Meteorological data

For the hourly interpolation of the meteorologic input variables, liquid and solid precipitation, incoming radiation fluxes, mean wind speed, air temperature and humidity, the SAFRAN analysis system (Durand et al. 1993) is used. Among the principal data sources are the standard meteorological observations (SYNOP), upper-air messages from radiosondes, the ancillary network of visual and automatic surface observations during the winter ski period (NIVO-METEO) and the altitudinal distribution of temperature, wind and humidity as given by the French mesoscale forecast model PERIDOT (grid size of 35 km). For offline applications as the one presented here, the guess field of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) analyses are used.

To describe the optimal analysis method applied is beyond the scope of this investigation. It may be of interest, however, to point out that orographic effects were taken into account for a first guess of precipitation on the basis of the 5-km grid analysis as described by Benichou and Breton (1987).

The meteorological measurements for the Durance watershed consist of one synoptic six-hourly observation

la Meije

Barre des Ecr M

la Meije

Barre des Ecr M

La Clapierè

Figure 4.1 The catchment of the upper Durance in the southern French Alps. The grids correspond with the resolutions of 1 km and 8 km. The three subcatchments are separated by the gauging stations Briancon, L'Argentiere and La Clapiere

La Clapierè

Figure 4.1 The catchment of the upper Durance in the southern French Alps. The grids correspond with the resolutions of 1 km and 8 km. The three subcatchments are separated by the gauging stations Briancon, L'Argentiere and La Clapiere of the main meteorological variables in Embrun and daily precipitation observations from 16 stations of the French climatologic network. The incoming radiation fluxes are computed using the radiative transfer scheme of Ritter and Geleyn (1992).

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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