated by absorption from seawater itself in many open ocean regions, the variability in the absorption and distribution of solar energy into the upper layers of the open ocean is controlled primarily by phytoplankton pigment concentrations (Platt, 1969 Smith and Baker, 1978). Lewis et al. (1983) were the first to demonstrate that nonuniform vertical distributions of phytoplankton pigments cause variations in local heating, and, under certain vertical chlorophyll profile conditions, could support the development of a thermal instability within the water column. Initial attempts (Paulson and Simpson, 1977) at addressing the effects of varying water quality types as described by Jerlov (1968) on the attenuation of irradiance in the ocean lead to a simple parameterization that characterizes...

The Future of Anaerobic Granulation

The anaerobic granulation system has been known for its unique ability to convert highly objectionable wastes into useful products. With global concerns over energy shortages and greenhouse gas formation through combustion of fossil fuels, more efforts towards renewable energy supplies is clearly needed. Greater efforts are now needed for broader applications of anaerobic granulation system for ridding the environment of unwanted organic materials by converting them into methane, a renewable energy source. The anaerobic granulation process leading towards efficient methane production from wastewaters clearly fits this need. Research towards even broader application is clearly of importance. Problems that need addressing are process reliability, toxicity causes and effects, odor production and control, and better understanding of refractory organic degradation.

Carbonless Energy Carriers

Electricity is the highest quality energy carrier, increasingly dominant throughout the world's energy infrastructure. Ultimately electricity use can expand to efficiently meet virtually all stationary energy applications, eliminating stationary end-use carbon emissions. This approach is unlikely to work in transportation, however, due to the high cost and low energy density of electricity storage. Chemical energy carriers, such as hydrogen, can more effectively serve transportation fuel and energy storage applications, offering much higher energy density at lower cost. Electrolytic hydrogen, extracted from steam with renewable energy, stored as a high pressure gas or cryogenic liquid, and reconverted to Renewable and fossil approaches may ultimately turn out to be complementary. Use of renewable sources would limit the sequestration burden to modest quantities using the most cost effective methods and reliable disposal sites. Previous analyses have concluded renewable electricity...

Distribution of incident solar radiation

It will help to first consider an airless planet, so that we don't at once have to deal with the possible effects of scattering of the solar beam by the atmosphere. If our planet is far from its Sun, as compared to the radius of the Sun, the sunlight encountering the planet comes in as a beam of parallel rays with flux L. Even if the surface of the planet is perfectly absorbing, the sunlight the planet intercepts is not spread uniformly over its surface per unit area, parts of the planet where the sun is directly overhead receive a great deal of energy, whereas parts where the Sun grazes the surface at a shallow angle receive little, because the small amount of sunlight intercepted is spread over a comparatively large area, as shown in Figure 7.3. The night side of the planet, of course, receives no solar energy at all. To obtain a general expression for the distribution of incident solar radiation per unit of surface area, we may divide up the surface of the planet into a great many...

An Overview of Satellite Measured Cloud Layer Structure and Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties

Clouds are the ever-changing features in the Earth's atmosphere as seen from space. They not only act as sources and sinks of the global water cycle, but also dominate the solar energy flows into the climate system while at the same time redistributing the diabatic heating in the system (Webster and Stephens, 1984 Stephens et al., 2002). Current modeling activities in accurately capturing the change of clouds due to climate warming have been slow. Little progress has been made in studying cloud feedbacks, as discussed in a critical review by Stephens (2005). As clouds can redistribute the energy and water in the climate system, even a small disturbance within them can have a large impact on the Earth's climate.

Alternative Energy Ethanol

With increasing uncertainty in the global fuel market, the search for gasoline substitutes is becoming more and more important. One viable option is using ethanol as an alternative fuel, unlike fossil fuels, it is a renewable energy source. There are many chemical compounds that make up ethanol the molecules contain a hydroxyl group, and are bonded to a Carbon atom. Ethanol that is made from cellulosic biomass instead of the usual starch crops is known as Bioetha-nol. Ethanol is in a liquid state, and is clear and colorless. As a diluted aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions, it has a burning taste.

Planetary Emission Temperature

Hoechst 33342 Wavelength

The Earth receives almost all of its energy from the Sun. At the present time in its evolution the Sun emits energy at a rate of Q 3.87 x 1026 W. The flux of solar energy at the Earth, called the solar constant, depends on the distance of the Earth from the Sun, r, and is given by the inverse square law, So Q 4nr2. Of course, because of variations in the Earth's orbit (see Sections 5.1.1 and 12.3.5) the solar constant is not really constant the terrestrial value

Networks For Climate Change

Partnerships have also been the preferred way of trying to encourage the uptake of renewable options that will be critical to the achievement of climate capitalism. Initially pushed by the German government, the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership is an international public-private partnership set up in 2002 and funded by governments, businesses and development banks. It is aimed at the development of market conditions that foster sustainable energy and energy efficiency and works to structure policy and regulatory initiatives for clean energy. Partnership can also be a euphemism for voluntary regulation, however. Proposed as an alternative to Kyoto - critics suggest it was designed to derail Kyoto - the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is a public-private partnership that brings together the governments and private sectors of countries that collectively account for more than half the world's economy, population and energy use including...

US Response to Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol

The Bush administration has proposed a voluntary program of reducing GHG intensity by 18 in the next 10 years (U.S. Department of State, 2002). GHG intensity is defined as the ratio of GHG emissions to economic output. The administration proposes to lower the current GHG intensity of 183 metric tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE) per million dollars of GDP to 151 MTCE per million dollars by 2012 through voluntary and incentive-based measures. A key component of the administration's proposal is the creation of tax incentives for the development of renewable energy, hybrid and fuel cell-powered vehicles, co-generation and landfill gas, and other new technologies. In response to this proposal, some businesses have developed their own voluntary initiatives to reduce GHG emissions (White House, 2003).

Plan for the international study of Lake Vostok

Prolonged preservation of viable microorganisms may be prevalent in Antarctic ice-bound habitats. Consequently, it is possible that micro-organisms may be present in Lake Vostok and other Antarctic subglacial lakes. However, isolation from exogenous sources of carbon and solar energy, and the known or suspected extreme physical and geochemical characteristics, may have precluded the development of a functional ecosystem in Lake Vostok. In fact, subglacial lakes may be among the most oligotrophic (low nutrient and low standing stocks of viable organisms) habitats on Earth. Although hotspots of geothermal activity could provide local sources of energy and growth-favorable temperatures, in a manner that is analogous to environmental conditions surrounding deep sea hydrothermal vents, it is important to emphasize that without direct measurements, the possible presence of fossil or living micro-organisms in these habitats isolated from external input for...

Policy options for financing climate change technologies

A policy-based approach would support developing countries to finance national policies such as renewable energy targets through policy instruments such as feed-in tariffs or renewable energy obligations for electricity generators. With technical assistance from developed countries, the national government would develop strategies for implementing national policies to drive early deployment of climate change technologies. A financial mechanism under the convention would provide the appropriate financing package to support the implementation of the policy. This may involve a combination of financing instruments, including direct grants, concessional loans, carbon crediting and other forms of support. The financing may be conditional upon national policy reforms and drive the necessary improvements to the 'enabling environments' of developing countries (Metz et al, 2000). Another option for early deployment of technology may be to allow for a portion of a developed country's renewable...

Spectrum of Solar Radiation

Extraterrestrial Radiation

Figure 9.1 shows the incident UV, visible, and near-infrared parts of the spectral solar irradiance (wavelengths shorter than 1,000 nm) measured on board an earth-orbiting satellite (Rottman et al., 1993). Spectra of an ideal blackbody at several temperatures are also shown in Fig. 9.1. Given the requirement that the total solar energy emitted be the same as that emitted by a blackbody, one finds that the sun's effective temperature is 5,778 K. If the radiating layers of the sun had the same temperature at all distances from its center, the solar spectrum would Figure 9.1 shows the incident UV, visible, and near-infrared parts of the spectral solar irradiance (wavelengths shorter than 1,000 nm) measured on board an earth-orbiting satellite (Rottman et al., 1993). Spectra of an ideal blackbody at several temperatures are also shown in Fig. 9.1. Given the requirement that the total solar energy emitted be the same as that emitted by a blackbody, one finds that the sun's effective...

Biomass Growth Substrate Utilization and Yield

Microorganisms require four things for growth (1) carbon, (2) inorganic nutrients, (3) energy, and (4) reducing power. As mentioned in Section 2.2.1, microorganisms derive energy and reducing power from oxidation reactions, which involve the removal of electrons from the substrate with their ultimate transfer to the terminal electron acceptor. Consequently, the energy available in a substrate depends on its oxidation state, which is indicative of the electrons available for removal as the substrate is oxidized. Highly reduced compounds contain more electrons, and have a higher standard free energy, than do highly oxidized compounds, regardless of whether they are organic or inorganic. As described in Chapter 1, most biochemical operations are used for the removal of soluble organic matter and the stabilization of insoluble organic matter. Consequently, in this discussion we will focus on carbon oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria. Since COD is a measure of...

Strategies For Inland Brine Disposal Zld And Fluidized Bed Crystallizers

An understanding of the factors that affect precipitation from a supersaturated solution is essential to development of a well-designed, functional ZLD process. The presence of foreign particles enhances precipitation kinetics by reducing the amount of free energy required for solids formation. Consequently, precipitation is made more energetically favorable. Induction time, the time required for precipitation to begin, decreases as the fit between the foreign particle and the crystal to be formed increases. The best fit between the two solid phases occurs when the particle is a seed crystal of the same salt (secondary nucleation). One group studied the effect of brushite (CaHPO4 2H2O) on gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) precipitation 25 . The researchers noted that the ability of one crystalline phase to grow on the surface of another is strongly dependent on the compatibility of their surface characteristics, and they observed a close fit in lattice structure between brushite and gypsum. Their...

From Microclimates To Macroclimates

Models Microclimates

Now imagine that instead the sun gets stronger, delivering too much solar energy and tending to overheat the planet. The dark plants will suffer by being overloaded with heat they not only have to cope with the warm air temperatures but they are also absorbing a lot of sunlight which tends to heat them up even more. In this situation, the dark plants do not grow well and they get pushed out by the white plants that can keep themselves cool by reflecting back most of the sun's energy. As the white plants spread across the overheated planet, more and more of the solar radiation gets reflected back into space, and this cools the climate. Temperature is again brought down towards a more moderate level. It is as if the planet has a thermostat, regulating its temperature to prevent its climate from becoming too extreme.

Amplification Of Change By Vegetation Cover

In the Sahara, during the last 9,000 years, the summer solar energy input changes slowly (a) but because of vegetation feedback the rainfall (c) and especially the vegetation cover (d) changes much faster, flipping from quite dense vegetation to virtually no vegetation. After Bonan. Figure 5.9. In the Sahara, during the last 9,000 years, the summer solar energy input changes slowly (a) but because of vegetation feedback the rainfall (c) and especially the vegetation cover (d) changes much faster, flipping from quite dense vegetation to virtually no vegetation. After Bonan.

Transition Paths Toward Carbonless Energy

Photovoltaic Photovoltaic To efficiently offset the greatest amount of carbon emissions, direct displacement of gas generation with wind and solar electricity is likely to be the best first step. The gas fired electric generation sector is projected to account for substantially more emissions (394 mmtC yr) than a natural gas transportation system (248 mmtC yr) which also has more complex fuel infrastructure issues than electric utilities. Employing carbonless sources in the utility sector also circumvents the energy penalties of converting wind or solar electricity to transportation fuel.

Discussion And Conclusions

These results show that climate change mitigation policies aimed at the promotion of the sustainable production and use of bioenergy can have a major impact on global agricultural land use. Such a transition requires substantial increases in crop yields and efficiency and opens up new possibilities for income and jobs in the agricultural sector particularly in developing regions. To what extent this transition is going to be successful, depends partially on the costs of bioenergy production compared to fossil fuels and other renewable energy sources. This also includes costs of the transfer of technology to make the gains in yield and production efficiency possible. In reality, yield levels are the result of many complex interactions between numerous factors in the entire socioeconomic system (e.g. prices of land and labour, available infrastructure, natural circumstances, trade negotiations, interest rates, education level of agricultural workforce). These complex interactions are...

Soil Solarization Introduction

Soil Solarization

Mulching soil with plastic films was known since the early 1960s of the past century as an agronomical technique to reduce soil water evaporation and erosion and improve soil physical properties (Waggoner et al. 1960 Burrows and Larson 1962 Lai 1974), whereas control of soil and plant material disease agents by the use of heat, also generated by solar energy, was reported still earlier (Grooshevoy 1939 Newhall 1955). However, soil solarization as actually meant, namely, a technology for soil disinfestation from soilborne pathogens and weeds, originated during the 1970s from the studies conducted in Israel and Jordan (Katan et al. 1976). In the first decade following the publication of Katan et al., a large number of studies focused on the effectiveness of solarization against many soilborne pathogens, weeds, and soil arthropods in many vegetable, field, ornamental, and fruit tree crops. Physical, chemical, and biological principles of solarization and collateral biological, chemical,...

Etymology and definition

The long-term use of fossil energy without emissions of CO2 is an energy path that may substantially lower the economic cost of mitigating anthropogenic climate change. I call the required technologies Industrial Carbon Management (ICM), defined as the linked processes of capturing the carbon content of fossil fuels while generating carbon-free energy products such as electricity and hydrogen and sequestering the resulting CO2.

Externalities as Benefits and Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

Renewable energy Renewable energy (i) Pollution and waste produced by the production, distribution, and maintenance of renewable energy and energy efficiency equipment. (iii) Negative environmental effects relating to production and disposal of toxic parts (e.g., batteries for solar energy storage)

Box 81 Q C3 and CAM plants

Sequences Pathway Water Plants

Note that, because photorespiration also occurs especially fast in warm climates and at high light intensity (which causes high temperatures in the leaf), the C4 system is also directly advantageous for avoiding wasting solar energy, irrespective of water balance. Of course, dry environments also tend to be sunny and hot, so in this respect (avoiding water loss, and allowing effective utilization of high light intensities) they doubly favor C4 plants.

The Greenhouse Effect

Since the atmosphere is thin, let us simplify things by considering a planar geometry, in which the incoming radiation per unit area is equal to the average flux per unit area striking the Earth. This average incoming solar energy per unit area of the Earth's surface is average solar energy flux

The Opposition to Nuclear Power

One might hope that politicians would have the courage to take the hard decisions that are required to safeguard our long-term future. They have before them the evidence of countless scientific studies and reports by the Royal Society and the Federation of British Industry. However the next election looms larger in their minds than the future of mankind. The evidence for climate change is now so compelling that Governments have to be seen doing something about it. They dare not risk offending public opinion by choosing nuclear power. Instead they fasten on the renewables, especially wind power as a safe political choice, in spite of the arguments showing its futility. Conferences are arranged to consider the problem of global warming and climate change and consider all means of preventing these harmful emissions such as improved energy efficiency, carbon emission taxes and wind and solar power, except the one source that is demonstrably the only practicable way to solve the problem....

Hazards from Changes in Climate

High-level winds, and they have the effect of blocking out some of the Sun's rays, which lowers global temperatures. This happens because particles and aerosol gases in the upper atmosphere tend to scatter sunlight back to space, lowering the amount of incoming solar energy. In contrast, particles that get injected only into the lower atmosphere absorb sunlight and contribute to greenhouse warming. A side effect is that the extra particles in the atmosphere also produce more spectacular sunsets and sunrises, as does extra pollution in the atmosphere. These effects were readily observed after the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, which spewed more than 172 billion cubic feet (5 billion m3) of ash and aerosols into the atmosphere, causing global cooling for two years after the eruption. Even more spectacularly, the 1815 eruption of Tambora in Indonesia caused three days of total darkness for approximately 300 miles (500 km) from the volcano, and it initiated the famous year without a...

Co2 Capture Separation With Membranes

Co2 Capture Separation With Membranes

Capturing CO2 directly from small and mobile sources in the transportation and residential & commercial building sectors is expected to be more difficult and expensive than from large point sources. Small-scale capture is therefore not further discussed in this chapter. An alternative way of avoiding emissions of CO2 from these sources would be by use of energy carriers such as hydrogen or electricity produced in large fossil fuel-based plants with CO2 capture or by using renewable energy sources. Production of hydrogen with CO2 capture is included in this chapter.

Climatic Data Nature of the data

Radiation is a crucial data element because the heat exchange of the atmosphere determines global warming and, hence, climate change to a large extent. Data are collected on the amount of solar energy reflected nd absorbed by the surface of the Earth. The nature and extent of cloud cover is monitored, as is the extent of energy rebounding off that cloud cover. Aggregate and grid-specific releases of energy data are collected one measure of atmospheric clarity that is employed is Boucher's Sulfate Burden, measured in milligrams per square meter.

Michael Renner Sean Sweeney and Jill Kubit

The number of green jobs is already on the rise. Most visible are those in the renewable energy sector, which has seen rapid expansion in recent years. Current employment in renewables and supplier industries stands at a conservatively estimated 2.3 million worldwide. The wind power industry employs some 300,000 people the solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, an estimated 170,000 and the solar thermal industry, more than 600,000 (this relatively high figure is due to low labor productivity in China, the leading producer of solar thermal systems). More than 1 million jobs are found in the biofuels industry growing and processing a variety of feedstocks into ethanol and biodiesel.2 Some industrial regions that have become Rust Belts, such as parts of the U.S. Midwest or Germany's Ruhr Valley, are gaining new vitality from wind and solar development. Rural communities receive additional income when farmers place wind turbines on their land. Installing, operating, and servicing renewable...

David Viner James IL Morison and Craig Wallace

The recent and future anthropogenic changes to the climate have to be considered in the context of natural climate changes. The Earth's climate results from the complex interaction of many components the ocean, atmosphere, geosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Although the climate system is ultimately driven by the external solar energy, changes to any of the internal components, and how they interact with each other, as well as variability in the solar radiation received can lead to changes in climatic conditions. These influences are often considered as 'forcings', changes to the energy inputs and outputs that result in modifications in the climate. Therefore there are many causes of climate change that operate on a variety of timescales. On the longest timescales are mechanisms such as geological processes and the changes in the Earth's orbit around the sun (Milankovitch-Croll effect). The latter is believed to be the mechanism underlying the cycle of ice ages and interglacials....

The Roles Of Variable Seawater Density Temperature And Salinity

In the world's oceans, the properties of density, temperature, and salinity (salt content) all work together and result in distinct characteristics that ultimately relate to climate change and global warming. Solar energy is absorbed by seawater and stored as heat in the oceans. Some of the energy that is absorbed may evaporate seawater, which increases its temperature and salinity. When a substance is heated, it expands and its density is lowered. Conversely, when a substance is cooled, its density increases. The addition or subtraction of salts also causes seawater density to change. Water that has higher salinity will be denser.

Effect of atmospheric solar absorption on pure radiative equilibrium

Now we will examine how the absorption of solar radiation within an atmosphere affects the temperature structure of the atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. The prime application of this calculation is to understand the thermal structure of stratospheres. Under what circumstances does the temperature of a stratosphere increase with height The effect of solar absorption on gas giant planets like Jupiter is even more crucial. There being no distinct surface to absorb sunlight, all solar driving of the atmosphere for gas giants comes from deposition of solar energy within the atmosphere. In this case, the profile of absorption determines in large measure where, if anywhere, the radiative equilibrium atmosphere is unstable to convection, and therefore where a troposphere will tend to form. The answer determines whether convection on gas giants is driven in part by solar heating as opposed to ascent of buoyant plumes carrying heat from deep in the interior of the planet.

Florida International university

Ricane-related loss reduction by conducting research, such as studies on the effects of storm-surge along Florida's long and highly-developed coastline. IHR scientists at FIU's Laboratory for Coastal Research measure changes in shoreline and beaches in response to short-term events such as hurricanes and also over longer periods of time. At other FIU laboratories, satellite images are combined with computer animation to create simulations and interactive visuals for training and outreach. Research is also being done to develop energy-efficient equipment and solar energy powered buildings. With the price of weather and storm-related events on the increase, researchers are modeling insurance costs under different scenarios of damage, finding ways to providing incentives for people of protect their homes, and developing new wind-resistant structures for homes and businesses.

Architecture of the Power Generation System

Fig. 10.3 Breakdown of the US power generation fleet (PS photovoltaic solar, HY hydroelectric, CT combustion turbine, CC combined cycle, STB steam turbine boiler) (Source www.snl.com) Fig. 10.3 Breakdown of the US power generation fleet (PS photovoltaic solar, HY hydroelectric, CT combustion turbine, CC combined cycle, STB steam turbine boiler) (Source www.snl.com)

Pilot testing and upscaling1

Statkraft, an energy utility owned by the Norwegian government, is today the largest generator of renewable energy in Europe. With generation capacity within hydropower, wind power, gas power, and soon also solar power, the company has a large portfolio of environmental energy solutions. But it is clear to the company that to maintain a leading position within renewable energy it is necessary to focus on innovation with a clear ambition to deliver the energy solutions of the future. With over 100 years of tradition in hydropower, working with pressurized water and sustainable project development, it was natural that Statkraft turned the focus toward PRO already in 1997. When Statkraft started working on PRO, the first efforts were to understand the realistic potential of this concept provided the technology would be made available. Calculations and surveys of the availability of the resources - freshwater and seawater - were executed, and the result showed that a significant amount of...

Direct and indirect photochemical reactions

The absorption of photon energy by CDOM can lead to several types of photophysical and photochemical reactions, and we emphasize that light absorption may be the first of many steps that can ultimately lead to the chemical changes we observe in CDOM. Most CDOM photochemistry involves the excitation of humic substances, which have a large degree of double bond character (C C and C 0) that readily absorb sunlight energy. However, beyond direct chemical reaction from absorbing photon energy, excited species may participate in a number of indirect chemical reactions.

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