Conclusion

The development of indigenous soil knowledge systems has been a matter of survival to the farmers who generated these systems. It offers alternative knowledge based on local practices of land resource use. In most developing countries, indigenous soil knowledge has been used as a source to provide solutions to ecological dilemmas, especially for restoration of degraded lands and creating wisdom in farming. Facts from various countries illustrate that recognition and application of indigenous soil knowledge into farming activities in the local environments provide avenues for farmers to develop sustainable agricultural practices worldwide. Study cases also describe that local farmers have full participation and collaboration for integrating indigenous soil knowledge into agricultural management decision making in ethical and effective ways. However, a more complete understanding of soil processes and knowledge transfer need to be developed, especially in terms of detailed local observations, philosophies, and methods of communication. In addition, indigenous soil knowledge must be incorporated with scientific knowledge to enable farmers achieve better understanding of soil process concepts and more sustainable relationship with their land, as well as compete and respond to global opportunities and challenges.

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