Basic Soap Making
Foam separation or fractionation 40,41,43-45 can be used to extra advantage not only do surfactants congregate at the air liquid interfaces, but other colloidal materials and ionized compounds that form a complex with the surfactants tend to also be concentrated by this method. An incidental, but often important, advantage of air flotation processes is the aerobic condition developed, which tends to stabilize the sludge and skimmings so that they are less likely to turn septic. However, disposal means for the foamate can be a serious problem in the use of this procedure 46 . It has been reported that foam separation has been able to remove 70-80 of synthetic detergents, at a wide range of costs 2 . Gibbs 17 reported the successful use of fine bubble flotation and 40 mm detention in treating soap manufacture wastes, where the skimmed sludge was periodically returned to the soap factory for reprocessing. According to Wang 47-49 , the dissolved air flotation process is both technically...
Generally, two methods of disinfection are used chemical and physical. The chemical methods, of course, use chemical agents, and the physical methods use physical agents. Historically, the most widely used chemical agent is chlorine. Other chemical agents that have been used include ozone, ClO2, the halogens bromine and iodine and bromine chloride, the metals copper and silver, KMnO4, phenol and phenolic compounds, alcohols, soaps and detergents, quaternary ammonium salts, hydrogen peroxide, and various alkalis and acids.
Soap manufacture Batch kettle and continuous A Fatty acid manufacture by fat splitting B Soap from fatty acid neutralization C Glycerine recovery Glycerine concentration D Glycerine distillation E Soap flakes and powders F Bar soaps G Liquid soap H Detergent manufacture Oleum sulfonation and sulfation (batch and continuous) I Air-SO3 sulfation and sulfonation (batch and continuous) J SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation K Sulfamic acid sulfation L Chlorosulfonic acid sulfation M Neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids N Spray-dried detergents O Liquid detergent manufacture P Detergent manufacture by dry blending Q Drum-dried detergents R _Detergent bars and cakes__S
Possibly the most representative treatment facility that handles wastewaters from the production of soaps, detergents, glycerines, and personal care products is Colgate-Palmolive Company's plant at Jeffersonville, IN 3 . The production wastes had received treatment since 1968 21 in a completely mixed activated sludge plant with a 0.6 MGD design flow and consisting of a 0.5 MG mixed equalization and storage basin, aeration basin, and final clarifier. The treated effluent was discharged to the Ohio River, combined with rain drainage and cooling waters. During operation, it was observed that waste overloads to the plant caused a deterioration of effluent quality and that the system recovered very slowly, particularly from surfactant short-term peaks. In addition, the fact that ABS had been eliminated and more LAS and nonionic surfactants were being produced, as well as the changes in product formulation, may have been the reasons for the Colgate treatment plant's generally less than...
This industry produces liquid and solid cleaning agents for domestic and industrial use, including laundry, dishwashing, bar soaps, specialty cleaners, and industrial cleaning products. It can be broadly divided (Fig. 1) into two categories (a) soap manufacture that petrochemicals. The information presented here includes establishments primarily involved in the production of soap, synthetic organic detergents, inorganic alkaline detergents, or any combinations of these, and plants producing crude and refined glycerine from vegetable and animal fats and oils. Types of facilities not discussed here include plants primarily involved in the production of shampoo or shaving creams soaps, whether from soap or surfactants, and of synthetic glycerine as well as specialty cleaners, polishing and sanitation preparations. The categorization system of the various main production streams and their descriptions is taken from federal guidelines 13 pertaining to state and local industrial...
Significant reduction of water usage is possible in the manufacture of liquid detergents (P) by the installation of water recycle piping and tankage and by the use of air rather than water to blowdown filling lines. In the production of bar soaps (G), the volume of discharge and the level of contamination can be reduced materially by installation of an atmospheric flash evaporator ahead of the vacuum drier. Finally, pollutant carryover from distillation columns such as those used in glycerine concentration (D) or fatty acid separation (B) can be reduced by the use of two additional special trays. Table 7 Effluent Limitations for Subpart G, Bar Soaps Table 7 Effluent Limitations for Subpart G, Bar Soaps
Wastewaters from the manufacturing, processing, and formulation of organic chemicals such as soaps and detergents cannot be exactly characterized. The wastewater streams are usually expected to contain trace or larger concentrations of all raw materials used in the plant, all intermediate compounds produced during manufacture, all final products, coproducts, and byproducts, and the auxiliary or processing chemicals employed. It is desirable, from the
Soap making by this method is a faster process than the kettle boil process and generates less wastewater effluent (Fig. 4). Because it is faster, simpler, and cleaner than the kettle boil process, it is the preferred process among larger as well as small manufacturers. Often, sodium carbonate is used in place of caustic. When liquid soaps (at room temperature) are desired, the more soluble potassium soaps are made by substituting potassium hydroxide for the sodium hydroxide (lye). This process is relatively simple and high-purity raw materials are converted to soap with essentially no byproducts. Leaks, spills, storm runoff, and washouts are absent. There is only one wastewater of consequence the sewer lyes from reclaiming of scrap. The sewer lyes contain the excess caustic soda and salt added to grain out the soap. Also, they contain some dirt and paper not removed in the strainer.
Regarding biological destruction, as mentioned previously, surfactants are known to cause a great deal of trouble due to foaming and toxicity 103 in municipal treatment plants. The behavior of these substances depends on their type 22 , that is, anionic and nonionic detergents increase the amount of activated sludge, whereas cationic detergents reduce it, and also the various compounds decompose to a different degree. The activated sludge process is feasible for the treatment of soap and detergent industry wastes but, in general, not as satisfactory as trickling filters. The turbulence in the aeration tank induces frothing to occur, and also the presence of soaps and detergents reduces the absorption efficiency from air bubbles to liquid aeration by increasing the resistance of the liquid film.
The concentrations of detergent that actually find their way into wastewaters and surface water bodies have quite diverse origins (a) Soaps and detergents, as well as their component compounds, are introduced into wastewaters and water bodies at the point of their manufacture, at storage facilities and distribution warehouses, and at points of accidental spills on their routes of transportation (the origin of pollution is dealt with in this chapter). (b) The additional industrial origin of detergent pollution notably results from the use of surfactants in various industries, such as textiles, cosmetics, leather tanning and products, paper, metals, dyes and paints, production of domestic soaps and detergents, and from the use of detergents in commercial industrial laundries and dry cleaners. (c) The contribution from agricultural activities is due to the surface runoff transporting of surfactants that are included in the formulation of insecticides and fungicides 27 . (d) The origin...
Wastes is in washing and purifying soaps and detergents and the resulting major pollutants are high BOD and certain soaps (oily and greasy, alkali, and high-temperature wastes), which are removed primarily through air flotation and skimming, and precipitation with the use of CaCl2 as a coagulant. Table 8 Effluent Limitations for Subpart H, Liquid Soaps Table 8 Effluent Limitations for Subpart H, Liquid Soaps
In fuel markets, detergent formulations such as gasoline additives that limit the buildup of deposits in car engines and fuel injectors will very likely grow fast from a small base, with the likelihood of an increase in spills and discharges from this industrial source. Soap, on the other hand, has now become a small part (17 ) of the total output of surfactants, whereas the anionic forms (which include soaps) accounted for 62 of total U.S. production in 1988. Liquid detergents (many of the LAS type), which are generally higher in surfactant concentrations than powdered ones, will continue to increase in production volume, therefore creating greater surfactant pollution problems due to housecleaning and spills. (Also, a powdered detergent spill creates less of a problem, as it is easier to just scoop up or vacuum.)
Soda ash is used in a variety of applications, including, glass production, soaps and detergents, flue gas desulphurisation, chemicals, pulp and paper and other common consumer products. Soda ash production and consumption (including sodium carbonate, Na2CO3) results in the release of CO2. Emissions from soda ash production are reported in the Chemical Industry, while emissions from use are reported in the respective end use sectors where soda ash is used. Emissions from soda ash used in glass production are already accounted for above. Similarly, where soda ash is used in other source categories such as chemicals, emissions should be reported in that source category.
Soaps and detergents are formulated products designed to meet various cost and performance standards. The formulated products contain many components, such as surfactants to tie up unwanted materials (commercial detergents usually contain only 1030 surfactants), builders or polyphosphate salts to improve surfactant processes and remove calcium and magnesium ions, and bleaches to increase reflectance of visible light. They also contain various additives designed to remove stains (enzymes), prevent soil re-deposition, regulate foam, reduce washing machine corrosion, brighten colors, give an agreeable odor, prevent caking, and help processing of the formulated detergent 18 .
Polishing is used to smooth out surface defects using polishing and buffing compounds. Metallic soaps, mineral oils, dispersing agents, and waxes are among the chemicals used. Barrel finishing (tumbling) is used to remove burrs and scales. Several chemicals in addition to abrasives are used in the process. Oils, soaps, organic acids such as citric and maleic acids, sodium dichromate, as well as sodium cyanide are among the chemicals used.
The greywater feed quality was established from previous work5,6 and trials carried out using the handwash basins in the Thames Water R&D office complex. A survey of soaps and detergents' manufacturers confirmed that all handwash soaps are significantly biodegradable and that the majority of modern soaps supplied for large scale public applications include synthetic surfactants7. The synthetic feed quality used for pilot trials is shown in Table 1.
Flocculants was shown to overcome this problem. However, chemical coagulation and flocculation for settling may not prove to be very efficient for such wastewaters. Wastes containing emulsified oils can be clarified by coagulation, if the emulsion is broken through the addition of salts such as CaCl2, the coagulant of choice for soap and detergent manufacture wastewaters 11 . Also, lime or other calcium chemicals have been used in the treatment of such wastes whose soapy constituents are precipitated as insoluble calcium soaps of fairly satisfactory flocculating ( hardness scales) and settling properties. Treatment with CaCl2 can be used to remove practically all grease and suspended solids and a major part of the suspended BOD 19 . Using carbon dioxide (carbonation) as an auxiliary precipitant reduces the amount of calcium chloride required and improves treatment efficiency. The sludge from CaCl2 treatment can be removed either by sedimentation or by dissolved air flotation 39,53-56...
Subcategory 6 Drawing with Emulsions or Soaps Drawing with emulsions or soaps Continuous sheet casting Stationary casting Artificial aging Annealing Degreasing Cleaning or etching 5.2.6 Drawing with Emulsions or Soaps This subcategory is applicable to all wastewater discharges resulting from or associated with the drawing of aluminum products using oil-in-water emulsion or soap solution lubricants. Eight of the eleven plants that comprise this subcategory use the drawing with emulsions or soaps process exclusively. Overlap with other subcategories occurs at the remaining three plants.
These establishments are engaged in the manufacture of corrugated and solid fiber boxes and containers from purchased paperboard. The principal commodities of this industry are boxes, pads, partitions, display items, pallets, corrugated sheets, food packaging, and nonfood (e.g., soaps, cosmetics, and medicinal products) packaging.
Heat treating aims to modify the physical properties of workpieces through the application of controlled heating and cooling cycles. Case-hardening produces a hard surface over a metal core. The surface is wear-resistant and durable. Quenching is realized using several types of solutions. Brine solutions contain sodium and calcium chloride and mineral acids. Water oil emulsions contain soaps, alcohols, oils, emulsifiers, in addition to dissolved salts. Liquid carburizing and carbonitriding solutions contain sodium cyanide, detergents, and dissolved salts. Hightemperature quenching baths contain sodium cyanide, boron oxide, sodium fluoride, dissolved salts, as well as manganese dioxide and silicon carbide. Molten lead is used for heat treatment of steel.
It is necessary to use a cooling and lubricating compound during rolling to prevent excessive wear on the rolls, to prevent adhesion of aluminum to the rolls, and to maintain a suitable and uniform rolling temperature. Oil-in-water emulsions, stabilized with emulsifying agents such as soaps and other polar organic materials, are used for this purpose in hot rolling operations.
Traditionally many soaps and detergents were originally produced from fatty acids and despite the gradual transition to petrochemical-based production routes, their organic oil basis still contributes to a major proportion to their production. This route can be classified as a sort white-based chemical, but due to its historical and continued use cannot be associated with any CO2 reduction potential. Conversion of fatty acids to biolubricants could present significant savings. In the EU (2006), there were more than 450 different lubricants in excess of 4.6Mton production. Each grade requires a unique compositional formulation for the specific
Although algae blooms can make waters turbid, in surface water most turbidity is related to the smaller inorganic components of the suspended solids burden, primarily the clay particles. Microorganisms and vegetable material may also contribute to turbidity. Wastewaters from industry and households usually contain a wide variety of turbidity-producing materials. Detergents, soaps, and various emulsifying agents contribute to turbidity.
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