Info

surface soil saturated conductivity map 108 Toce Valley, analytical solutions of flow equations and measurements in 85-100 total resistivity, at borehole location 68, 69

transpiration, from Douglas-fir trees 153

triangular fuzzy numbers 130 triangular membership functions 132

trough slopes and corrie areas, geomorphological boundary 253, 254 turbulent fluxes 20, 24

calculation 21 turbulent heat flux, partitioning during dry season weekly average 156, 157 Tuyuksu Glacier region, Kazakhastan 263 annual runoff 268 characteristics 265 CV-values of modeled discharge for July-August 269 effect of climate change and complete melting of glaciers 272, 273 -274 effect of climate change and 50% reduction of glaciated area 271, 272-273 goodness of fit 267 hydrometeorological conditions and change in discharge after doubling of CO2 and complete melting of glaciers 273 location 264

runoff scenarios after doubling of CO2 270, 271

uncertainty in hydrological modeling, sources of 127-128 unfrozen water content, evolution of

68, 69, 70 Upper Durance catchment 31-37 basin characteristics 31 daily discharges 38-39 digital terrain model 32-33 indices that characterise the different datasets and experiments 39 landuse map 37 location 32

mean annual water balance 41-42

meteorological data 31-32 soil and vegetation maps 31 Upper Enns catchment characteristics 130, 131 climate 130

drainage characteristics 135 hydrology 130 location 130,131 soil properties 134 water balance model 131-132 USDA soil texture classification 87

used adjustment method 237, 242

variable source area concept 218 vegetation distribution in continental Norway

200, 203 distribution in Norwegian high mountains 209 effects of snow cover and soil moisture on 209, 210 input data in upper Durance catchment 31 root zone soil moisture and 305 spatial differentiation of types in lower alpine catchment 200, 203 Vernagtbach annual runoff 268 CV-values of modeled discharge for July-August 269 effect of climate change and complete melting of glaciers 272, 273 -274 effect of climate change and 50% reduction of glaciated area 271, 272-273 hydrometeorological conditions and change in discharge after doubling of CO2 and complete melting of glaciers 273

Rofenache sub-basin 264, 265 runoff scenarios after doubling of CO2 270,271 vertical landscape structure analysis 188, 189

vertical temperature dynamics 195,

196, 197,198 vertical water fluxes 194,195

water and energy budget models, in Appalachian mountains under climate variability and hydrological extremes 291-306 water balance equations 135 water balance modeling, with fuzzy parameterizations in Austrian Alps 125-146 water balance models accuracy and sensitivity to fuzzy parameters and climatic inputs 139-141 criteria of uncertainty and measures of accuracy for basic and alternative 143 important parameters 144 magnitudes of system state variables 136 mathematical formulation

135-137 performance of alternative 142, 143

performance with fuzzy input data but crisp estimates for model parameters 139,141 performance with fuzzy parameters and climatic inputs 137-139 precipitation and potential evapotranspiration fuzzy climatic input variables 137,138 reducing model complexity

141-143 simulated daily discharge parameters and input variables 140 Upper Enns catchment 131 -132 water balance, upper Durance catchment mean annual 41-42 water balances annual and monthly 137-143 evapotranspiration and 123 -214 in Norwegian middle-alpine ridges 195

in surface soil 85-100 for Tuyuksu, Abramov and Glacier No. 1 266, 267 water fluxes, measurement 180 water holding capacity of soil 137, 138

water, influence of glacier retreat on yield 263-275 water mass balance 91 water relations, of an old-growth

Douglas Fir stand 147-159 water resources colors of 291 impact of climate variability 291

water retention curves 88 water retention relationships 102, 103, 113-117 estimation of 105 ofToce River basin sandy soils

116, 117 with saturated hydraulic conductivity for Alpine mountain soils 101 -121 watersheds characterization 291 intraseasonal variability 303-304 water-table, rise during snowmelt at Grachen vs. winter precipitation 81, 82, 83 West Himalayas (India) 47, 52, 54 western Norwegian high mountains, vertical temperature profiles 195,197 Wilhelmer Talbach sub-basin characteristics 236 modeling investigations 238 observed and simulated peak discharges 240,241 precipitation 236, 240 runoff calculations 240 wind influence on transpiration 180

and precipitation measurements 257

Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility (WRCCRF) 150 characteristics 148, 149 climate 150

experimental measurements

150-151 location 148,149 soil 150

vegetation 149-150 wind speed, in forest canopy 35 wind systems, in Giant Mountains 164

Plate 1 (Figure 3.4) Example of the technique used to estimate the ratio of snow cover and the spatial distribution of albedo, in this case applied to an Alpine glacier, Haut Glacier d'Arolla. Top photograph, the perspective projection of the DEM appears as grey dots, and from these, the georeferenced map of reflectance values on the bottom image is produced

1500 1700

d I I I I II I | I I M I I I I | I II I I I I I | I I I I ] I I I | I I II I I ] I | ] I I II I II | II I I I I I I |I M I [I 1 I | I I I I II II | II I M I I I I I I II II t

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment