Introduction

In 1976, Eric Anderson compiled a detailed history of numerical modeling of snow cover which is paraphrased below with Anderson's permission (personal communication, 2006). Anderson began his history in the 1930s with the first application of modern energy transfer theory to a snow cover by Sverdrup (1936). In the 1940s, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Weather Bureau initiated the Cooperative Snow Investigations (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1955). The purpose of these investigations was to promote a fundamental understanding of snow hydrology for project design and streamflow forecasting, particularly for the western United States. Extensive data collection and analysis were performed over a 10-year period at three research watersheds. The publication Snow Hydrology (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1956) summarized these investigations. The results and methods included in this publication are widely referenced and form the basis of many of the snow-cover models in use today. During this same period, the 1940s and 1950s, extensive studies were being conducted in the Soviet Union addressing the physical properties, formation, and melting of a snow cover. Kuzmin's summary of these studies (Kuzmin, 1961) presented a thorough and complete discussion of snow-cover energy exchange over a melting snow cover, from both a theoretical and a practical viewpoint.

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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