Long-term settlements and ground movements are often the deciding factors in the design of infrastructure in mountain permafrost environments. The temperature, time and stress dependence of frozen ground must therefore be evaluated. When carrying out laboratory tests to determine these properties, laboratory boundary conditions must be chosen according to the expected field conditions. Because the long-term behaviour of frozen soils is highly nonlinear, data extrapolation is not recommended. Caution is also to be used when interpolating test data. Sample size effects must be considered in the selection and possible correction of the data when using laboratory data for field designs. Data and relationships for permafrost soils are presented in Andersland and Ladanyi (2004), or in Arenson and Springman (2005 a) and Arenson et al. (2004) for ice rich alpine permafrost samples.
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