References

Abramopoulos, F., Rosenzweig, C., & Choudhury, B. (1988) Improved ground hydrology calculations for global models (GCMs): soil water movement and evapotranspiration. J. Climate, 1, 921-941.

Acs, F., Hantel, M., & Unegg, J.W. (2000) Climate diagnostic with the Budapest-Vienna land-surface model SURFMOD. Austrian contributions to the IGBP, Vol. 3.

Bastidas, L.A., Gupta, H.V., & Sorooshian, S. (2003) Parameter, Structure and Performance Evaluation for Land Surface Models. In: Q. Duan, H.V. Gupta, S. Sorooshian, A. Rousseau, & R. Turcotte (Eds.), Advances in the Calibration of Watershed Models. Water Science and Application Series, 6, Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union., pp .229-238.

Beringer, J., Lynch, A.H., Chapin III, F.S., & Mack, M. (2001) The representation of Arctic soils in the land surface model: The importance of mosses. J. Climate, 14, 3324-3335.

Blumel, K. (1998) Estimation of sensible heat fluxes from the surface temperature wave and one-time-of-day air temperature observation. Boundary-LayerMeteorol, 86, 193-232.

Blumel, K. (1999) A simple formula for estimation of the roughness length for heat transfer over partly vegetated surfaces. J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 814-829.

Blumel, K. (2001) Estimation of sensible heat fluxes from the surface temperature wave and one-time-of-day air temperature observation, part II - heterogeneous surfaces. Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 98, 183-218.

Boone, A., Masson, V, Meyers, T., & Noilhan, J. (2000) The influence of the inclusion of soil freezing on simulations by a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer scheme. J. Appl. Meteor, 39, 1544-1569.

Braden, H. (1996) The model AMBETI - A detailed description of a soil-plant-atmosphere model. Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes, 195, Offenbach am Main, Germany, Deutscher Wetterdienst, 117pp.

Beven, K.J., & Kirby, M.J. (1979). A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24, 43-69.

Bonan, G.B., Oleson, K.W., Vertenstein, M., Levis, S., Zeng, X., Dai, Y., Dickinson, R.E., & Yang, Z.-L. (2002) The land surface climatology of the community land model coupled to the NCAR community climate model. J. Climate, 15, 1115-1130.

Bronstert, A., Leavesley, G., & Molders, N. (2005). Scale issues. In: Bronstert, A., Carrera, J., Kabat, P., Lutkemeier, S. (eds.), Coupled Models for the Hydrological Cycle -Integrating Atmosphere, Biosphere, and Pedosphere, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 21-39.

Calhoun, F.G., Smeck, N.E., Slater, B.L., Bigham, J.M., & Hall, G.F. (2001) Predicting bulk density of Ohio soils from morphology, genetic principles, and laboratory characterization data. SoilSci. Soc. Am. J., 65, 811-819.

Callies, U., Rhodin, A., & Eppel, D.P. (1998) A case study on variational soil moisture analysis from atmospheric observations. J. Hydrol., 212-213, 95-108.

Carey, S.K., & Woo, M. (1999) Hydrology of two slopes in subarctic Yukon, Canada, Hydrol. Process., 13, 2549-2562.

Chen, F., Mitchell, K., Schaake, J., Xue, Y., Pan, H.-L., Koren, V., Duan, Q.Y., Ek, M., & Betts, A. (1996) Modeling of land surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (D), 7251-7268.

Chen, T.H., Henderson-Sellers, A., Milly, P.C.D., Pitman, A.J., Beljaars, A.C.M., Polcher, J., Abramopoulos, F., Boone, A., Chang, S., Chen, F., Dai, Y., Desboroough, C.E., Dickinson, R.E., Dumenil, L., Ek, M., Lettenmaier, J.R., Liang, X. Mahouf, J.-F., Mengelkamp, H.T., Mitchell, K., Nasonova, O.N., Noilhan, J., Robock, A., Verseghy, D.L., Wetzel, P., Wood, E.F., Xue, Y., Yang, Z.-L., & Zeng, Q. (1997) Cabauw experimental results from the project for intercomparison of land-surface parameterization schemes. J. Climate, 10, 1194-1215.

Chen, F., & Dudhia, J. (2001a) Coupling an advanced land surface hydrology model with the Penn State/NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model description and implementation. Mon. Wea. Rev, 129, 569-585.

Chen, F., & Dudhia, J. (2001b) Coupling an advanced land surface hydrology model with the Penn State/NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part II: Model description and implementation.Mon. Wea. Rev, 129, 587-604.

Cherkauer, K.A., & Lettenmaier, D.P. (1999) Hydrologic effects of frozen soils in the upper Mississippi river basis. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (D), 19611-19621.

Clapp, R.B., & Hornberger, G.M. (1978) Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties. Water Resour. Res., 14, 601-604.

Claussen, M. (1988) On the surface energy budget of coastal zones with tidal flats. Contrib. Atmos. Phys, 61, 39-49.

Cosby, B.J., Hornberger, G.M., Clapp, R.B., & Ginn, T.R. (1984) A statistical exploration of the relationships of soil moisture characteristics to the physical properties of soils. Water Resour. Res., 20, 682-690.

Cogley, J.G., Pitman, A.J., & Henderson-Sellers, A. (1990) A land-surface for large scale climate models. Tech. Note 90-1, Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ont. 129pp.

Cuenca, R., Ek, M., & Mahrt, L. (1996) Impact of soil water property parameterization on atmospheric boundary layer simulation. J. Geophys. Res, 101 (D), 7269-7277.

Deardorff, J.W. (1978) Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture, with inclusion of a layer of vegetation. J. Geophys. Res, 84 (C), 1889-1903.

de Groot, S.R. (1951) Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. New York, Interscience Publishers Inc., 242 pp.

Desborough, C.E. (1997) The impact of root-weighting on the response of transpiration stress in a land surface scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev, 125, 1920-1930.

De Rosnay, P., & Polcher, J., (1999) Modeling root water uptake in a complex land surface scheme coupled to a GCM. Hydrol. Earth Sys. Sci., 2, 239-255.

DeQue, M., Dreveton, C., Braun, A., & Cariolle, D. (1994) The ARPEGE/IFS atmosphere model - A contribution to the French community climate modelling. Climate Dyn., 10, 249-266.

Dery, S.J., Taylor, P.A., & Xiao, J. (1998) The thermodynamic effects of sublimating, blowing snow in the atmospheric boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meterol., 89, 251-283.

Dery, S.J., & Yau, M.K. (1999) A climatology of adverse winter-type weather events. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (D), 16657-16672.

Dery, S.J., & Yau, M.K. (2002) The thermodynamic effects of sublimating, blowing snow and surface sublimation. J.Geophys. Res, 107 (D), 4679, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001251, ACL 8-1 to 8-17.

de Vries, D.A. (1958) Simultaneous transfer of heat and moisture in porous media. Transactions Am. Geophys. Union, 39, 909-916.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., & Wilson, M.F. (1986) Biosphere atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-275+STR, 69 pp.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., & Kennedy, P.J. (1993) Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) version 1e as coupled to the NCAR community climate model. NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-378+STR.

Dingman, S.L. (1994) Physical Hydrology. New York/Oxford/Singapore/Sydney, Macmillan Publishing Company, 575 pp.

Douville, H., Royer, J.F., & Mahouf, J.F. (1995) A new snow parameterization for the meteo-france climate model. 1. Validation in stand-alone experiments. Climate Dyn, 12, 21-35.

Douville, H., & Chauvin, F. (2000) Relevance of soil moisture for seasonal climate predictions: a preliminary study. Climate Dyn, 16, 719-736.

Ducoudre, N., Laval, K., & Perrir, A., (1993) SECHIBA, a new set of parameterizations of the hydrologic exchanges at the land-atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general circulation model. J. Climate, 6, 248-273.

Dudhia, J. (1993) A non-hydrostatic version of the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 1493-1513.

Dümenil, L., & Todini, E. (1992) A rainfall-runoff scheme for use in the Hamburg climate model. In: J.P. O'Kane (Ed.), Advances in Theoretical Hydrology, European Geophysical Society Series on Hydrological Sciences, 1. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 129-157.

Eppel, D.P., Kapitza, H., Claussen, M., Jacob, D., Koch, W., Levkov, L., Mengelkamp, H.-T., & Werrmann, N. (1995) The non-hydrostatic mesoscale model GESIMA. Part II: Parameterizations and applications. Contrib. Atmos. Phys, 68, 15-41.

Esch, D.C., & Osterkamp, T.E. (1990) Cold region engineering: Climatic warming concerns for Alaska. J. Cold Regions Engineering, 4, 6-14.

Essery, R.L.H., Best, M.J., Betts, R.A., Cox, P.M., & Taylor, M.C. (2003) Explicit representation of subgrid heterogeneity in a GCM land-surface scheme. J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 530-545.

Farouki, O. (1981) Thermal properties of soils. CRREL Monograph 81-1, Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories.

Flerchinger, G.N., & Saxton, K.E. (1989) Simultaneous heat and water model of a freezing snow-residue-soil system I. Theory and development. Transactions ASAE, 32, 565-571.

Francaviglia, R., & Capri, E. (2003) Lysimeter experiments with metolachor in Tor Mancina (Italy) 1.389E-6.

Fuchs, M., Campbell, G.S., & Papendick, R.I. (1978) An analysis of sensible and latent heat flow in partially frozen unsaturated soil. SoilSci. Soc. Am. J., 42, 379-385.

Grell, G., Dudhia, J., & Stauffer, D. (1994) A Description of the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-398+STR, 122 pp..

Grell, G.A., Peckham, S.E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S.A., Frost, G., Skamarock, W.C., Eder, B. (2005) Fully coupled "online" chemistry within the WRF model. Atmos. Environ, 39, 6957-6975.

Groß, G. (1988) A numerical estimation of the deforestation effects on local climate in the area of the Frankfurt International Airport. Contrib. Atmos. Phys, 61, 219-231.

Grunwald, S., Rooney, D.J., McSweeney, K., & Lowery, B. (2001) Development of pedotransfer functions for a profile cone penetrometer. Geoderma, 100, 25-47.

Hagemann, S., & Dümenil, L. (1998) A parameterization of the lateral waterflow for the global scale. Climate Dyn., 14, 17-31.

Hantel, M. (1997) Klimatologie. In: Raith, W. (ed.) Bergmann Schaefer, Lehrbuch der Experiementalphysik, Band 7, Erde und Planeten, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, pp. 311-426.

Henderson-Sellers, A. (1993) A factorial assessment of the sensitivity of the BATS land-surface parameterization. J. Climate, 6, 227-247.

Henderson-Sellers, A., Pitman, A.J., Love, P.K., Irannejad, P., & Chen, T.H. (1995) The project for intercomparison of land surface parameterization schemes (PILPS): Phase 2 and 3. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc, 76, 489-503.

Hinkel, K.M., Paetzold, R.F., Nelson, F.E., & Bockheim, J.G. (2001) Patterns of soil temperature and moisture in the active layer and upper permafrost at Barrow, Alaska: 1993-1999. Global and Planetary Change, 29, 293-309.

Hinkel, K.M., Nelson, F.E., Klene, A.E., & Bell, J.H. (2003) The urban heat island in winter at Barrow, Alaska. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 1889-1905.

Jacobson, I., & Heise, E. (1982) A new economic method for the computation of the surface temperature in numerical models. Contrib. Atmos. Phys, 55, 128-141.

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, B., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K.C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Jenne, R., & Josep, D. (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 77, 437-470.

Kane, D.L., Hinzman, L.D., & Zarling, J.P. (1991) Thermal response of the active layer in a permafrost environment to climatic warming. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 19 (2), pp. 111-122.

Koren, V., Schaake, J., Mitchell, K., Duan, Q.-Y., Chen, F., & Baker, J.M. (1999) A parameterization of snowpack and frozen ground intended for NCEP weather and climate models. J. Geophys. Res, 104 (D), 19569-19585.

Kramm, G., Dlugi, R., Mölders, N., & Müller, H. (1994) Numerical investigations of the dry deposition of reactive trace gases. In: J.M. Baldasano, C.A. Brebbia, H. Power, & P. Zannetti (Eds.), Air Pollution II Vol. 1: Computer Simulation, Southampton, Boston, Computational Mechanics Publications, pp. 285-307.

Kramm, G. (1995) Zum Austausch von Ozon und reaktiven Stickstoffverbindungen zwischen Atmosphäre und Biosphäre. Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Maraun-Verlag, 268 pp.

Kramm, G., Beier, N., Foken, T., Müller, H., Schröder, P., & Seiler, W. (1996) A SVAT scheme for NO, NO2, and O3 - model description. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys, 61, 89-106.

Kreyszig, E. (1970) Statistische Methoden und ihre Anwendung. Göttingen, Vanden Hoeck & Ruprecht, 422 pp.

Kuhl, S.C., & Miller, J.R. (1992) Seasonal river runoff calculated from a global atmospheric model. Water Resour. Res, 28, 2029-2039.

Kvaerno, S.H., & Deelstra, J. (2002) Spatial variability in soil hydraulic properties of a silty clay loam in south-eastern Norway. 17th WCSS, 14-21 August 2002, Thailand. Paper No. 2266.

Landsberg, J.D., Miller, R.E., Anderson, H.W., & Tepp, J.S. (2003) Bulk density and soil resistance to penetration as affected by commercial thinning in northeastern Washington. Research paper PNW-RP-551, Portland, OR, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Lauren, A., & Heiskannen, J. (1997) Physical properties of the moor layer in a Scots pine stand I. Hydraulic conductivity. Can. J. Soil Sci., 77, 627-634.

Ling, F., & Zhang, T. (2003) Impact of the timing and duration of seasonal snow cover on the active layer and permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 14, 141-150.

Lohmann, D., Lettenmaier, D.P., Liang, X., Wood, E.F., Boone, A., Chang, S., Chen, F., Dai, Y., Desborough, V., Dickinson, R.E., Duan, Q., Ek, M., Gusev, Y.M., Habets, F., Irannejad, P., Koster, R., Mitchell, K.E., Nasonova, O.N., Noilhan, J., Schaake, J., Schlosser, A., Shao, Y., Shmakin, A.B., Verseghy, D., Warrach, K., Wetzel, P., Xue, Y., Yang, Z.-L. & Zeng, Q.C. (1998) The Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes Phase (PILPS) phase 2(c) Red-Arkansas river basin experiement: 3. Spatial and temporal analysis of water fluxes. Global and Planetary Change, 19, 161-179.

Luo, L., Robock, A., Vinnikov, K.Y., Schlosser, C.A., Slater, A.G., Boone, A., Braden, H., Cox, P., de Rosany, P., Dickinson, R.E., Dai, Y., Duan, Q., Etchevers, P., Henderson-Sellers, A., Gedney, N., Gusev, Y.M., Habets, F., Kim, J., Kowalczyk, E., Mitchell, K., Nasonova, O.N., Noilhan, J., Pitman, A.J., Schaake, J., Shmakin, A.B., Smirnova, T.G., Wetzel, P., Xue, Y., Yang, Z.-L., & Zeng, Q.-C. (2003) Effects of frozen soil on soil temperature, spring infiltration, and runoff: Results from the PILPS2(d) experiment at Valdai, Russia. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 334-351.

Mahouf, J.F., & Noilhan, J. (1991) Comparative study of various formulations of evaporation from bare soil using in situ data. J. Appl. Meteor., 30, 1354-1365.

Mahfouf, J.-F., Manzi, A.O., Noilhan, J., Giordani, H., & DéQué, M. (1995) The land surface scheme ISBA within the Météo-France climate model ARPEGE. Part I. Implementation and preliminary results. J. Climate, 8, 2039-2057.

Manabe, S. (1969) Climate and ocean circulation 1. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth's surface. Mon. Wea. Rev, 97, 739-774.

Marengo, J.A., Miller, J.R., Russel, G.L., Rosenzweig, C.E., & Abramapoulos, F. (1994) Calculations of river-runoff in the GISS GCM: impact of a new land-surface parameterization and runoff routing model on the hydrology of the Amazon river. Climate Dyn., 10, 349-361.

McCumber, M.C. (1980) A numerical simulation of the influences of heat and moisture fluxes upon mesoscale circulation. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. Environ. Sci., University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

McCumber, M., & Pielke, R.A. (1981) Simulation of the effects of surface fluxes of heat and moisture in a mesoscale numerical model 1. Soil layer. J. Geophys. Res., 86 (C), 99299938.

Mendoza, G., & Steenhuis, T.S. (2003) www.bee.cornell.deu/research/SoilandWater/HTML/ ~hill-lysimeter.html

Mengelkamp, H.-T., Warrach, K., & Raschke, E. (1999) SEWAB - a parameterization of the surface energy and water balance for atmospheric and hydrologic models. Adv. Wat. Resour, 23, 165-175.

Mengelkamp, H.-T., Warrach, K., Ruhe, C., & Raschke, E. (2001) Simulation of runoff and streamflow on local and regional scales. Meteor. Atmos. Phys, 76, 107-117.

Meyer, P.D., Rockhold, G.W., & Gee, G.W. (1997) Uncertainty analyses of infiltration and subsurface flow and transport for SDMP sites. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.

Mohanty, B.P., & Mousli, Z. (2000) Saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention properties across a soil slope transition. Water Resour. Res., 36, 3311-3324.

Montaldo, N., & Albertson, J.D. (2001) On the use of the force-restore SVAT model formulation for stratified soils. J. Hydrometeor., 2, 571-578.

Miller, D.A., & White, R.A. (1998) A conterminous United States Multi-layer soil characteristics data set for regional climate and hydrological modeling. Earth Interactions, 2. (Available on-line at http://EarthInteractions.org).

Miller, J.R., Russel, G.L., & Caliri, G. (1994) Continental-scale river flow in climate models. J. Climate, 7, 914-928.

Molders, N., Strasser, U., Schneider, K., Mauser, W., & Raabe, A. (1997) A sensitivity study on the initialization of surface characteristics in meso-p/y-modeling using digitized vs. satellite derived landuse data. Contrib. Atmos. Phys, 70, 173-187.

Molders, N., & Raabe, A. (1997) Testing the effect of a two-way-coupling of a meteorological and a hydrologic model on the predicted local weather. Atmos. Res., 45, 81-108.

Molders, N., Raabe, A., & Beckmann, T. (1999) A technique to downscale meteorological quantities for the use in hydrologic models - Description and first results. IAHS Publ., 254, 89-98.

Molders, N. (2001) On the uncertainty in mesoscale modeling caused by surface parameters. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 76, 119-141.

Mölders, N. (2001) Concepts for coupling hydrological and meteorological models. In: K. Arnold & A. Raabe (Eds.), Meteorologische Arbeiten aus Leipzig (VI). Wiss. Mitt. Univ. Leipzig, 22, 1-15.

Mölders, N., & W. Rühaak W (2002) On the impact of explicitly predicted runoff on the simulated atmospheric response to small-scale land-use changes - An integrative modeling approach. Atmos. Res., 63, 3-38.

Mölders, N., Haferkorn, U., Döring, J., & Kramm, G. (2003a) Long-term numerical investigations on the water budget quantities predicted by the hydro-thermodynamic soil vegetation scheme (HTSVS) - Part I: Description of the model and impact of long-wave radiation, roots, snow, and soil frost. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 84, 115-135.

Mölders, N., Haferkorn, U., Döring, J., & Kramm, G. (2003b) Long-term numerical investigations on the water budget quantities predicted by the hydro-thermodynamic soil vegetation scheme (HTSVS) - Part II: Evaluation, sensitivity, and uncertainty. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 84, 137-156.

Mölders, N., & Walsh, J.E. (2004) Atmospheric response to soil-frost and snow in Alaska in March. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 77, 77-105.

Mölders, N., Jankov, M., & Kramm, G. (2005) Application of Gaussian error propagation principles for theoretical assessment of model uncertainty in simulated soil processes caused by thermal and hydraulic parameters. J. Hydrometeorol., 6, 1045-1062.

Müller, E., Frühwald, D., Jacobsen, I., Link, A., Majewski, D., Schwirner, J.-U., & Wacker, U. (1986) Results and prospects of mesoscale modeling at the Deutscher Wetterdienst. In: Collection of papers presented at the WMO/IUGG NWP Symposium, Tokyo, 4-8 August 1986. pp. 533-546.

Nicolsky, D.J, Romanovsky, V.E., Alexeev, V.A., & Lawrence, D.M. (2007) Improved modeling of permafrost dynamics in a GCM land-surface scheme. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L08501, doi:10.1029/2007GL029525.

Niu, G.-Y., Yang, Z.-L., Dickinson, R.E., & Gulden, L.E. (2005) A simple TOPMODELbased runoff parameterization (SIMTOP) for use in global climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D21106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006111.

Noilhan, J., & Planton, S. (1989) A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev, 117, 536-549.

Oechel, W.C., Vourlitis, G.L., Hastings, S.J., Zulueta, R.C., Hinzman, L., & Kane, D. (2000) Acclimation of ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Alaskan Arctic in response to decadal climate warming. Nature, 406, 978-981.

Oke, T.R. (1978) BoundaryLayer Climates. London/New York, Methuen, 435 pp.

Oleson, K.W., Dai, Y., Bonan, G., Bosilovich, M., Dickinson, R.E., Dirmeyer, P., Hoffman, F., Houser, P., Levis, S., Niu, G.-Y. Thornton, P., Vertenstein, M., Yang, Z.-L., & Zeng, X. (2004) Technical description of the Community Land Model (CLM). NCAR Tech. Note NCARTN-461+STR, 174 pp.

PaiMazumder, D., Miller, J., Li, Z., Walsh, J. E., Etringer, A., McCreight, J., Zhang, T., & Mölders, N. (2008) Evaluation of Community Climate System Model soil-temperatures using observations from Russia. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 94, 187-213.

PaiMazumder, D., & Mölders, N. (2008) Sources of discrepancy between CCSM simulated and gridded observation-based soil-temperature over Siberia: The influence of site density and distribution. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference On Permafrost, NICOP, Fairbanks, AK, 1351-1356.

PaiMazumder, D., & Molders, N., 2009. Theoretical assessment of uncertainty in regional averages due to network density and design. J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. (in press)

Pauwels, V.R.N., & Wood, E.F. (1999a) A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer scheme for modeling of water and energy balance processes in high latitudes, 1, Model improvements. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (D), 27811-27822.

Pauwels, V.R.N., & Wood, E.F. (1999b) A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer scheme for modeling of water and energy balance processes in high latitudes, 2, Application and validation. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (D), 27823-27839.

Perfect, E., Sukop, M.C., & Haszler, G.R. (2002) Prediction of dispersivity for undistributed soil columns from water retention parameters. SoilSci. Soc. Am. J., 66, 696-701.

Peters-Lidard, C.D., Blackburn, E., Liang, X., & Wood, E.F. (1998) The effect of soil thermal conductivity parameterization on surface energy fluxes and temperatures. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1209-1224.

Philip, J.R., & de Vries, D.A. (1957) Moisture in porous materials under temperature gradients. Transactions Am. Geophys. Soc., 18, 222-232.

Pielke, R.A. (1984) Mesoscale Meteorological Modelling. London, Academic Press Inc., 612 pp.

Pitman, A.J., Yang, Z.L., Cogley, J.G., & Henderson-Sellers, A. (1991) Description of bare essentials of surface transfer for the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre AGCM. BMRCResearch Rep., 32, 117 pp.

Polcher, J., Laval, K., Dumenil, L., Lean, J., & Rowntree, P.R. (1996) Comparing three land surface schemes used in general circulation models. J. Hydrol., 180, 373-394.

Prigogine, I. (1961) Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. New York, London, Interscience Publ. Inc., 119 pp..

Riseborough, D.W. (2002) The mean annual temperature at the top of permafrost, the TTOP model, and the effect of unfrozen water. PermafrostPeriglac. Process., 13, 137-143.

Robock, A., Vinnikov, K.Y., Schlosser, C.A., Speranskaya, N.A., & Xue, Y. (1995) Use of midlatitude soil moisture and meteorological observations to validate soil moisture simulations with biosphere and bucket models. J. Climate, 8, 15-35.

Romanovsky, V.E., & Osterkamp, T.E. (1997) Thawing of the active layer on the coastal plain of the Alaskan Arctic. Permafrost and Periglac. Process., 8, 1-22, 1997.

Romanovsky, V.E., Osterkamp, T.E., & Duxbury, N. (1997) An evaluation of three numerical models used in simulations of the active layer and permafrost temperature regimes. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 26, 195-203.

Romanovsky, V.E., & Osterkamp, T.E. (2000) Effects of unfrozen water on heat and mass transport processes in the active layer and permafrost. Permafrost and Periglac. Process., 11, 219-239.

Romanovsky, V.E., & Osterkamp, T. E. (2001) Permafrost: Changes and impacts. In: R. Paepe & V. Melnikov (Eds.), Permafrost Response on Economic Development, Environmental Security and Natural Resources. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 297-315.

Romanovsky, V., Burgess, M., Smith, S., Yoshikawa, K., & Brown, J. (2002) Permafrost Temperature Records: Indicators of Climate Change. EOS, AGU Transactions, 83 (50), 589-594.

Sato, N., Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Schneider, E.K., Shukla, J., Kinter II. J.L., Hou, Y.-T., & Albertazzi, E (1989) Effects of implementing the Simple Biosphere Model in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2757-2782.

Sausen, R., Schubert, S., & Dümenil, L. (1994) A model of the river runoff for use in coupled atmosphere-ocean models. J. Hydrol, 155, 337-352.

Schaake, J.C., Koren, V.I., Duan, Q.Y., Mitchell, K., & Chen, F. (1995) A simple water balance model (SWB) for estimating runoff at different spatial and temporal scales. J. Geophys. Res, 101, 7461-7475.

Schädler, G. (1990) Numerische Simulationen zur Wechselwirkung zwischen Landoberflächen und atmosphärischer Grenzschicht. Wiss. Berichte Inst. Meteor. u. Klimaf., Univ. Karlsruhe.

Schlosser, C.A., Slater, A.G., Robock, A., Pitman, A.J., Vinnikov, K.Y., Henderson-Sellers, A., Speranskaya, N.A., Mitchell, K., & the PILPS2(D) Contributors (2000) Simulations of a boreal grassland hydrology at Valdai, Russia: PILPS phase 2(d). Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 301-321.

Schlotzhauer, S.M., & Price, J.S. (1999) Soil water flow dynamics in a managed cutover peat field, Quebec: Field and laboratory investigations, Water Resour. Res., 35, 3675-3683.

Schwartz, R.C., Unger, P.W., & Evett, S.R. (2002) Land use effects on soil hydraulic properties. ISTRO 2000, 1-10.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., & Dalcher, A. (1986) A simple biosphere atmosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci, 43, 505-531.

Shao, Y., & Henderson-Sellers, A. (1996) Modeling soil moisture: A project for intercomparison of land surface parameterization schemes phase 2 (b). J. Geophys. Res., 101 (D), 7227-7250.

Shao, Y., & Irannejad, P. (1999) On the choice of soil hydraulic models in land-surface schemes. Boundary-LayerMeteorol., 90, 83-115.

Shao, Y., Sogalla, M., Kerschgens, M., & Brüchner, W. (2001) Effects of land-surface heterogeneity upon surface fluxes and turbulent conditions. Meteor. Appl. Phys, 78, 157181.

Sievers, U. Forkel, R., Wilson, M.F., Henderson-Sellers, A., Dickinson, R.E., & Kennedy, P.J. (1987) Sensitivity of the biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) to the inclusion of variable soil characteristics, J. Clim. Appl. Met, 26, 341-362.

Skamarock, W.C., Klemp, J.B., Dudhia, J., Gill, D.O., Baker, D.M., Wang, W. & Powers, J.G. (2005) A description of the advanced research WRF version 2. NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-468+STR, pp. 88.

Slater, A.G., Pitman, A.J., & Desborough, C.E. (1998) Simulation of freez-thaw cycles in a general circulation model land surface scheme. J. Geophys. Res, 103 (D), 11303-11312.

Slater, A.G., Schlosser, C.A., Desborough, C.E., Pitman, A.J., Henderson-Sellers, A., Robock, A., Vinnikov, K.Y., Speranskaya, N.A., Michell, K., Boone, A., Braden, H., Chen, F., Cox, P., de Rosnay, P., Dickinson, R.E., Dai, Y.-J., Duan, Q., Entin, J., Etchevers, P., Gedney, N., Gusev, Y.M., Habbets, F., Kim, J., Koren, V., Kowalczyk, E., Nasonova, O., Noilhan, J., Schaake, J., Shmakin, A.B., Smironova, T., Verseghy, D. Wetzel, P., Xue, Y., & Yang, Z.-L. (2001) The representation of snow in land-surface schemes: results from PILPS 2(d). J. Hydrometeor., 1, 7-25.

Smirnova, T.G., Brown, J.M., & Benjamin, S.G. (1997) Performance of different soil model condfigurations in simulating ground temperature and surface fluxes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 1870-1884.

Smironova, T.G., Brown, J.M., Benjamin, S.G., & Kim, D. (2000) Parameterization of cold season processes in the MAPS land-surface scheme. J. Geophys. Res, 105D, 4077-4086.

Smith, M.W. & Riseborough, D.W. (2001) Climate and the limits of permafrost: a zonal analysis. Permafrost andPeriglac. Process., 13, 1-15.

Smith, J., Bhuiyan, M., Kirkby, C., & Humphreys, L. (2003) Determination of rice soil hydraulic properties by Guelph and disc permeametry, RIRDC web publication No 03/004.

Stendel, M., & Christensen, J. H. (2002) Impact of global warming on permafrost conditions in a coupled GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett, 29, 10.1029/2001GL014345.

Uppala, S.M., Kallberg, P.W., Simmons, A.J., Andrae, U., Bechtold, V.D., Fiorino, M., Gibson, J.K., Haseler, J., Hernandez, A., Kelly, G.A., Li, X., Onogi, K., Saarinen, S., Sokka, N., Allan, R.P., Andersson, E., Arpe, K., Balmaseda, M.A., Beljaars, A.C.M., Berg, L., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Caires, S., Chevallier, F., Dethof, A., Dragosavac, M., Fisher, M., Fuentes, M., Hagemann, S., Holm, E., Hosking, B.J., Isaksen, L., Janssen, P.A.E.M., Jenne, R., McNally, A,P,, Mahfouf, J.F., Morcrette, J.J., Rayner, N.A., Saunders, R.W., Simon, P., Sterl, A., Trenberth, K.E., Untch, A., Vasiljevic, D., Viterbo, P., & Woollen, J. (2005) The ERA-40 reanalysis. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 2961-3012.

van den Hurk, J.J.M., Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., Pelgrum, H., & van Meijgaard, E. (1997) A new methodology for assimilation of initial soil moisture fields in weather prediction models using Meteosat and NOAA data. J. Appl. Meteor, 36, 1271-1283.

Verseghy, D.L. (1991) CLASS - A Canadian land surface scheme for GCMs, 1, soil model. Int. J. Climatol, 11, 111-133.

Verseghy, D.L., McFarlane, N.A., & Lazare, M. (1993) CLASS - A Canadian land surface scheme for GCMs. II: Vegetation model and coupled runs. Int. J. Climatol, 13, 347-370.

Viterbo, P., & Beljaars, A., (1995) An improved land surface parameterization scheme in the ECMWF model and its validation. J. Climate, 8, 2716-2748.

Viterbo, P., Beljaars, A., Mahouf, J.-F., & Teixeira, J., (1999) The representation of soil moisture freeying and its impact on the stable boundary lazer. Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 125, 2401-2426.

Walko, R.L., Band, L.E., Baron, J., Kittel, T.G.F., Lammers, R., Lee, T.J., Ojima, D., Pielke, R.A. Sr., Taylor, C., Tague, C., Tremback, C.J., & Vidale, P.L. (2000) Coupled atmosphere-biophysics-hydrology models for environmental modeling. J. Appl. Meteor, 39, 931-944.

Wallace Laboratories (2003) www.nuscience.com/wallace3.htm

Wang, W., & Kumar, A., (1998) A GCM assessement of atmospheric seasonal predictability associated with soil moisture anomalies over North America. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 28637-28646.

Warrach, K., Stieglitz, M., Mengelkamp, H.-T., & Raschke, E. (2002) Advantages of a topographically controlled runoff simulation in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model. J. Hydrometeor., 3, 131-148.

Wetzel, P. J., & Chang, J.T. (1988) Evapotranspiration from nonuniform surfaces: A first approach for short-term numerical weather prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev, 116, 600-621.

Wetzel, P.J., & Boone, A. (1995) A parameterization for land-cloud-atmosphere exchange (PLACE): Documentation and testing of a detailed process model of the partly cloudy boundary layer over heterogeneous land. J. Climate, 8, 1810-1837.

Williams, P.J., & Smith, M.W. (1989) The frozen earth - Fundamentals in Geocryology. Cambridge, New York, Port Chester, Melbourne, Sydney, Cambridge University Press, 306 pp.

Wilson, M.F., Henderson-Sellers, A., Dickinson, R.E., & Kennedy, P.J. (1987) Sensitivity of the biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) to the inclusion of variable soil characteristics. J. Clim. Appl. Met, 26, 341-362.

Woo, M. (1986) Permafrost hydrology in North America. Atmosphere-Ocean, 24, 201-234.

Xue, Y., Sellers, P.J., Kinter, J.L., & Shukla, J. (1991) A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies. J. Climate, 4, 345-364.

Yang, K., Koike, T., Ye, B., & Bastidas, L. (2005) Inverse analysis of the role of soil vertical heterogeneity in controlling surface soil state and energy partition. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08101, doi:10.1029/2004JD005500.

Yang, Z.L., Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., & Pitman, A.J. (1995) Preliminary study of spin-up processes in land surface models with the first stage data of Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes Phase 1(a). J. Geophys. Res., 100 (D), 16553-16578.

Yang, Z.-L., Dickinson, R.E., Robock, A. & Vinnikov, K.Y., (1997) Validation of the snow submodel of the biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme with Russian snow cover and meteorological observation data. J. Climate, 10, 353-373.

Yang, Z.L., Pitman, A.J., McAvaney, B., & Henderson-Sellers, A. (1995) The impact of implementing the bare essentials of surface transfer land surface scheme into the BMRC GCM. Climate Dyn., 11, 279-297

Zdunkowski, W. (1983) Transport equations for heat and moisture in the soil and their application to boundary layer problems. Contr. Phys. Atmos., 56, 58-83.

Zdunkowski, W.G., Paegle, J., & Reilly, J.P. (1975) The effect of soil moisture upon the atmospheric and soil temperature near the air-soil interface. Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl., 24A, 245-268.

Zeng X, Shaikh M, Dai Y, Dickinson RE, & Myneni R (2002) Coupling of the Common Land Model to the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Climate, 15, 1832-1854

Zhang, T., Barry, R.G., Knowles, K., Heginbottom, J.A., & Brown, J. (2000) Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground ice distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography, 23, 132-154.

Zhang, T., Osterkamp, T.E., & Stamnes, K. (1996) Influence of the depth hoar layer of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime. Water Resour. Res., 32, 2075-2086.

Zhang, T., Osterkamp, T.E., & Stamnes, K. (1997) Effect of climate on the active layer and permafrost on the North Slope of Alaska, U.S.A. Permafrost andPeriglac. Process., 8, 45-67.

Zhuang, Q., Romanovsky, V.E., & McGuire, A.D. (2001) Incorporation of a permafrost model into a large-scale ecosystem model: Evaluation of temporal and spatial scaling issues in simulating soil thermal dynamics. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33649-33670.

In: New Permafrost and Glacier Research Editors: Max I. Krugger and Harry P.Stern

ISBN: 978-1-60692-616-1 ©2009 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 3

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment