Discussion

As noted above, indigenous soil knowledge made a demonstrable difference in research projects and agriculture management, but it has not been accepted by the broader or scientific audience. The common reasons are that most managers, planners, and researchers are unfamiliar with the social and anthropology contexts. They often do not prepare to use social approaches to gain information. In addition, they seem hesitant and uncomfortable in cross-cultural interactions (Berkes 1993; Agrawal 1995). The users of indigenous soil knowledge are often reluctant to share information, and issues of ownership of it sometimes arise (Akullo et al. 2007). Mbilinyi et al. (2005) mention that more planners, policy makers, extension workers, development practitioners, and researchers have realized the potential of indigenous soil knowledge, but it remains a neglected resource. A key reason for this is due to limited source of guidelines for recording and applying it, particularly over wider geographic areas. This creates an implicit danger that indigenous soil knowledge may become extinct. All the constraints above cause a more complex problem than a simple lack of recognition of the merit of indigenous soil knowledge.

Facts show that some farmers are well equipped to conduct sustainable agriculture practices. However, in some areas the farmers have to be encouraged to use indigenous soil knowledge, and the practices have to be standardized to meet new challenges, especially for the improvement of the "know-why" and the "know-how" (Defra 2005). Actually, indigenous soil knowledge itself is linked to long consequences of society or community action and environmental changes and therefore, it is always able to modify the practices for sustainability and respond if environmental and socioeconomic conditions allow. The changes in local conditions over time will create new information and findings, which eventually influence the spatial orientation of indigenous soil knowledge (Deloria 1992). The spatial and temporal orientations will lead people to recognize the new knowledge and experiences in the community and transmission of indigenous soil knowledge by oral traditions will allow farmers to be more adaptive in response to the world's change.

In conclusion, with respect to cultural diversity and sustainability of the agroeco-systems, indigenous soil knowledge can be used as a complement to scientific knowledge. Both are fundamental to establishing strategies and practices to maintain sustainable agriculture, as well as for cultural survival and a healthy ecosystem. In addition, better biodiversity usually occurs on or adjacent to traditional ecosystems as compared to nontraditional ecosystems, and it will only be protected if the relationship between culture and ecosystems is maintained (Nabhan 1997). Thus, valuing local agricultural knowledge strengthens culture (Kloppenburg 1991). In this case, experiences, which emerge from local areas, are the basis of both scientific and indigenous soil knowledge. Kloppenburg (1991) stated that the integration of local knowledge into scientific knowledge is important for the development of sustainabil-ity. Since local knowledge is "preadapted to its physical and human ecology," its elaboration and improvement are more likely to be sustainable in the long term.

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