References In Soil Temperature

EDC Prepping Program

Home Emergency Preparedness Guide

Get Instant Access

Andersland, O.B. and Ladanyi, B., 2004. An introduction to frozen ground engineering. John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 363 pp. Anderson, D.M. and Tice, A.R., 1972. Predicting unfrozen water content in frozen soils from surface area measurements. No. 393, Highway Research Record. Arenson, L.U., 2002. Unstable alpine permafrost: a potentially important natural hazard -variations of geotechnical behaviour with time and temperature. Doctoral Thesis No. 14801 Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 271 pp. Arenson, L.U., Hoelzle, M. and Springman, S.M., 2002. Borehole deformation measurements and internal structure of some rock glaciers in Switzerland. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 13(2): 117-135. Arenson, L.U., Johansen, M.M. and Springman, S.M., 2004. Effects of volumetric ice content and strain rate on shear strength under triaxial conditions for frozen soil samples. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 15(3): 261-271. Arenson, L.U., Sego, D.C. and Newman, G., 2006. The use of a convective heat flow model in road designs for northern regions, Climate Change Technology Conference. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: CD-Rom. Arenson, L.U. and Springman, S.M., 2005a. Mathematical description for the behaviour of ice-rich frozen soils at temperatures close to zero centigrade. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 42(2): 431-442. Arenson, L.U. and Springman, S.M., 2005b. Triaxial constant stress and constant strain rate tests on ice-rich permafrost samples. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 42(2): 412-430. Arenson, L.U., Springman, S.M. and Hawkins, P.G., 2003. Pressuremeter tests within an active rock glacier in the Swiss Alps. In: M. Phillips, S.M. Springman and L.U. Arenson (Editors), Eighth International Conference on Permafrost. Zurich, Switzerland, A.A. Balkema: 33-38.

Arenson, L.U., Springman, S.M. and Sego, D.C., 2007. The rheology of frozen soils. Applied

Rheology, 17(1): 12147-1 - 12147-14. Arnold, A., Thielen, A. and Springman, S.M., 2005. On the stability of active layers in alpine permafrost, 11th International Conference and Field Trip on Landslides (ICFL). Trondheim, Norway, Taylor & Francis, Netherlands.

ASTM, 2001. D 5520, Standard test method for laboratory determination of creep properties of frozen soil samples by uniaxial compression.

ASTM, 2006. WK10696, New standard test method for laboratory determination of strength properties of frozen soil at a constant rate of strain.

ASTM D5334-05, 2005. Standard test method for determination of thermal conductivity of soil and soft rock by thermal needle probe procedure, ASTM, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Barnes, P., Tabor, D. and Walker, J.C.F., 1971. Friction and creep of polycrystalline ice. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Serie A, 324(1557): 127-155.

Bieniawski, Z.T., 1989. Engineering Rock Mass Classifications: A Complete Manual for Engineers and Geologists in Mining, Civil, and Petroleum Engineering Wiley-Interscience, New York, 272 pp.

Biggar, K. and Kong, V., 2001. An analysis of long-term pile load tests in permafrost from the Short Range Radar site foundations. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 38(3): 441-460.

Biggar, K.W. and Sego, D.C., 1993a. Field Pile Load Tests in Saline Permafrost .1. Test Procedures and Results. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 30(1): 34-45.

Biggar, K.W. and Sego, D.C., 1993b. Field Pile Load Tests in Saline Permafrost .2. Analysis of Results. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 30(1): 46-59.

Biggar, K.W. and Sego, D.C., 1993c. The Strength and Deformation-Behavior of Model Adfreeze and Grouted Piles in Saline Frozen Soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 30(2): 319-337.

Biggar, K.W., Sego, D.C. and Noel, M.M., 1993. Laboratory and Field Performance of High Alumina Cement-Based Grout for Piling in Permafrost. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 20(1): 100-106.

Biggar, K.W., Sego, D.C. and Stahl, R.P., 1996. Long-term pile load testing system performance in saline and ice-rich permafrost. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 10(3): 149-162.

Bommer, C., Keusen, H.R. and Phillips, M., 2008. Engineering solutions for foundations and anchors in mountain permafrost. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 159-163.

Burgess, M.M. and Smith, S.L., 2003. 17 years of thaw penetration and surface settlement observations in permafrost terrain along the Norman Wells Pipeline, Northwest Territories, Canada. In: M. Phillips, S.M. Springman and L.U. Arenson (Editors), Eighth International Conference on Permafrost. Zurich, Switzerland, A.A. Balkema: 107-112.

Cheng, G.D., Zhang, J.M., Sheng, Y. and Chen, J., 2004. Principle of thermal insulation for permafrost protection. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 40(1-2): 71-79.

Christensen, J.H., Hewitson, B., Busuioc, A., Chen, A., Gao, X., Held, I., Jones, R., Kolli, R.K., Kwon, W.-T., Laprise, R., Rueda, V.M., Mearns, L., Menendez, C.G., Raisanen, J., Rinke, A., Sarr, A. and Whetton, P., 2007. Regional Climate Projections. In: S. Solomon et al. (Editors), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: 94 pp.

Clague, J.J., 2008. Effects of recent climate change on high mountains of Western North America. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 269-274.

Clarke, J., Fenton, C., Gens, A., Jardine, R., Martin, C., Nethercot, D., Nishimura, S., Olivella, S., Reifen, C., Rutter, P., Strasser, F. and Toumi, R., 2008. A multi-disciplinary approach to assess the impact of global climate change on infrastructure in cold regions. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 279-284.

Davies, M.C.R., Hamaz, O. and Harris, C., 2001. The effect of rise in mean annual temperature on the stability of rock slopes containing ice-filled discontinuities. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 12(1): 137-144.

Davies, M.C.R., Hamza, O., Lumsden, B.W. and Harris, C., 2000. Laboratory measurements of the shear strength of ice-filled rock joints. Annals of Glaciology, 31: 463-467.

Esch, D.C. (Editor), 2004. Thermal analysis, construction, and monitoring methods for frozen ground. Technical Council on Cold Regions Engineering monograph. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA: 492 pp.

Fauve, M., Rhyner, H. and Schneebeli, M., 2002. Pistenpräparation und Pistenpflege: Das Handbuch für den Praktiker, Eidgenössisches Institutes für Schnee- und Lawinenforschung (SLF), Davos, Switzerland

Fischer, L. and Huggel, C., 2008. Methodical design for stability assessments of permafrost-affected high-mountain rock walls. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 439-444.

Fish, A.M., 1985. Creep strength, strain rate, temperature and unfrozen water relationship in frozen soil. In: S. Kinosita and M. Fukuda (Editors), Fourth International Symposium on Ground Freezing. Sapporo, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam: 29-36.

French, H., 2007. The Periglacial Environment. Wiley, New York: 478 pp.

Gagnon, R.E. and Gammon, P.H., 1995. Triaxial experiments on iceberg and glacier ice. Journal of Glaciology, 41(139): 528-540.

Giardino, J.R., Vitek, J.D. and DeMorett, J.L., 1992. A model of water movement in rock glaciers and associated water characteristics. In: J.C. Dixon and A.D. Abrahams (Editors), Periglacial geomorphology: proceedings of the 22nd Annual Binghamton Symposium in Geomorphology. Wiley, New York: 159-184.

Goering, D.J., 1998. Experimental investigation of air convection embankments for permafrost-resistant roadway design. In: A.G. Lewkowicz and M. Allard (Editors), Seventh International Conference on Permafrost. Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, Collection Nordicana, vol. 57: 319-326.

Goering, D.J., Instanes, A. and Knudsen, S., 2000. Convective heat transfer in railway embankment ballast., International Symposium on Ground Freezing and Frost Action in Soils. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: 31-36.

Götz, A. and Raetzo, H., 2002. Permafrost - mit dem Risiko umgehen. SIA, tec 21(17): 7-10.

Goughnour, R.R. and Andersland, O.B., 1968. Mechanical properties of a sand-ice system. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, 94(SM 4): 923-950.

Gruber, S. and Haeberli, W., 2007. Permafrost in steep bedrock slopes and its temperature-related destabilization following climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 112(F2).

Gruber, S., King, L., Kohl, T., Herz, T.H., Wilfried and Hoelzle, M., 2004. Interpretation of geothermal profiles perturbed by topography: the Alpine permafrost boreholes at Stockhorn Plateau, Switzerland. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 15(4): 349-357.

Günzel, F.K., 2008. Shear strength of ice-filled rock joints. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 581-586.

Haeberli, W., 1973. Die Basis Temperatur der winterlichen Schneedecke als möglicher Indikator für die Verbreitung von Permafrost in den Alpen. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glaziogeologie, 9(01. Feb): 221-227.

Haeberli, W., 1992. Construction, environmental problems and natural hazards in periglacial mountain belts. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 3(2): 111-124.

Haeberli, W. and Beniston, M., 1998. Climate change and its impacts on glaciers and permafrost in the Alps. Ambio, 27(4): 258-265.

Haeberli, W., Hoelzle, M., Kaeaeb, A., Keller, F., Vonder Mühll, D. and Wagner, S., 1998. Ten years after drilling through the permafrost of the active rock glacier Murtel, Eastern Swiss Alps; answered questions and new perspectives. In: A.G. Lewkowicz and M. Allard (Editors), Seventh International Conference on Permafrost. Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, Centre d'Etudes Nordiques, Université Laval,Quebec, PQ, Canada: 403-410.

Harris, C., Arenson, L.U., Christiansen, H.H., Etzelmüller, B., Frauenfelder, R., Gruber, S., Haeberli, W., Hauck, C., Hölzle, M., Humlum, O., Isaksen, K., Kääb, A., Lehning, M., Lütschg, M.A., Matsuoka, N., Murton, J.B., Nötzli, J., Phillips, M., Ross, N., Seppälä, M., Springman, S.M. and Mühll, D.V., 2009. Permafrost and climate in Europe: geomorphological impacts, hazard assessment and geotechnical response. Earth Science Reviews, 92: 117-171.

Harris, C., Davies, M.C.R. and Etzelmüller, B., 2001a. The assessment of potential geotechnical hazards associated with mountain permafrost in a warming global climate. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 12: 145-156.

Harris, C., Kern-Luetschg, M., Murton, J., Font, M., Davies, M. and Smith, F., 2008. Full-scale physical modeling of solifluction processes associated with one-sided and two-sided active layer freezing. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 663-668.

Harris, C., Rea, B. and Davies, M., 2001b. Scaled physical modelling of mass movement processes on thawing slopes. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 12: 125-135.

Harris, J.S., 1995. Ground freezing in practice. Thomas Telford; Distributed by American Society of Civil Engineers, London; New York, 264 pp.

Hauck, C., 2001. Geophysical methods for detecting permafrost in high mountains. Mitteilungen der Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie der ETH Zürich. Eigenverlag der Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau Hydrologie und Glaziologie, Zurich, 204 pp.

Hayley, D.W. and Horne, B., 2008. Rationalizing climate change for design of structures on permafrost: A Canadian perspective. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost Fairbanks, AK, USA, Institute of Northern Engineering: 681-686.

Hestnes, E., 2000. Impact of rapid mass movement and drifting snow on the infrastructure and development of Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In: K. Senneset (Editor), International Workshop on Permafrost Engineering. Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway: 259-282.

Hinkel, K.M. and Hurd, J.K.J., 2006. Permafrost Destabilization and Thermokarst following Snow Fence Installation, Barrow, Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 38(4): 530-539.

Hivon, E.G. and Sego, D.C., 1995. Strength of frozen soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 32(2): 336-354.

Hoelzle, M., Wegmann, M. and Krummenacher, B., 1999. Miniature temperature dataloggers for mapping and monitoring of permafrost in high mountain areas: first experience from the Swiss Alps. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 10(2): 113-124.

Hooke, R.L., Dahlin, B.B. and Kauper, M.T., 1972. Creep of ice containing dispersed fine sand. Journal of Glaciology, 11(63): 327-336.

Huang, S.L., Bray, M.T., Akagawa, S. and Fukuda, M., 2004. Field investigation of soil heave by a large diameter chilled gas pipeline experiment, Fairbanks, Alaska. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 18(1): 2-34.

Instanes, A., 2005. Infrastructure: buildings, support systems, and industrial facilities. In: C. Symon, L. Arris and B. Heal (Editors), Arctic Climate Impact Assessment 2005. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo: 907-944.

IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: A report accepted by Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change but not approved in detail - Technical Summary. In: S. Solomon, D. Qin and M. Manning (Editors). WMO, Geneva, Switzerland: 74 pp.

Kääb, A., 2008. Remote sensing of permafrost-related problems and hazards. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19(2): 107-136.

Kääb, A., Reynolds, J.M. and Haeberli, W., 2005. Glacier and permafrost hazards in high mountains. In: U.M. Huber (Editor), Global change and mountain regions: an overview of current knowledge. Springer: 225-234.

Keller, F., Haeberli, W., Rickenmann, D. and Rigendinger, H., 2002. Dämme gegen Naturgefahren. SIA, tec 21(17): 13-17.

Kern-Luetschg, M., Harris, C., Cleall, P., Li, Y. and Thomas, H., 2008. Scaled centrifuge modeling of solifluction in permafrost and seasonally frozen soils. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 919-924.

Keusen, H.-R. and Amiguet, J.L., 1987. Die Neubauten auf dem Jungfraujoch: Geologie, Felseigenschaften, Permafrost. Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt, 30-31: 905-906.

Klügel, J.U., 2008. Seismic hazard analysis - Quo vadis? Earth-Science Reviews, 88(1-2): 132.

Kneisel, C., Hauck, C., Fortier, R. and Moorman, B., 2008. Advances in geophysical methods for permafrost investigations. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19(2): 157-178.

Konrad, J.M., 1994. 16th Canadian geotechnical colloquium - Frost heave in soils - Concepts and engineering. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 31(2): 223-245.

Krainer, K. and Mostler, W., 2002. Hydrology of active rock glaciers: Examples from the Austrian Alps. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research, 34(2): 142-149.

Ladanyi, B. and Melouki, M., 1993. Determination of creep properties of frozen soils by means of the borehole stress relaxation test. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 30: 170-186.

Ma, W., Shi, C.H., Wu, Q.B., Zhang, L.X. and Wu, Z.J., 2006. Monitoring study on technology of the cooling roadbed in permafrost region of Quinghai-Tibet plateau. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 44(1): 1-11.

Margreth, S., 2007. Defense structures in avalanche starting zones. Technical Guideline as an aid to enforcement, SLF, Bern and Davos.

Marty, 2008. Regime shift of snow days in Switzerland Geophysical Research Letters, 35: L12501.

Maurer, H. and Hauck, C., 2007. Instruments and methods - Geophysical imaging of alpine rock glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 53(180): 110-120.

McKenna, J.K. and Biggar, K.W., 1998. The rehabilitation of a passive-ventilated slab on grade foundation using horizontal thermosyphons. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 35(4): 684-691.

Metternicht, G., Hurni, L. and Gogu, R., 2005. Remote sensing of landslides: An analysis of the potential contribution to geo-spatial systems for hazard assessment in mountainous environments. Remote Sensing of Environment, 98(2-3): 284-303.

Moser, K., 1999. Ankermortel im Permafrost, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research.

Musil, M., Maurer, H. and Green, A.G., 2003. Discrete tomography and joint inversion for loosely connected or unconnected physical properties: application to crosshole seismic and georadar data sets. Geophysical Journal International, 153(2): 389-402.

Musil, M., Maurer, H., Green, A.G., Horstmeyer, H., Nitsche, F.O., Vonder Muhll, D. and Springman, S., 2002. Shallow seismic surveying of an Alpine rock glacier. Geophysics, 67(6): 1701-1710.

Nahir, M., van Aanhout, M. and Reineche, S., 2005. Application of risk management to northern affairs program (NAP), Contaminated Sites in the North. Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sites in Arctic and Cold Climates: 189-198.

Nater, P., Arenson, L.U. and Springman, S.M., 2008. Choosing geotechnical parameters for slope stability assessments in alpine permafrost soils. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 1261-1266.

Ng, C.W.W., Springman, S.M. and Alonso, E.E., 2008. Monitoring the performance of unsaturated soil slopes. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 26(6): 799-816.

O'Connor, K.M. and Dowding, C.H., 1999. Geomeasurements by pulsing TDR cables and probes. CRC Press, 402 pp.

Palmer, A.C. and Williams, P.J., 2003. Frost heave and pipeline upheaval buckling. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 40(5): 1033-1038.

Panel on Energy Research and Developoment (PERD), 1998. Climate change impacts on permafrost engineeirng design, Environment Canada.

Phillips, M., 2006. Avalanche defence strategies and monitoring of two sites in mountain permafrost terrain, Pontresina, Eastern Swiss Alps. Natural Hazards, 39(3): 353-379.

Phillips, M., Bartelt, P. and Christen, M., 2000. Influences of avalanche-defence snow-supporting structures on ground temperature in Alpine permafrost terrain. Annals of Glaciology, 31: 422-426.

Phillips, M., Ladner, F., Muller, M., Sambeth, U., Sorg, J. and Teysseire, P., 2007. Monitoring and reconstruction of a chairlift midway station in creeping permafrost terrain, Grächen, Swiss Alps. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 47(1-2): 32-42.

Phillips, M. and Margreth, S., 2008. Effects of ground temperature and slope deformation on the service life of snow-supporting structures in mountain permafrost: Wisse Schijen, Randa, Swiss Alps. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 1417-1422.

Phillips, M., Margreth, S. and Ammann, W.J., 2003. Creep of snow-supporting structures in alpine permafrost. In: M. Phillips, S.M. Springman and L.U. Arenson (Editors), 8th International Conference on Permafrost. Zurich, Switzerland, A.A. Balkema: 891-896.

Phillips, M. and Schweizer, J., 2007. Effect of mountain permafrost on snowpack stability. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 47(1-2): 43-49.

Pimentel, E., Sres, A. and Anagnostou, G., 2007. Modelling of ground freezing in tunnelling, ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress "Underground Space: the 4th Dimension of Metropolises", Prague.

Portland Cement Association (PCA), 1997. Portland cement, concrete and heat of hydration. Concrete Technology Today, 18(2): 1-4.

Rieder, U., Keusen, H.-R. and J.L., A., 1980. Geotechnische Probleme beim Bau der Luftseilbahn Trockener Steg - Klein Matterhorn. Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt, 18: 428-431.

Riseborough, D., Shiklomanov, N., Etzelmüller, B., Gruber, S. and Marchenko, S., 2008. Recent advances in permafrost modelling. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19(2): 137-156.

Rist, A. and Phillips, M., 2005. First results of investigations on hydrothermal processes within the active layer above alpine permafrost in steep terrain. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, 59: 177-183.

Rixen, C., Haeberli, W. and Stoeckli, V., 2004. Ground temperatures under ski pistes with artificial and natural snow. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research, 36(4): 419-427.

Robertson, A. and Shaw, S., 2005. Enviromine - Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA). http://robertsongeoconsultants.com/rgc_enviromine/Issues/cls_FMEA.asp, accessed: February 19, 2009.

Roer, I., Kääb, A. and Dikau, R., 2005. Rockglacier kinematics derived from small-scale aerial photography and digital airborne pushbroom imagery. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 49(1): 73-87.

Schrott, L., 1996. Some geomorphological-hydrological aspects of rock glaciers in the Andes (San Juan, Argentina). Z Geomorph N.F., 104: 161-173.

Schrott, L., 1998. The hydrological significance of high mountain Permafrost and its relation to solar radiation. A case study in the high Andes of San Juan, Argentina. Bamberg Geographische Schriften, 15: 71-84.

Smith, L.B., Graham, J.P., Nixon, J.F. and Washuta, A.S., 1991. Thermal-Analysis of Forced-Air and Thermosiphon Cooling Systems for the Inuvik Airport Expansion. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 28(3): 399-409.

Smith, M.W. and Tice, A.R., 1988. Measurement of the unfrozen water content of soils; a comparison of NMR and TDR methods. In: K. Senneset (Editor), Fifth International Conference on Permafrost. Trondheim, Norway: 473-477.

Springman, S.M. and Arenson, L.U., 2008. Recent advances in permafrost geotechnics. In: D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel (Editors), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost. Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., Institute of Northern Engineering: 1685-1694.

Springman, S.M., Jommi, C. and Teysseire, P., 2003. Instabilities on moraine slopes induced by loss of suction: a case history. Géotechnique, 53(1): 3-10.

Steiner, W., Graber, U. and Keusen, H.-R., 1996. Construction in rock at 3550 meters elevation (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland). In: G. Barla (Editor), EUROCK'96 Prediction and Performance in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. Torino, Italy, Balkema, Amsterdam: 543-550.

Stoffel, L., 1995. Bautechnische Grundlagen für das Erstellen von Lawinenverbauungen im alpinen Permafrost, Eidgenössisches Institut für Schnee- und Lawinenforschung (SLF), Davos, Switzerland

Strozzi, T., Kääb, A. and Frauenfelder, R., 2004. Detecting and quantifying mountain permafrost creep from in situ inventory, space-borne radar interferometry and airborne digital photogrammetry. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(15): 2919 - 2931.

Tart, R.G., 2003. Heave and solifluction on slopes. In: M. Phillips, S.M. Springman and L.U. Arenson (Editors), Eighth International Conference on Permafrost. Zurich, Switzerland, A.A. Balkema: 1135-1140.

Tart, R.G. and Ferrell, J.E., 2002. Performance of the Squirrel Creek slopes steep slopes on discontinuous permafrost, 11th International Symposium on Cold Regions Engineering: 39-49.

Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R.B., 1969. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. Wiley.

Thalparpan, P., 2000. Lawinenverbauungen im Permafrost, Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research, Davos.

Thielen, A. and Springman, S.M., 2005. First results of a monitoring experiment for the analysis of rainfall induced landslides. In: A. Tarantino, E. Romero and Y.J. Cui (Editors), International Symposium on Advanced Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics—EXPERUS 2005. Trento: 549-554.

Thiis, T.K. and Jaedicke, C., 2000. Changes in the snowdrift pattern caused by a building extension - Investigations through scale modelling and numerical simulations. In: E. Hjorth-Hansen, I. Holand, S. L0set and H. Norem (Editors), Fourth International Conference on Snow Engineering. Trondheim, Norway, Balkema: 363-375.

Tice, A.R., Anderson, D.M. and Banin, A., 1976. The prediction of unfrozen water contents in frozen soils from liquid limit determinations. CRREL Report 76-8, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.

U.S. Arctic Research Commission Permafrost Task Force, 2003. Climate Change, Permafrost, and Impacts on Civil Infrastructure. Special Report 01-03, U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Arlington, Virginia.

Ulitsky, V., Paramanov, V., Kudryavstev, S., Shaskin, K. and Lisyuk, M., 2003. Contemporary geotechnologies providing safe operation of railway embankments in permafrost conditions. In: W. Haeberli and D. Brandovà (Editors), Extended Abstracts of the Eighth International Conference on Permafrost reporting current research and new information: 167-168.

van Everdingen, R. (Editor), 1998 revised 2005. Multi-language glossary of permafrost and related ground-ice terms. National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO

Vonder Muhll, D., 1996. Drilling in Alpine Permafrost. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 50: 1724.

Vonder Muhll, D., Noetzli, J., Makowski, K. and Delaloye, R., 2004. Permafrost in Switzerland 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 Glaciological Report (Permafrost) No. 2/3 of the Glaciological Commission (GC) of the Swiss Academy of Sciences (SAS) and Department of Geography, University of Zurich.

Vonder Muhll, D.S., Arenson, L.U. and Springman, S.M., 2003. Temperature conditions in two Alpine rock glaciers. In: M. Phillips, S.M. Springman and L.U. Arenson (Editors), Eighth International Conference on Permafrost. Zurich, Switzerland, A.A. Balkema: 1195-1200.

Vonder Muhll, D.S. and Holub, P., 1992. Borehole logging in alpine permafrost, Upper Engadin, Swiss Alps. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 3: 125-132.

Vonder Muhll, D.S., Stucki, T. and Haeberli, W., 1998. Borehole temperatures in alpine permafrost: a ten year series. In: A.G. Lewkowicz and M. Allard (Editors), Seventh International Conference on Permafrost. Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, Centre d'Etudes Nordiques, Université Laval, Quebec, PQ, Canada: 1089-1095.

VTT (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus), 1987. Frost protection for house structures (in Finnish), Technical Research Centre of Finland, Geotech. Lab., Helsinki, Finnland.

Wei, M., Fujun, N., Satoshi, A. and Dewu, J., 2006. Slope instability phenomena in permafrost regions of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Landslides, 3(3): 260-264.

Wen, Z., Sheng, Y., Ma, W., Qi, J.L. and Wu, J.C., 2005. Analysis on effect of permafrost protection by two-phase closed thermosyphon and insulation jointly in permafrost regions. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 43(3): 150-163.

Williams, P.J., 1967a. Unfrozen water content of frozen soils and soil moisture suction. Publications of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, 72: 11-26.

Williams, P.J., 1967b. Unfrozen water in frozen soils. Publications of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, 72: 37-48.

Woo, M.-K., Kane, D.L., Carey, S.K. and Yang, D., 2008. Progress in permafrost hydrology in the new millennium. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19(2): 237-254.

Yasufuku, N., Springman, S.M., Arenson, L.U. and Ramholt, T., 2003. Stress-dilatancy behaviour of frozen sand in direct shear. In: M. Phillips, S.M. Springman and L.U. Arenson (Editors), Eighth International Conference on Permafrost. Zurich, Switzerland, A.A. Balkema: 1253-1258.

Zaharko, B. and Sego, D., 2008. Foamed gravel backfill for piles in permafrost. In: 61st Canadian Geotechnical Conference and the 9th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference held at the Westin Edmonton, Alberta: 925-932.

In: New Permafrost and Glacier Research Editors: Max I. Krugger and Harry P. Stern

ISBN: 978-1-60692-616-1 ©2009 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 2

Was this article helpful?

0 0
End of Days Apocalypse

End of Days Apocalypse

This work on 2012 will attempt to note them allfrom the concepts andinvolvement by the authors of the Bible and its interpreters and theprophecies depicted in both the Hopi petroglyphs and the Mayan calendarto the prophetic uttering of such psychics, mediums, and prophets asNostradamus, Madame Blavatsky, Edgar Cayce, and Jean Dixon.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment