Food and Agrochemicals

The harmful short- and long-term effects of application of agrochemicals on human health have been proven. Several pesticides have been shown to produce complex chronic effects such as change in endocrine functions and immune systems (Woese et al. 1997 Soil Association Organic Standards 2001). Increased uterine weights, reduced pregnancy rates, decreased litter size, interference with development of the reproductive tract or related sexual behaviour are symptoms that are coupled with endocrine...

Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Practices

While many more farmers now seem to have a better awareness of the negative environmental and social consequences of conventional and social consequences on conventional agricultural systems, this has not translated into a major shift toward the adoption of sustainable practices (Alonge and Martine 1995). As farmers increasingly confront declining per capita return arisen from miniaturizing land holdings caused by steadily growing population, they are required to make additional efforts to...

Biowaste in the European Union

The importance of the composting as biowaste recycling for the sustainable development in Europe can be summarized in the following two points Increasing of soil organic matter through the use of compost Compost as fertilizer in the agricultural production One, from the view of the sustainability, very important consequence of the decline of soil organic matter is the release of greenhouse gases. This problem is also documented in the Impact Assessment of the Thematic Strategy on Soil...

Biochemical Aspects of Composting

The composting mass is at ambient temperature, but a rapid rise occurs as the microorganism multiply. When the temperature moves above 40 C, the mesophilic stage is replaced by the thermophilic stage. The time required to reach the thermophilic stage varies, but it is frequently achieved in 2 or 3 days (Olds 1968). The temperature stabilizes around 70 C, followed by a gradual cooling to ambient temperature. This temperature pattern has been observed by many investigators for typical garden...

Biological Mechanism

An enhanced presence of microorganisms antagonist of plant pathogens was generally observed in solarized soil, due to the increased availability of substrate and nutrients following the death of most mesophilic microorganisms (Stapleton 1981 Gamliel et al. 1989 Stapleton and DeVay 1995). Paul and Clark (1996) hypothesized that higher assimilation efficiency of antagonistic bacteria may favor them in the presence of the heat-induced increased availability of nutrients. Moreover, Gupta and Yeates...

Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the sum of all living organisms including plants, animals and microorganisms in the world or in a particular area (Raven 1994). An additional strength of organic farming systems is their diversity - including the diversity of crops, fields, rotations, landscapes and farm activities (mix of various farm enterprises). Positive effects of enhanced biodiversity on pest prevention have been shown by several authors (Pfiffner and Luka 2003 Wyss et al. 2005 Zehnder et al. 2007)....

Ecological and Environmental Issues

The ecological principles underlying different management practices must be understood in order to predict the impact they might have on natural resources. This is a key step towards an agriculture system that reconciles productivity with environmental conservation (Abbona et al. 2007). The intensification of agriculture has resulted in major ecological and environmental problems in recent decades, notably decreases in biodiversity of ecosystems and their associated food resources. This is...

Fossil Energy Sources

The consumption of energy is the main source of the GHG emissions. More than 60 of the global GHG emissions are caused by energy and 32 by agriculture and forestry (without energy) (EPA 2006). Since at present only 6 of the total primary energy consumption in Europe bases on renewable energy (BMU 2007), nearly all energy used in agriculture comes from fossil sources and has to be considered in the GHG balance. There are several calculations and energy balances for biofuels in literature (Table...

Homestead Agroforestry a Potential Resource in Bangladesh

Jahangir Hussain Abstract Homestead, the home and adjacent grounds occupied by a family, is the potential production area in Bangladesh, especially for the resource poor group. Homestead production system is popularly called homestead agroforestry or home gardening. It is the integrated production of crops, trees, and livestock in the household's residence and its surrounding areas. It has been playing an important role in the rural economy of Bangladesh since time...

Food Quality Safety and Environmental Impacts

Food quality and safety in agricultural products is another important issue irrespective of the production system - organic or conventional. Food quality is the suitability of the particular foodstuff for its intended purpose and characterized by quantitative and qualitative characteristics that may differ between markets, e.g. fresh and processed, consumers and regions and influence the prices received by producers and paid by the customers. One aspect of food quality that is becoming more...

Gender and Sustainable Agriculture

Women's survival and that of their household and communities depend on access to and control of natural resources, such as land, water, forest, and vegetation. They perform the majority of the world's agricultural work, producing food for their families, as well as other goods that are sold in national and international markets. Women are traditionally the prime participants in the agricultural systems. In agricultural production, the relationship of workers to the production process is...

Interactions of P Concentrations and Plants 621 Influence of Soil P Concentration on Plants

P is crucial for several aspects of plant metabolism, especially the energy and sugar metabolism, and several enzymatic reactions, including photosynthesis. Plants have therefore developed mechanisms for the uptake and efficient use of P. Maize plants recycled N quicker from old to young tissue when P is deficient, leading to earlier leaf senescence (Usuda 1995). P-deficient plants invest more resources into root development and therefore have an increased root-to-shoot biomass ratio compared...

Indigenous Soil Knowledge and Sustainable Agriculture 1121 What Is Indigenous Soil Knowledge

Indigenous soil knowledge is considered an important part of traditional ecological knowledge. Traditional ecological knowledge refers to the knowledge, practice, and belief concerning the relationship of living beings to one another and to the physical environment, which is held by people in relatively nontechnological societies with a direct dependence on local resources (Berkes 1993). It has equal status to scientific knowledge (UNEP 1998) and has been named as the intellectual twin to...

Major Issues for Sustainable Production System

In order to improve the overall productivity of the homestead agroforestry, there is a need to identify suitable species in terms of matching and growth performances to the micro-sites of the homesteads availability of quality planting materials and their easy propagation development of pruning and thinning regimes of the individual species protection measures against the major pests and diseases optimum rotation period on the basis of cost-benefit analysis study prevailing wood market...

Microbiological Aspects of Composting

Composting is a biological process mediated by microbes belonging to the kingdom Protest, which includes bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, and virus particles (Table 12.2). Microbes can be classified into metabolic types based on the carbon and energy sources utilized by the cell. Autotrophs use carbon dioxide as a Table 12.2 Microbial populations during aerobic composting (in Poincelot 1977) Table 12.2 Microbial populations during aerobic composting (in Poincelot 1977) source of cell carbon,...

Introduction 311 The Problem

In spite of some optimistic or not-so-pessimistic views (e.g. Penning de Vries et al. 1995 Avery 1999 Lomborg 2001), little doubt exists that conventional, high-input agriculture is on the whole unsustainable and that steps must be taken to curb the environmental decay. Although food quality is sufficiently protected, at least in theory, through the existing laws, and indeed no evidence is found in the scientific literature supporting or rejecting a worse quality or taste of conventional food...

Nematodes as Biocontrol Agents

Abstract The high cost of chemical pesticides, their adverse effects on the environment and development of pest resistance demand an alternative approach for crop pests management, which should be ecofriendly and cost-effective. Entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis together with their symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively, and slug-parasitic nematodes Phasmarhabditis with its symbiotic bacteria Moraxella have been considered as...

Pest Control

Modern agriculture uses worldwide about 2.5 million tons of pesticides annually (Wijnands 1997), and out of such quantity only about 0.4 reaches the targeted pests, according to Pimentel (Pimentel 1995), while losses through volatilization are on the order of 80-90 (Taylor and Spencer 1990). Pesticides are considered a necessary evil however, it has been estimated that without their use food expenditure for western families would more than double (Zilberman et al. 1991) and, much worse, food...

Selfregulating Ability and System Stability

Agriculture is under pressure to reform towards a greater degree of sustainability (Oborn et al. 2003), which can be achieved by conversion from conventional to organic farming systems (Condron et al. 2000) that adopt approaches that stimulate the self-regulating capacity of the agroecosystem as much as possible (Lammerts-van-Bueren et al. 2002). Organically grown crops should have characteristics that fit and support those self-regulating capacities such as natural resistance, natural pest...

Soil Microbial Biomass

Field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that soil microbial activity can create soil conditions favourable to sustainable production (Andrade et al. 1998). Bolton et al. (1985) found that microbial activity and microbial biomass were higher under organic management systems. Soil microbial communities are strongly influenced by agricultural practices. Many farming practices such as intensive tillage, application of chemical pesticides and mineral fertilizers and monoculture are...

Social Impact Assessment and Sustainable Agriculture

Social impact assessment can be defined as the process of assessing or estimating the social consequences that are likely to follow from specific policy actions or project development, particularly in the context of appropriate national, state, or provincial environmental policy legislation (Vanclay 2003 Burdge 2004). It includes all social and cultural consequences to human populations of any public or private actions that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another,...

Species Diversity Richness

Species or plant diversity varies from place to place and are largely influenced by the ecological and socioeconomic factors. It varies among the homesteads even within the similar ecological and socioeconomic groups depending upon individual needs and preferences. The plants grown in the homesteads are broadly classified into food (fruits, vegetables, spices), timber (timber and fuel wood), medicinal, and ornamental species. Irrespective of homestead size, farm category, and location, food...

The Required System Approach

We are presently going through a critical phase of conversion in agriculture requiring solutions for reconciling widely differing dimensions, namely, agricultural productivity, farm economic sustainability, environmental protection and social aspects. The need to consider many dimensions simultaneously in a holistic approach was acknowledged at least as early as 1984 (Douglass 1984) and later universally accepted (e.g. Sands and Podmore 2000 Cornelissen et al. 2001 Sulser et al. 2001 Noell...

Soil Functions and Diversity in Organic and Conventional Farming

Abstract Intensification of modern agriculture is one of the greatest threats worldwide and it has led to growing concern about conserving biodiversity and its role in maintaining functional biosphere. It is now clear that agricultural intensification can have negative local consequences, such as increased erosion, lower soil fertility, and reduced biodiversity negative regional consequences, such as pollution of ground water and eutrophication of rivers and lakes and negative global...

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews

For further volumes http www.springer.com series 8380 Sociology, Organic Farming, Climate Change and Soil Science Dr. Eric Lichtfouse INRA-CMSE-PME 17 rue Sully 21000 Dijon France ISBN 978-90-481-3332-1 e-ISBN 978-90-481-3333-8 Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York Library of Congress Control Number 2009941465 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,...

Sustainability of Energy Crop Cultivation in Central Europe

Volkhard Scholz, Monika Heiermann, and Peter Kaulfuss Abstract Currently biomass contributes to 69 106 tons of oil equivalents (MtOE) or 4 of the total energy consumption in Europe. According to the European Union (EU) Biomass Action Plan biofuels shall contribute 150 MtOE to the total energy consumption in 2010. This share shall increase to 20 or 220 MtOE in 2020. Approximately half of it will be derived from arable land, i.e. 23 MtOE woody biomass (short rotation coppice SRC ) and 88 MtOE...

Sustainable Versus Organic Agriculture

Abstract Awareness and concern for problems related to environmental quality are growing at a steady pace climate change, biodiversity, soil fertility decay and above all food quality and pollution are everyday subjects for debates and discussions. The complexity of the problems and the uncertainty about many basic data quite often make discussions inconclusive even indications issued by scientific authorities are sometimes misleading, and the problems are exacerbated by the frequent influence...

Rethinking Society Dependence

Globalisation of the market for food, fuels and other goods has undoubtedly induced positive effects such as lowering prices and fostering collaborations among citizens and nation. However, it has also induced serious dependence problems such as a sharp increase of maize prices in Mexico following the fast-rising use of maize as biofuels in northern countries. Another striking example is the peak of petroleum prices that has impacted almost all nations. A recent failure of the European...

Mode of Plantation

Tree plantation in homestead by the households is influenced by either demand of the tree (demand-driven) or supply of the planting materials (supply-driven) or both. A recent finding across the four ecological regions of Bangladesh showed that about 48 plantations were demand-driven, 42 supply-driven, and 10 both demand-and supply-driven (Basak 2002). He also found a distinct variation in the mode of plantation by farm categories, where demand-driven mode of plantation increased with the...

Introduction

Even though agriculture has made great progress in feeding the ever-increasing population, still it faces serious problems and challenges. Some of these challenges such as food production to feed the undernourished and increasing demand for poverty alleviation have been with us for a long time and will continue to be in foreseeable future. Food production will have to increase, and this will have to come mainly from existing farmland. Many predictions are gloomy indicating that gap between...

Society Issues Painkiller Solutions Dependence and Sustainable Agriculture

Abstract Here I tackle three major issues, climate change, financial crisis and national security, to disclose the weak points of current remedies and propose sustainable solutions. Global warming and the unexpected 2008 financial crisis will undoubtedly impact all nations. Treating those two critical issues solely by painkiller solutions will fail because only adverse consequences are healed, not their causes. Therefore, all sources of issues must be treated at the same time by enhancing...

Contents

1 Society Issues, Painkiller Solutions, Dependence Ezatollah Karami and Marzieh Keshavarz 3 Sustainable Versus Organic 41 4 Organic Agriculture and Food Production Ecological, Environmental, Food Safety and Nutritional Quality Issues 77 Reza Ghorbani, Alireza Koocheki, Kirsten Brandt, Stephen Wilcockson, and Carlo Leifert 5 Sustainability of Energy Crop Cultivation in Central Europe 109 Volkhard Scholz, Monika Heiermann, and Peter Kaulfuss 6 Phosphorus, Plant Biodiversity and Climate Change 147...

Chemical Mechanism

Chemical changes occurring in the soil after the heat treatment may represent a further mechanism for the solarization effects (Chen and Katan 1980 Chen et al. 1991). An increased concentration of soluble mineral nutrients was generally found in solarized soil (Katan 1987 Stapleton and DeVay 1995 Stapleton 2000), prevalently due to the death and degradation of soil microbiota killed by the heat treatment. Accumulation of toxic ammoniacal nitrogen was found to result from the microaer-obic...

Life Cycle

Till now not much extensive studies on Phasmarhabditis has been done, however, whatever the little information available indicates that life cycle of this nematode is dependent upon the slug species it encounters. Researchers have described three distinct life cycles of Phasmarhaditis sp. 1. Saprobolic - Where the nematodes have been reared on rotting flesh (Maupas 1900), on slug faeces (Tan and Grewal 2001) or on a wide range of bacteria (Wilson et al. 1995). Tan and Grewal (2001a) have the...

Soil Structure Compaction and Erosion

There are many examples of the ways in which soil characteristics function towards ecosystem health and stability. Organic management strategies such as incorporating plant residues in soil maintain and improve soil structure of the soil in long term compared with conventional agriculture (Bailey and Lazarovits 2003). Gerhardt (1997) reported that an organic farm had a significantly ameliorated soil structure, with an increased A-horizon depth, organic matter content, porosity, earthworm...

Emission of Nitrous Oxide

During cultivation of crops, i.e. during tillage, planting, fertilising and growth as well as during harvest and storage, various climate-effective gases emit from soil and plants. These so-called greenhouse gases, particularly the Kyoto gases CO2, CH4 SF6, PFC, HFC and N2O, impair the ecological benefit of energy crops. In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2), the most harmful and most investigated gas of crop production is nitrous oxide (N2O), also called laughing gas. Though it is only...

Thermal Mechanism

Solarization process increases soil temperatures up to levels lethal to many plant pathogens and pests and, therefore, direct thermal inactivation is the most important and normally expected mechanism. Some studies on the biochemical bases of sensitivity of organisms to high temperatures hypothesized that heat sensitivity is related to small differences in cell macromolecules, leading to a lethal increase of intra-molecular hydrogen, ionic, and disulfide bonds (Brock 1978). Sundarum (1986)...

Influence of Plants on Soil P Concentration

McGill and Cole (1981) suggested that the concentration of available P in the soil depended on biochemical mineralization, i.e., mineralization by extracellular enzymes, which does not provide energy to organisms and depends on the amount of enzymes present. This is controlled by the need for P. Thus, organic P input into the soil only influences the size of the total pool, while plants, microbes, and mycorrhiza can make P available by releasing phosphatases and phosphohydrolases into the soil....

Composting Materials

The major categories of substrates potentially suitable for composting are the following Food and agricultural wastes Many different materials are suitable for composting organisms. The most important parameter for composting is the C N ratio (Table 12.1). Some materials contain high amounts of carbon in the form of cellulose, which is required by the bacteria for their energy and other materials contain nitrogen in the form of protein, which provide nutrients energy exchanges. Suitable...

Soil Organic Carbon Maintenance

Declining amounts of arable land, increasing world populations, and increasing costs of fertilizer and food and energy needs will make it increasingly difficult to maintain our soil resources. A key component for sustaining soil productivity is the maintenance of soil organic carbon (SOC). SOC maintenance requires the amount of carbon added to the system to equal the amount of relic carbon mineralized (Ortega et al. 2002 Prakash et al. 2002). The carbon cycle is driven by photosynthesis which...

Compatibility with Pesticides

Entomopathogenic nematodes are compatible with many agrochemicals including herbicides, fungicides, acaricides, insecticides and fertilizers, as well as soil amendments (Rovesti and Deseo 1990 Gupta 2003). Infective Juveniles are tolerant to short-term exposures and therefore, can be tank mixed for applying together. Thus, entomopathogenic nematodes can also be included in the integrated pest mvanage-ment programme. But in several cases, nematode activity and its survival is reduced due to...

Discussion

As noted above, indigenous soil knowledge made a demonstrable difference in research projects and agriculture management, but it has not been accepted by the broader or scientific audience. The common reasons are that most managers, planners, and researchers are unfamiliar with the social and anthropology contexts. They often do not prepare to use social approaches to gain information. In addition, they seem hesitant and uncomfortable in cross-cultural interactions (Berkes 1993 Agrawal 1995)....

Phosphorus Plant Biodiversity and Climate Change

Nicole Wrage, Lydie Chapuis-Lardy, and Johannes Isselstein Abstract Phosphorus (P) is a major plant nutrient. Its increasing use as a fertilizer has helped to raise crop and fodder production. However, the global reserves and resources of P are finite, demanding an efficient use of P. Under natural conditions, it is often in limited supply. Plants have developed adaptations to small soil P concentrations. Increased P levels can have unwanted side effects like eutrophication and algal blooms....

Recommendations for Estimating Soil Organic Matter Turnover

To accurately measure soil organic matter turnover, several critical measurements are required. First, accurate SOC values must be determined at the beginning and end of the experiment. In addition, soil samples for bulk density must be taken. Second, above-ground biomass returned to the soil must be measured. Third, an understanding of the relationship between above- and below-ground biomass is needed to estimate below-ground biomass. Fourth, if 13C isotopic approaches are being utilized, then...

Climate and Weather

Climate and weather were also found to be primary factors for solar heating success, as they affect the levels of solar radiation and, therefore, soil temperatures. Chellemi et al. (1997) found solarization efficiency as strongly reduced by a cloudy and rainy weather and, more generally, the best results of solarizing treatment were provided in the areas with high summer temperatures. However, even if summer months in warm areas are surely the most suitable periods for solarization, successful...

Conclusion

Composting biowaste and the application of compost play an important role in sustainable agriculture. Composting allows organic waste to be recycled and returned to the soil and provides a solution for managing much of the waste, which is currently a major problem. If urban organic waste is selectively collected and composted, it no longer represents a problem. Composting provides an excellent way to manage the huge volume of organic waste and convert it into a useful soil amendment. This...

Other Possible Application of Allelopathy in Weed Management

Except direct use of allelopathic crops as cover crops, smother crops, and intercrops, applications of allelopathy for weed control include the use of allelopathic residues as an herbicide agent, e.g., pellets flours, water extracts, etc. The most common example of crop residue utilization is application of straw on the soil surface (mulching), e.g., rice straw inhibited germination of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), winter wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu), and little-seed...

Effect on Fungal Pathogens

Suppressivity of soil solarization on soilborne fungal pathogens is generally related to numerous variables in climate, soil conditions, population, and distribution of fungal propagules in soil (Pullman et al. 1979). However, a satisfactory fungicidal effect of solar heating treatment was documented on the most economically important plant pathogenic species. Suppression of Fusarium spp. wilt diseases by soil solarization was largely investigated on many crops and in different experimental...

Composting to Recycle Biowaste

Gy rgy F leky and Szilveszter Benedek Abstract If agriculture is to be made sustainable, few activities like composting are very important. Composting not only allows organic waste of agricultural origin to be recycled and returned to the soil, but also provides a solution for managing much of the waste, which is currently a major problem. If urban organic waste is selectively collected and composted, it no longer represents a problem for the city, and, if wisely applied, will enrich the soil,...

Greenhouse Gas Balance

The most frequently used criterion for evaluating the impact of biofuels on the environment is the GHG balance. This balance represents the difference between the emissions of GHGs during production and utilisation of a biofuel and the saving of GHGs due to the substitution of a fossil fuel. Thus, the result of a balance, the reduction of GHG emissions, depends considerably on the substituted fuel and the technology used. Recent balances calculate not only CO2 (1), but also CH4 (18, , 21) and...

Achieving Sustainable Agriculture Role of Sociology

Sociologists and other social scientists have played a significant role in the emergence, institutionalization, and design of sustainable agriculture. Sociologists and other social scientists have done particularly significant research on the adoption of resource-conserving practices. They have also made major contributions through their research into identifying user needs and implementation strategies relating to sustainable agriculture technology (Buttel 1993). For many scholars, sustainable...

Soil Solarization and Sustainable Agriculture

Trifone D'Addabbo, Vito Miccolis, Martino Basile, and Vincenzo Candido Abstract Pesticide treatments provide an effective control of soilborne pests in vegetable and fruit crops, but their toxicity to animals and people and residual toxicity in plants and soil, and high cost make their use hazardous and economically expensive. Moreover, actual environmental legislation is imposing severe restrictions on the use or the total withdrawal of most soil-applied pesticides. Therefore, an increasing...

Composting Products and Maturity 1241 Agronomic Value of Composting Products

Compost contains high portions of the humus-C, the portion of carbon that contributes to the humus reproduction. It accounts for 51 of the total organic carbon and is therewith higher than in any other humus fertilizer. Compared with compost, straw and liquid manure contain 21 carbon and green-fertilizers contain only 14 . The effectiveness on the humus reproduction with compost is by factor 4 higher than with straw and by factor 20 higher than with liquid manure (Kehres 2008). This fact is...

Host Range and Effects

The parasitic behaviour of Pp. hermaphrodita against different slug species have been studied by several workers (Wilson et al. 2000 Grewal et al. 2003). A single high dose of nematode, applied to slugs under soil condition caused significant mortality to three different pest families of slugs, i.e. D. reticulatum, D. panor-mitanum, A. silvaticus, A. distinctus, A. intermedius, A. ater, Tandonia buda-pestensis and T. sowerbyi (Wilson et al. 1993a). Coupland (1995) reported rapid killing of...

The Human Dimension of Agricultural Sustainability

The human element is not one third of sustainability it is central to its implementation (Pearson 2003). The challenge of sustainability is neither wholly technical nor rational. It is one of the change in attitude and behavior. Sustainability therefore must include the social discourse where the fundamental issues are explored collaboratively within the groups or community concerned. We do not do that very well, partly because of increasing populations, complexity, distractions, and mobility,...

Homestead Configuration and Utilization

Recent studies and analyses (Hussain 2002 Hussain and Miah 2004) have shown that the homestead production system has been developed based on different microsites. In fact, the micro-sites represent the smallest production units having similar configuration of land and serve specific purposes. The strong argument in favor of this subdivision is that the homestead is not a homogeneous system and what may be suitable for an approach road may not be suitable for a backyard, and, similarly, the uses...

Application Technology

Application technology aims at minimum loss during transfer of active ingredient, i.e. entomopathogenic nematodes from the mixing tank to the target insect. Several factors affect the ability to deliver infective juveniles in close proximity to the target insect for achieving optimal results at the minimal possible cost. Since formulations of entomopathogenic nematodes have live, delicate and tiny organisms, a careful handling is required during its application so that the adverse effects of...

Pollen Allelopathy

Pollen allelopathy is phenomenon when pollen chemicals (e.g., phenols, terpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, etc.) inhibit sexual reproduction in heterospecific individuals due to influencing of fertilization (Murphy 1992). The phenomenon includes excretion of signaling compounds from the donor cell (pollens, pistil stigma), recognition of a specific signal, transmission of information (pollen), and the development of a characteristic response in the acceptor cell. The possible mechanism of the...

Phaseolin a Major Evolutionary Marker

Phaseolin is the major seed storage protein of common bean and it can be used to trace the evolutionary origin of common bean genotypes. The electrophoretic variability of phaseolin of wild-growing common beans from Mesoamerica and the Andes was compared with landraces of the same region. The wild common bean accessions of different geographic origin could be distinguished by their phaseolin type (Fig. 7.3). In Mesoamerica, the wild forms showed both the S type as well as M types. The Colombian...

Pesticides

Mainly comprised of plant protection products and biocidal products, pesticides are designed to influence fundamental processes in living organisms. They may have the potential to kill or control harmful organisms such as pests, but can also cause unwanted adverse effects on non-target organisms, human health and the environment (EC 2007). Both the hazards and benefits of pesticides are well documented in published literature and have been reviewed most recently by Cooper and Dobson (2007)....

Thesis On Soil Solarization With The References 2016

Aalders AJG, Pieters R (1987) Resistance in Vicia faba to Orobanche crenata True resistance versus hidden susceptibility. Euphytica 36 227-236 Abebe G, Sahile G, Al-Tawaha ARM (2005) Evaluation of potential trap crops on Orobanche soil seed bank and tomato yield in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. World J Agric Sci 1 148-151 Alford ER, Perry LG, Qin B, Vivanco JM, Paschke MW (2007) A putative allelopathic agent of Russian knapweed occurs in invaded soils. Soil Biol Biochem 39 1812-1815...

Conclusion Of Soil Of Bangladesh

The review and discussion cited in this paper on different aspects of homestead agroforestry production system revealed that it appeared a potential area for improving production and income of the rural households of Bangladesh. The paper clearly stated how homestead agroforestry production system meets the diversified needs of the rural households through production of a wide variety of agricultural (food crops, vegetables, spices, fodder, etc.) and forest tree products (fruits, timber,...

Measurement of Microbial Diversity

Precipitation Soil Microb Feedback

Any comparison of the impacts of organic and conventional farming systems on biodiversity is likely to be problematic, largely as a result of the complexity of, and interactions between, the range of farming practices that comprise the two systems. The majority of studies seek to minimize apparently extraneous variation, unrelated to farming system with varying degrees of rigor and success. Some studies then go further, attempting to control for variation in crop-type, non-crop habitat or...

Financial Crisis Climate Change and the Painkiller Solution

Society is actually experiencing an unexpected financial crisis that will undoubtedly impact all nations (Beyond Growth 2008). It will affect in particular the poorest countries that are already suffering from hunger and diseases. Governments are attempting to heal this issue by injecting large amounts of money in banking systems and major companies. At the same time, effects of climate change are accelerating and deeply altering ecosystems (IPCC 2007). Recent alarming reports even warn that it...

Global Warming and Climate Changes

Climate models predict that a doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels will cause a global increase of 1.4-5.9 C in mean surface air temperature by 2080 (Houghton et al. 2001). This increase in temperature is also likely to be accompanied by an increase in temperature variance. Moreover, extreme weather events that were previously rare for example, heavy precipitation or long droughts may become more frequent (Hulme and Jenkins 1998 Houghton et al. 2001). However, changes in...

Tracer Experimental Approaches

Three general isotopic approaches, pulse labeling, continuous labeling, and the 13C natural abundance have been used to assess carbon budgets and below-ground biomass. Techniques using 14C and pulse and continuous labeling techniques are beyond the scope of this chapter and can be found in Goh and Molloy (1979), Goy (1991), Paul et al. (1997), and Kuzyakov and Domanski (2000). The major advantage of isotopic approaches over non-isotopic approaches is that source tracking of individual pools can...

Striving for a Sustainable Agriculture

The discussion above leads to the following considerations (1) today's agriculture has achieved the scientific and technical ability to provide food for a steadily increasing world population, but the price paid to achieve this success, in terms of environmental decay and quality of life, cannot be accepted and there is ample reason to fear an irreversible decay of agro-ecosystems in the future (2) strategies for a sustainable agriculture are urgently needed and an arsenal of sometimes...

Nematode Bacteria Symbiosis

The symbiotic association between entomopathogenic nematode and its bacteria have been reported by several workers (Kaya 1990 Kaya and Gaugler 1993 Tanada and Kaya 1993 Sicard et al. 2005 Somavanshi et al. 2006 Wang et al. 2007a). Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematode carry the bacteria Xenorhabdus (in case of steinernematids) or Photorhabdus (in case of heterorhabditids) belonging to Enterobacteriaceae (Forst et al. 1997 Nagesh et al. 2002). These bacteria are Gram-negative,...

Phasmarhabditis Hermaphrodita

Among the several slug-parasitic nematode species, Pp. hermaphrodita is considered to be the most successful capable of killing several slug species, the widespread pest of many agricultural and horticultural crops. In the recent years Pp. hermaph-rodita has also been exploited as biocontrol agent. Schneider (1859) was the first to describe this nematode associated with the slug A. ater. Maupas (1900) established culture of Pp. hermaphrodita and maintained it on rotting flesh. Wilson et al....

Varieties with Strong Allelopathic Potential

During cultivation, weed and pest resistance characteristics were ignored, and therefore the selection of high-yielding varieties caused the loss of allelopathic traits (Singh et al. 2001). For example, one of the ancestors of wheat, Triticum speltoides, contained significantly higher quantities of the allelochemical 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) than Triticum aestivum (Niemeyer 1988). Another example is wild species Maximilian sunflower Helianthus maximiliani Schrad....

Indigenous Soil Knowledge for Sustainable Agriculture

Handayani and Priyono Prawito Abstract Indigenous soil knowledge, a foundation of traditional farming systems, plays an important role in developing agricultural and environmental sustainability, especially in developing countries where most farmers have limited access to soil analysis and extension services. Recently, indigenous soil knowledge has been recognized as a vital source for most scientists to be used to change and improve natural resource management without neglecting the...

Conclusion For Soil Solarization

Many definitions of sustainable agriculture are reported by literature, but all are related to the basic concept of a profitable crop production with no environmental pollution and depletion of farm and natural resources, including effects on soil, water, and biodiversity (Doran 2002 Francis et al. 2006). Soil solarization seems to fit the fundaments of sustainable agriculture as providing an effective and environmentally safe control of many soilborne pests and more competitive market...

Effect on Bacteria and Viruses

Survival of plant pathogenic bacteria in solarized soil was investigated in a limited number of studies. Agrobacterium species were found highly sensitive to solariza-tion, as bacterial population was reduced up to 72 in the studies of Stapleton and DeVay (1984), and decreased by 99 and 92 after solarization treatment in two italian nurseries (Raio et al. 1997). In this study, two strains of A. tumefaciens Smith and Townsend were eliminated within 4 weeks or markedly reduced after 2 months in...

Homestead in Bangladesh

The country consists of 68,000 villages and each village contains about 268 homesteads (BBS 2005). It is the center of socioeconomic activities and traditional cultural heritage of villages in Bangladesh. Homesteads are multipurpose entities with dwellings, vegetables, spices, fruits, and fuelwood timber species (Fig. 16.1). The homesteads the people live in are locally known as Bari, which occur in linear, cluster, or individual pattern (Hussain and Miah 2004). Homesteads are perhaps the most...

Effect on Plant Growth and Crop Yield

Favorable effects of soil solarizarion on plant growth and crop yield were largely documented in many studies (Stapleton and Devay 1984 Davis 1991 Gamiel and Katan 1991). Increased growth response following solarization extended also to nursery seedlings and deciduous tree crops (Stapleton and DeVay 1982 Salerno et al. 2000), and resulted particularly evident under greenhouse conditions, where crop yield and quality was found to last for more than two crop cycles (Candido et al. 2008) (Fig....

Organic Agriculture and Food Production Ecological Environmental Food Safety and Nutritional Quality Issues

Reza Ghorbani, Alireza Koocheki, Kirsten Brandt, Stephen Wilcockson, and Carlo Leifert Abstract Conventional agricultural systems should not only produce much greater amounts of food, feed, fibre and energy to meet the global needs, but also challenge problems to improve health and social well-being of man, reduce dependence on fossil fuels, adapt to climate change and extreme weather, reduce environmental degradation and decline in the quality of soil, water, air and land resources throughout...

Diversity of Rhizobia

Nodulation Noda

Rhizobia is a gram-negative Proteobacteria with the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen when it is associated with the legume's roots. It is possible that the microorganisms associated with the common bean plant for its SNF may exhibit a similar arrangement of genetic diversity in Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. While common bean is highly promiscuous in its relationship with rhizobia, R. etli bv. phaseoli has been found as the predominant nodule occupants in both the Mesoamerican and...

Sustainable Agricultural Paradigms

There are many different schools of thought about how to interpret sustainability (Colby 1989). Sustainable development incorporates the idea of transformations of relationships among people and between people and nature. Batie, however, believes that considerable tension exists between those schools of sustainable development thought that draw their strength from the ecological science paradigm and those from an economic science paradigm (Batie 1991). In her view the assumptions of the two...

Attitudes Behaviors and Sustainable Agriculture

Attitudes are defined as a disposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to an object, person, institution, or event. An attitude is (a) directed toward an object, person, institution, or event (b) has evaluative, positive or negative, elements (c) is based on cognitive sustainable agricultural attitudes and behaviors beliefs toward the attitude object (i.e., the balancing between positive and negative attributes of an object leads to an attitude) and (d) has consequences for behavior when...

Chemical Structure of Zearalenone

Zearalenone, acid lactone, is a non-steroidal mycotoxin with oestrogenic properties. It was first isolated from extracts of fungus Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum) by Stob et al. (1962). This component is believed to act as an endogenous regulator of the sexual stage of development of their producer fungi. In the organisms of warm-blooded animals, the lactones mimic endogenous 17 P-estradiol, i.e. they stimulate the growth of muscle tissue and affect the functions of the reproductive...

Soil Solarization Introduction

Soil-applied pesticides have been successfully used to control soilborne diseases, weeds, and nematodes in most vegetable and fruit crops over the past decades. Toxicity of these materials to animals and humans and their environmental and economic costs (Pimentel et al. 1992 Ruzo 2006) raised serious environmental and human safety concerns, leading to the phase-out of the most effective and largely used chemical, the methyl bromide (Luken and Grof 2006), and the increasing restrictions on the...

Sociology of Sustainable Agriculture

Ezatollah Karami and Marzieh Keshavarz Abstract Sustainability is the core element of government policies, university research projects, and extension organizations worldwide. Yet, the results of several decades of attempt to achieve sustainable agriculture have not been satisfactory. Despite some improvement conventional agriculture is still the dominant paradigm. Pollution of water, soil, and air, degradation of environmental resources, and loss of biodiversity are still the by-product of...

Quality Control

A good image for compost can be built up with assured quality and a quality label. Germany, Denmark, the Netherland, and Belgium have developed a composting system which is very important for the quality assurance. Elements of the quality assurance system are quality assurance of European composting and digestion plants (in ECN 2008) Limits for harmful substances Quality criteria for the valuable constituents in the compost External control (product and or production) Quality label for the...

References

Al-Najar H, Schulz R, R mheld V (2005) Phytoremediation of thallium contaminated soils by brassicaceae. In Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D (eds) Environmental chemistry. Springer, pp 187-196 Anderson RL (2009a) Managing weeds with a dualistic approach of prevention and control. A review. In Lichtfouse E, Navarrete M, Debaeke P, Souchere V, Alberola C (eds) Sustainable agriculture. Springer, pp 391-398. DOI 10.1007 978-90-481-2666-8_25 Anderson RL (2009b) Rotation design a critical factor...

Composting Methods

Soil Solarization Diagrams

The most important technical methods of composting are statistic piles, windrows, and reactor vessels (shown in Figs. 12.3 and 12.4). Composting ingredients are mixed and during the composting process aeration is indicated. Bertoldi and Civilini (2006) carried out a composting process in two separate reactors first, only in the thermophilic phase, with the purpose of pathogen destruction and decomposition by selected thermophilic microorganisms second, only in the mesophilic phase, to perform...

Definition and Global Situation of Organic Agriculture

Organic agriculture has a long history with guidelines developed in 1924 to formalize an alternative to conventional production systems (Hovi et al. 2003). This was associated with Rudolf Steiner and the development of biodynamic farming and agriculture, which has unique features in addition to those of organic farming in general, and a certification scheme established in 1928. This still operates today and is identified by the Demeter and Biodyn labels on foods (Lampkin 1999). Organic farming...

P and Phytodiversity

Highest plant diversity has often been found to be correlated with low P availability (Table 6.1). Different shapes of this relationship have been found, e.g., linear or hump-backed shapes. The form of these shapes seems to be independent of the overall amount of P in the soil. However, comparison between different studies is hindered by different methods of P extraction as well as different units. In the Table 6.1 Literature overview of the relation between species richness and P concentration...

Homestead Agroforestry An Excellent Source of Nutrition

Agroforestry Potential Homestead

Nutritional problem is the key issue along with food security in Bangladesh today. A small percentage of the people have access to nutritious food, whilst the majority is forced to survive on subsistence diets that are unbalanced and devoid of essential food ingredients (MoA-UNPD 2000). Generally, landless and marginal farmers are at Fig. 16.12 Fruit, sugarcane, vegetable, poultry, and livestock are in a homestead, which provide nutrition to the household Fig. 16.12 Fruit, sugarcane, vegetable,...

Anaerobic Digestion as an Alternative Way of Recycling Biowaste

Chynoweth and Isaacson (1987) describe the process of anaerobic digestion as follows The process begins with the separation of household waste into biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste. The biodegradable material is shredded, slurried, and then screened and pasteurized to start the process of killing harmful pathogens. It is then pumped into the digester where bacteria break down the material and form biogas, leaving a digestate. The three main process stages in anaerobic digestion are...

Fertilization

Stinner and House (1989) suggested an inverse relationship between the levels of chemical input and the system sustainability, and their principle is widely, more or less implicitly, accepted Zandstra (1994, as reported by Hansen 1996), however, proposed a different scheme, with insufficient chemical inputs leading to exhaustion of natural resources and excessive inputs leading to accumulation and eventually to pollution. The two principles are not as opposed as it can appear at first sight and...

Steinernematids and Heterorhabditids 1331 Ecology and Distribution

After the baiting technique developed by Bedding and Akhurst (1975), random soil surveys were conducted globally in order to find entomopathogenic nematode in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries. These nematodes were common in both cultivated and uncultivated soils and their distribution was found to be worldwide (Hominick et al. 1996 Hominick 2002). Steinernematids were much more biologically diversified than Heterorhabditids. The most widely distributed species were S. carpocapsae,...

Definition of Agriculture

The first point to clarify is What is agriculture , of course, there is general agreement about the sorts of things, people, plants, and animals that can be called agricultural, but this is not good enough if we are seriously interested in topics such as the role of science in agriculture, the role and importance of agriculture in the world, and how agricultural efficiency can be improved (Speeding 1988). Not many attempts have been made to be more precise and it is quite difficult to arrive at...

Importance of Indigenous Soil Knowledge in Developing Sustainable Agriculture

Weelia Cylindrica

The farming system is a foundation in agriculture. A sustainable farming system is recognized as a system that maintains the resource base upon which it depends, relies on minimum of synthetic inputs, manages pests and diseases through internal regulating processes, and can recover from the human disturbance caused by agricultural practices, i.e., cultivation and harvest (Edwards et al. 1990 Altieri 1995). Sustainable agriculture is farming systems that are maintaining their productivity and...

Allelopathy and Organic Farming

Abstract Allelopathy is a biological process including interactions between two plants through the production of chemical compounds (allelochemicals) that are released by leaching, volatilization, decomposition, or root exudation. Hence, allelopathy together with competition is a promising environment-friendly tool for weed management. However, detailed knowledge of this phenomenon is necessary for its successful application due to still limited available knowledge. Suitable use of allelopathic...

Occurrence and Physiology of Zearalenone as a New Plant Hormone

Jolanta Biesaga-Koscielniak and Maria Filek Abstract Zearalenone* is a non-steroidal mycotoxin with oestrogenic properties, which is produced mainly by fungi belonging to Fusarium acid lactone). The toxin-producing ability of Fusaria is greatly influenced by environmental factors. Therefore, it was expected that the different weather conditions occurring during the vegetation period would be associated with differences in the preharvest occurrence of Fusarium toxins. Sustainable food systems...

Isotopic Natural Abundance Techniques Plant Carbon in Soil

Footslope Projects

The 13C isotopic natural abundance C-budget approach can be used to determine the amount of NHC remaining in soil, SOC half-lives, and SOC turnover because relic SOC and new plant material additions have different isotopic values. When making these calculations, it is important to consider that above-ground and below-ground carbon inputs may have different isotopic signatures. For example, plant roots are often 13C-enriched compared to plant leaves (Badeck et al. 2005 Bowling et al. 2008)....

Use of Allelopathic Crops in Biological Control

Allelopathy includes not only plant-plant, plant-microorganism interactions but also plant-insect interaction (Durtn-Serantes et al. 2002). Plants are able to produce compounds that act as repellents for herbivorous pests and as attractants for antagonistic organisms, e.g., predators and parasitoids. However, some insects are able to detoxify the chemical and so they can feed on the plant (Capinera 2005). For example, secondary metabolites from barley such as gramine and hordenin help in...

Green Manure

Green manure is incorporation of fresh plant biomass into the soil to improve nutritional level concerning organic matter and nitrogen, to reduce soil erosion, and it may also serve as sources of allelochemicals for suppression of weed species. Although green manures usually favor beneficial microorganisms, there can be a short-term increase in plant pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani K hn (Weinhold 1977). However some compounds as isothiocyanates can have inhibitive effects to soil-borne...

Mass Production

Entomopathogenic Nematodes

The two different techniques for mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes are (i) in vivo, and (ii) in vitro. Production of entomopathogenic nematodes depend upon the area to be applied as well as the type of nematode species used. If a small plot is to be applied as for research purpose, the in vivo production technique would be appropriate, otherwise for fields in vitro methods are used. White trap (White 1927) is one of the most common methods to produce entomo-pathogenic nematodes....

Effects on Soil Chemical and Physical Properties

Solar heating was normally reported to increase soil content of soluble nutrients, and particularly of dissolved organic matter, inorganic nitrogen forms, and available cations, either under field-scale or in growth chamber simulated solarization (Stapleton et al. 1985 Stevens et al. 1991a Grunzweig et al. 1999 Chen et al. 2000 Salerno et al. 2000 Ghini et al. 2003). Chen and Katan (1980) observed increased concentrations of dissolved organic matter in saturated extracts of solarized soils, and...