Composting Methods

The most important technical methods of composting are statistic piles, windrows, and reactor vessels (shown in Figs. 12.3 and 12.4). Composting ingredients are mixed and during the composting process aeration is indicated.

Bertoldi and Civilini (2006) carried out a composting process in two separate reactors: first, only in the thermophilic phase, with the purpose of pathogen destruction and decomposition by selected thermophilic microorganisms; second, only in the mesophilic phase, to perform the main microbial transformations with a higher

Soil Solarization Diagrams

Bulking Agent

Fig. 12.4 Reactor vessels (in: Hansen et al. 1995)

Bulking Agent

Fig. 12.4 Reactor vessels (in: Hansen et al. 1995)

rate of volatile solids destruction. The results confirmed that maintaining constant the main parameters which affect the process, the microbial activity is enhanced. In the two-phase process, the evolution of parameters like moisture, organic carbon, humified organic matter, organic N, C/N, and germination index (phytotoxicity) is more rapid relative to the single phase process. Also pathogen destruction is improved with the complete elimination of Faecal coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae and with a stronger reduction of Faecal streptococci. Any expert appraisal of municipal solid waste composting plants requires the evaluation of each piece of equipment in the processing sequence. Hence rotating drum-pilot plants are used for composting (Aboulam et al. 2006).

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

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