The Lapse Rate Change of the GT50 In 1973 and 2004

Figure 5a shows the revised GT50 for locations on southern-aspect slopes in 1973 versus the altitudes of the revised GT50. The data were derived from Fujii and Higuchi (1976). In 1973, while the lapse rate below 5200-5300 m was close to that of air temperature (0.5°C/100 m), the lapse rate above 5200-5300 m became much larger than that of air temperature (3.4°C/100 m). Thus, the permafrost lower limit of the south-facing slope was estimated as 5200-5300 m in 1973.

In 2004 (Fig. 5b), while the lapse rate below 5400-5500 m was close to that of air temperature (0.5°C/100 m), the lapse rate above 5400-5500 m became much larger than that of air temperature (2.5°C/100 m). Thus, Fukui et al. (2007a) estimated that the permafrost lower limit of the south-facing slope in 2004 was 5400-5500 m.

Figure 5a shows the revised GT50 for locations on southern-aspect slopes in 1973 versus the altitudes of the revised GT50. The data were derived from Fujii and Higuchi (1976). In 1973, while the lapse rate below 5200-5300 m was close to that of air temperature (0.5°C/100 m), the lapse rate above 5200-5300 m became much larger than that of air temperature (3.4°C/100 m). Thus, the permafrost lower limit of the south-facing slope was estimated as 5200-5300 m in 1973.

In 2004 (Fig. 5b), while the lapse rate below 5400-5500 m was close to that of air temperature (0.5°C/100 m), the lapse rate above 5400-5500 m became much larger than that of air temperature (2.5°C/100 m). Thus, Fukui et al. (2007a) estimated that the permafrost lower limit of the south-facing slope in 2004 was 5400-5500 m.

Figure. 5 Lapse rate of the GT50 for south-facing slopes, the Khumbu Himal, in 1973 (a) and 2004 (b) (modified Fukui et al., 2007a).
Figure. 6 Ground temperature profiles and stratigraphy of the pits around Kala Pattar in October 2004 (modified Fukui et al., 2007a).

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