List of contributors page ix

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Nomenclature xiv

1 Introduction 1

Richard L. Armstrong and Ross Brown

1.1 Basic properties of snow 1

1.2 Importance of snow in the climate system 4

1.3 Importance of snow in natural and human systems 6

1.4 Climate change implications

1.5 Layout of book 9

2 Physical processes within the snow cover and their parameterization 12 Rachel E. Jordan, Mary R. Albert, and Eric Brun

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 General characteristics 19

2.3 Thermal behavior of snow 35

2.4 Fluid flow behavior in snow 40

2.5 Radiative properties of snow 53

3 Snow-atmosphere energy and mass balance 70 John C. King, John W. Pomeroy, Donald M. Gray, Charles Fierz,

Paul M. B. Föhn, Richard J. Harding, Rachel E. Jordan, Eric Martin, and Christian Pluss

3.1 Introduction 70

3.2 Equations of energy and mass balance 70

3.3 The fluxes involved in the energy balance 73

3.4 Snow accumulation 83

3.5 Examples of energy and mass balances 92

4 Snow-cover parameterization and modeling 125 Eric Brun, Zong-Liang Yang, Richard Essery, and Judah Cohen

4.1 History of numerical modeling of snow cover 125

4.2 Description of recent snow models 129

4.3 Sensitivity of energy and mass fluxes at the snow-atmosphere interface to internal and interface parameters 136

4.4 Snow parameterization in GCMs 145

4.5 The global snow coverage in climate change scenarios 156

5 Snow-cover data: measurement, products, and sources 181 Ross Brown and Richard L. Armstrong

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 In situ snow data 182

5.3 Remote sensing data 192

5.4 Operational snow-cover products 203

5.5 Global-continental snow-cover climatology: measured and modeled 205

Appendix: Snow model questionnaire 217

Index 220

The color plates are between pages 104 and 105

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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