Iim

machinery, 31, 32, 33 macromolecules, 258 magnesium, 243 maintenance, 4, 264 maize, 261 malt extract, 250 mammal, 259 management, 4, 29, 47

manganese, 180 man-made, 251

mantle, 212, 215, 217, 219, 227 mapping, vii, 3, 25, 26, 46, 142, 176 marine environment, 256, 259 maritime, 132, 285, 291 marsh, 142, 143 marshes, 246, 256, 257 Maryland, 263

matrix, 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 169, 170, 183, 192 Maya, 187

measurement, 30, 109, 149

mechanical properties, 12, 13

245, 246, 247, 249, 250, 252, 255 median, 19, 205 medicine, 98 Mediterranean, 246, 263

melt, vii, x, xi, 3, 7, 9, 13, 33, 35, 63, 142, 170, 237,

238, 242, 248, 265, 266, 269, 277, 278, 286 melting, x, 9, 11, 12, 25, 35, 53, 59, 61, 180, 210, 211, 213, 216, 222, 224, 237, 238, 241, 254, 255, 266, 268, 280 melts, 123, 241, 257

245, 269, 277, 279, 280, 285, 293, 296 mercury, 90, 94, 97, 104 Mercury, 104 metabolic, 240 metabolism, 262 metabolite, 242, 254, 263

meteorological, x, 52, 63, 69, 71, 77, 78, 83, 84, 85, 88, 143, 147, 155, 159, 198, 199, 268, 272, 273, 274, 275, 295 methane, 57 Mg2+, 242 mica, 169 microbes, 238, 262

microbial, xi, 90, 91, 103, 238, 239, 240, 241, 243,

258, 259, 262, 263, 264 microbial communities, 90, 241, 258 microbial community, 259, 262 microenvironments, 255

251, 254, 257, 258, 261, 262 migration, 7 mineralogy, 26 mining, 4, 133 Ministry of Education, 257 Miocene, 124, 233 missions, 224 Mississippi, 79

mixing, 269, 272, 275, 280 mobility, 52

modeling, viii, 45, 46, 51, 53, 54, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64,

71, 72, 75, 77, 78, 79, 83, 84, 85, 87, 224 models, viii, 17, 19, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 126, 166, 167,

210, 211, 224, 225, 261, 280, 282 moisture, viii, 7, 31, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59,

60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 109, 207,

moisture content, 7, 31, 109, 211, 212 moisture state, 62, 70, 74, 76 molecular structure, 102

molecular weight, 262 Maller, 139, 144, 296 molybdenum, 297 Mongolia, ix, 147, 154, 209 monsoon, xi, 148, 183, 187, 205, 216, 218, 220, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 233, 234, 235, 265, 266, 268, 269, 272 morning, 152 morphological, 93, 254

morphology, ix, 21, 79, 131, 136, 141, 170, 200, 242 mosaic, 69

Moscow, 89, 105, 129, 228 motion, 54, 274, 277 mountain environments, 4 mountains, vii, ix, 4, 18, 26, 41, 44, 45, 46, 70, 147, 154, 156, 168, 170, 171, 173, 175, 177, 193, 200, 204, 207, 209, 213, 214, 218, 232 mouth, 190, 192, 197, 198, 201, 206, 207 movement, 8, 44, 45, 46, 54, 78, 141, 150, 177, 200, 267, 280

multidrug resistance, viii, 89, 90, 99, 102, 104

multivariate, 295

multivariate statistics, 295

mutants, 103

mutations, 97

mycelium, 240

ii n

NaCl, 239, 240, 243, 245, 246, 247, 249, 250, 251, 252

natural, viii, x, 4, 42, 45, 48, 65, 67, 74, 89, 90, 102,

237, 246, 251, 256, 257, 260 natural environment, 257

natural habitats, x, 237, 257

natural hazards, 4, 45

Navier-Stokes, 274, 277

Navier-Stokes equation, 274, 277

Nepal, v, ix, xi, 147, 148, 153, 228, 229, 230, 235,

265, 266, 281, 282 Nepal Himalayas, v, ix, xi, 147, 148, 265, 266, 281 Netherlands, 42, 85, 104, 243, 257, 263 network, 29, 77, 85, 115, 123, 174, 175, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193, 197, 198, 199, 200, 205, 241 network density, 85 New Jersey, 42

228, 229, 233, 234, 257, 264 Newton, 65 next generation, 77

nitrates, 239

nitrogen, xi, 238, 243

Nixon, 48

NMR, 48

NOAA, 87

nodes, 67

nodulation, 104

non-linearity, 19

non-uniform, 39

norfloxacin, 103

North Atlantic, 123, 126, 201, 219, 234

Northeast, 132, 284

Northern Hemisphere, 88, 212

nuclear, 260

nucleotides, 249

nutrient media, 92, 93

nutrients, 257

nutrition, 259

observations, xi, 5, 25, 43, 53, 64, 67, 76, 77, 79, 84, 85, 108, 124, 126, 137, 141, 143, 168, 176, 177, 178, 180, 183, 186, 190, 192, 194, 195, 201, 205, 217, 224, 265, 266, 280, 282, 283, 290, 292, 294, 296

oceans, vii, xi, 223, 224, 238, 252 offshore, 238, 240, 249 Ohio, 79

organic, viii, 5, 51, 71, 75, 109, 119, 125, 144, 207, 240

organic matter, 125, 144, 240 organism, 239 orientation, 8, 15, 123 oscillation, 272, 278 osmotic, 57, 240, 247, 255 osmotic pressure, 247, 255 oxidation, 254 oxide, 124

pacemaker, 214 Pacific, 82, 83, 125, 233, 261 Pakistan, 227, 231, 233 Panama, 166, 219, 220, 228 Pap, 128

partial differential equations, 54, 63

particle density, 268, 269, 277

particles, 7, 10, 11, 13, 74, 241, 269, 277, 278, 279

partition, 88

passive, 30, 47

pathogenic, 90, 246, 251

pathogens, 90, 103

Pennsylvania, 43

percolation, 52, 241

periodicity, 297

personal communication, 34, 213, 272

perturbation, 35, 225

perturbations, 73

petrographic, 176

Petroleum, 43

pharmaceutical, 90

pharmaceutical industry, 90

phase transitions, 62, 65, 74

phenotype, 98, 99

phenotypic, 90

Philadelphia, 43

phosphorus, 242, 243

photographs, xi, 21, 136, 283, 285, 286, 294 phylogenetic, 103, 247, 252, 258 phylogeny, 260, 262, 263 physical properties, 26, 47, 79, 229

physiological, viii, 51, 254

physiology, 242

pipelines, 4, 39

pitch, 268

plankton, 261

plasmids, viii, 89, 90, 96, 97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 104

Plasmids, 96

plasticity, 20

plausibility, 18

Pleistocene, v, viii, 92, 104, 107, 108, 110, 118, 120, 124, 125, 126, 160, 165, 166, 168, 170, 183, 198, 199, 200, 204, 205, 206, 209, 210, 212, 215, 217,

218, 219, 223, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234 Pliocene, 92, 115, 116, 120, 164, 175, 204, 210, 218,

policy makers, 18 pollen, 126, 241 polycrystalline, 43

polygons, ix, 108, 111, 112, 115, 118, 122, 124, 126,

138, 139, 156, 157, 158 polymer, 41 polymerase, 97 polystyrene, 36 poor, 28, 122, 123, 126, 255 population, 91

porous materials, 85

porous media, 57, 80

Portugal, 257, 259

potassium, 174, 243

power lines, 4

precipitation, 4, 7, 8, 9, 19, 20, 29, 30, 54, 62, 70, 71, 74, 125, 126, 127, 132, 142, 148, 155, 179, 183, 187, 189, 191, 198, 199, 207, 210, 213, 216, 222 precipitation particles, 74 predictability, 54, 87

prediction, viii, 7, 49, 51, 52, 53, 70, 74, 79, 87, 165, 282

prediction models, viii, 51, 52, 87 preference, 256

pressure, vii, x, xi, 10, 31, 52, 56, 57, 76, 127, 137, 141, 180, 183, 210, 213, 223, 224, 237, 238, 247, 255, 257, 265, 268, 269, 273, 274, 280

prevention, 35 probe, 27, 28, 43, 151 producers, 90

production, 4, 41, 247, 254, 255, 263 program, 47, 274, 277, 280 prokaryotic, 238, 241, 257 promoter, 223 propagation, 74, 84 property, 79

protection, 38, 43, 50, 90 protein, 104, 258 protein sequence, 104

Pseudomonas, viii, 89, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 101,

102, 103, 104 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 102, 104 Pseudomonas spp, 98 publishers, 104 pumping, 34, 266 pumps, viii, 40, 89, 102, 104

II Q

quartz, 235 Quebec, 45, 50, 86

radiation, 7, 20, 29, 34, 48, 84, 109, 164, 166, 210, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 219, 222, 239, 268, 269, 277 radio, 258

radioactive contamination, 256 rain, vii, 3, 7, 13, 74, 125, 241 rainfall, 5, 9, 49, 80, 268, 272 random, 74, 75, 77, 123

range, x, 7, 13, 18, 19, 20, 54, 64, 74, 94, 97, 98, 102, 109, 115, 123, 147, 187, 221, 237, 241, 245, 246, 249, 257, 269, 275 real time, 30 realism, 225

recession, ix, xii, 131, 142, 143, 283, 286, 289, 291,

292, 293, 294 reconstruction, 48, 168, 176, 196, 200, 204, 209,

214, 223 recovery, x, 105, 224, 237, 258 rectilinear, 115 recycling, 70

reflection, x, 147, 153, 159, 164, 212, 214 refrigeration, 17

regional, 18, 19, 83, 85, 125, 133, 136, 167, 224, 284

regolith, 137

rehabilitation, 41, 47

relationship, 10, 44, 260

relationships, 19, 79, 103

relatives, 104

relaxation, 47

relevance, 21, 30, 125

reliability, 29

remediation, 281

remote sensing, 21

Research and Development, 15

reservoir, vii, xi, 90, 104, 238, 257, 286, 291, 292

reservoirs, 5, 62, 66

resin, 41

resistance, viii, 41, 82, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97,

resolution, viii, 19, 31, 51, 66, 71, 77, 151, 223, 268 resources, vii, 77, 257 respiratory, 104 responsibilities, 29

I restaurant, 39 retention, 4, 83, 85 Reynolds, 46, 81, 281 rheology, 42 rhizosphere, 246 ¡I ribosomal, 104, 259, 260 ■ ribosome, 97 rice, 87 Richland, 83 risk, 4, 28, 47 risk assessment, 4 risk management, 47 risks, vii, viii, 3

RNA, 97

rolling, 202

roughness, 78, 273

routing, 83

Royal Society, 43, 282 runoff, 9, 70, 74, 80, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87 Russia, v, ix, 82, 84, 86, 89, 102, 105, 147, 154 Russian, x, 88, 89, 102, 104, 105, 147, 148, 154,

155, 156, 159, 160, 284, 295 Russian Academy of Sciences, 89, 102, 105

safety, 4, 12, 20 saline, 43, 246 salinity, 10, 241, 242, 245

salt, 227, 239, 242, 244, 245, 246, 252, 256, 257, 260 salts, 41, 239, 241

sample, 11, 12, 13, 25, 27, 28, 123, 178, 240, 242, 243

sand, ix, 13, 41, 44, 46, 50, 73, 108, 110, 112, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 126, 152, 256, 285 sandstones, 133, 171, 205, 285 SAS, 50

satellite, xi, 61, 83, 224, 268, 283, 285, 286, 294, 295

satellite imagery, 286, 295

scaling, 28, 88

scaling law, 28

Scandinavia, 174, 193, 212, 215, 224 schema, 15

scientific community, 54 Scots pine, 82 scree slopes, 4, 21 sea ice, 240, 246, 256

sea level, vii, ix, 147, 210, 212, 234, 266, 281 sea-ice, 126

sea-level, 133, 136, 139, 285 seasonal variations, 19 seawater, 233 secular, 224

sediment, xi, 118, 122, 123, 124, 126, 139, 141, 142, 144, 176, 207, 209, 218, 223, 241, 242, 244, 245, 249, 251, 253, 254, 266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 277, 278, 279, 280, 282, 291, 296, 297 sedimentation, 139, 143, 295, 297 sediments, viii, x, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 102, 104, 105, 110, 122, 123, 124, 139, 164, 169, 170, 178, 180, 195, 197, 205, 208, 209, 210, 218, 229, 237, 239, 241, 242, 245, 249, 254, 259, 293, 296 seeding, xi, 238 segregation, 39, 124

seismic, x, 19, 26, 47, 147, 148, 153, 159, 237, 241,

259 selecting, 18 semiarid, 200 sensing, 21, 46, 47, 285

sensitivity, 15, 17, 20, 27, 41, 42, 71, 81, 83, 84, 105,

136, 142, 224, 225, 281 sequencing, 93, 94, 100, 242, 246, 257 series, 30, 41, 50, 150, 151, 164, 255, 259, 271, 291 settlements, 4, 5, 8, 19, 26, 36, 39, 182, 186, 192, 195

shape, 21, 116, 123, 195, 201, 275, 277 shaping, 209 shares, 125

shear strength, 7, 42, 44

shores, 136, 137

short period, 293

shoulder, 38, 185, 196

shoulders, 37

Siberia, ix, x, 69, 72, 76, 84, 104, 105, 107, 108, 147,

154, 166, 168, 206, 224, 259 signs, 137, 291 similarity, 240

simulation, viii, xi, 51, 62, 64, 66, 71, 79, 80, 83, 87, 167, 225, 266, 272, 273, 274, 277, 278, 280, 282 simulations, viii, 42, 49, 51, 53, 67, 70, 71, 75, 76,

sites, 35, 47, 76, 77, 83, 123, 128, 168, 169, 210,

267, 274, 280 skeleton, 10

Slovenia, 237, 243, 257, 258 Sm, 93, 94, 95, 97, 100 smoke, 75, 77 sodium, 243

soil particles, 10, 11, 241

soils, vii, viii, ix, 3, 10, 12, 13, 14, 19, 25, 26, 27, 28, 33, 34, 36, 39, 42, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 56, 62, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 71, 75, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83, 105, 108, 110, 112, 116, 117, 122, 125, 239, 246, 249,

252, 254, 256, 257, 258, 260, 262, 264 solar, 7, 20, 34, 48, 164, 211, 214, 215, 219, 222,

solifluction, 7, 25, 32, 39, 45, 46, 49, 132, 141 Southampton, 82 Southern blot, 100 Spain, 103, 264

spatial, 6, 18, 31, 47, 54, 68, 69, 86, 88, 239, 245,

274, 276, 277, 280 spatial heterogeneity, 69

species, x, xi, 58, 95, 97, 98, 99, 103, 126, 238, 240, 241, 242, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 251, 252,

253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 259, 260, 261, 263, 264 specific heat, 52, 56

specific surface, 11

spheres, 54

spin, 88

sporadic, x, 5, 109, 147, 154, 156, 159, 244 spore, 92

springs, 133, 141, 285 SPT, 27

stability, 4, 7, 8, 12, 15, 17, 20, 25, 26, 30, 33, 42,

44, 47, 48, 52 stabilization, 212, 214 stabilize, 219, 224 stages, 173, 185, 208, 232 standard deviation, 19, 73, 74 starvation, 254

statistics, 295

steady state, 20, 29, 274, 280

steel plate, 39

stiffness, 12

stochastic, 74

strain, viii, 11, 28, 31, 42, 43, 44, 89, 94, 96, 97, 98,

99, 100, 101, 104, 247, 249, 261 strains, viii, xi, 11, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 238, 246, 247, 249, 251, 252, 254, 255, 263 strategies, 5, 31, 47, 78, 105, 238 stratification, 52, 62, 116, 278, 282 streams, 133, 139, 141, 171, 174, 186, 187, 188, 198, 201,202

strength, vii, 3, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 27, 28, 33, 42, 43,

44, 45, 122, 223, 235, 241, 286 stress, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 19, 28, 42, 47, 80, 240,

257, 275, 282 striae, 180, 182, 186 subsurface flow, 83 sugar, 242, 256 sugars, 240 summaries, 148

summer, vii, 3, 4, 9, 10, 12, 19, 25, 32, 33, 35, 52, 122, 125, 148, 150, 152, 153, 154, 156, 187, 207, 213, 214, 216, 220, 222, 223, 225, 239, 242, 282 sunlight, 33 supercomputers, 77 superposition, 214

supply, 62, 126, 194, 196, 198, 214, 216, 223, 269 surface area, 25, 35, 42, 214, 266, 268, 272, 280 surface energy, 7, 19, 79, 83, 85 surface layer, 7, 52, 152, 240, 269, 275, 280 surface properties, 71 surface water, 21, 269

surge-type glaciers, ix, xi, 131, 132, 133, 136, 141,

283, 284, 286, 287, 290, 291, 294, 295 surging, xii, 133, 143, 283, 284, 286, 291, 294, 295, 296

surplus, 171, 268, 269, 270 survival, 256, 262 susceptibility, vii, 3, 12, 25, 99, 102 suspensions, 93 sustainability, 4

Switzerland, 3, 7, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48,

49, 50 symbols, 73 synchronous, 164, 220 synthesis, 108 systematics, 259, 263

systems, xii, 4, 5, 9, 17, 30, 34, 35, 36, 39, 46, 47, 102, 126, 141, 168, 199, 221, 283, 291, 295

taxa, xi, 238, 239, 241, 245, 247 taxonomic, 259, 262 taxonomy, 259, 263 technical assistance, 102 technology, 47 TEM, 26

temperate zone, 6, 256

temperature gradient, 29, 57, 63, 85, 201, 213, 218,

219, 223, 224, 226 temporal, 18, 52, 54, 71, 75, 82, 86, 88, 272, 280 tensile, 122 tensile strength, 122 tensile stress, 122 tension, 56, 123

terraces, 109, 110, 133, 136, 137, 141, 173, 178, 182,

190, 192, 204,209 test data, 19

tetracycline, viii, 89, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 100, 101,

103 Thailand, 82

thawing, x, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 45, 52, 54, 57, 62, 63, 67,

70, 122, 237, 240 thermal expansion, 124 thermal properties, 20 thermodynamic, 54, 75, 80, 84 thermodynamics, 54, 57 thermo-mechanical, 13 thermosyphons, 17, 37, 47 thin film, 241 thin films, 241

three-dimensional, xi, 27, 71, 266, 273, 275, 276, 280

threshold, 17, 39, 126, 164, 171, 204 Tibet, x, 47, 50, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 185, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 193, 198, 199, 204, 205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234 time, ix, x, 5, 6, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 27, 28, 32, 33, 39, 41, 42, 52, 53, 54, 58, 62, 70, 71, 72, 77, 78, 91, 97, 100, 101, 108, 110, 136, 150, 151, 165, 180, 185, 189, 193, 209, 210, 211, 214, 215, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 224, 226, 237, 271, 286, 291, 292 time consuming, 28 time series, 150, 151, 271 timing, 8, 19, 67, 70, 82, 166, 215, 296 Tokyo, 84, 147, 281 tolerance, 239, 254

topographic, xi, 136, 142, 176, 185, 203, 226, 265,

transfer, viii, 7, 30, 34, 41, 44, 53, 54, 56, 57, 74, 78,

80, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 95, 97, 98, 102, 221 transformation, viii, 63, 89, 96, 98, 99, 102, 103 transformations, 99 transition, 52, 54, 83 transparent, 212 transpiration, 52, 58, 80

transport, viii, 32, 41, 51, 54, 57, 58, 70, 83, 85, 144,

175, 179, 266, 271, 278, 296 transport processes, 85 transportation, 4, 91, 141 transposons, viii, 89, 90, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104 trees, 24, 208, 239, 252 triangulation, 213 triggers, 230, 283, 284 tsunamis, 137

tundra, ix, 107, 108, 124, 126, 238, 239, 254, 256, 260, 261, 262 tunnels, 4, 34 turbulence, 274

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 82

U.S. Geological Survey, 156

uncertainty, viii, 4, 51, 65, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 83,

84, 85 uniform, 39, 268 uniformitarianism, 108 United Kingdom (UK), 43, 128, 129 United States, 83 UV, 96, 239, 254 UV irradiation, 254 UV light, 96 UV radiation, 239

variation, vii, 62, 66, 71, 73, 150, 164, 214, 220, 226,

253, 263 vector, 103

vegetation, 7, 19, 21, 25, 52, 58, 78, 79, 84, 85, 87,

velocity, xi, xii, 170, 226, 227, 265, 268, 269, 271, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 283, 296 ventilation, 34, 136, 272 village, 118, 133, 191 viscosity, 210, 215, 217, 219, 274, 277 visible, 22, 25, 117, 119, 122, 152 visualization, 96 voids, 7, 11, 27, 41, 122

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