Snow and Climate

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Riclurd L. Armstrong and Eric Brun



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The extent and variability of seasonal snow cover are important parameters in the climate system, due to their effects on energy and moisture budgets, and because surface temperature is highly dependent on the presence or absence of snow cover. In turn, snow-cover trends serve as key indicators of climate change.

In the last two decades many new methods and techniques have become available for studying snow-climate relationships. Satellites provided the first capability for monitoring snow-cover extent at continental and hemispheric scales, enabling the investigation of synoptic-scale snow cover-climate linkages. This global view of snow cover has been accompanied by rapid advances in snow modeling physics to represent snow cover and snow processes in Global Climate Models (GCMs). These advances have changed the way we look at snow cover, and the main goal of this book is to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the current state of snow-climate science that reflects this new perspective. This volume will provide an excellent synthesis for researchers and advanced students.

Richard Armstrong is a Senior Research Scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Center, the World Data Center for Glaciology and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado. His current research includes remote sensing and evaluation of fluctuations in snow cover and glaciers as indicators of climate change.

Eric Brun is Head of Research at Meteo-France and Director of the Centre National de Recherche Meteorologiques. He is a specialist in snow and avalanches and developed original methods to assess the impact of climate change on snow cover and alpine rivers.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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