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topography of study sites 191

numerical weather predictions (NWP) 85, 99

open lysimeters 76, 77 Oppland Mountains 189,190, 191

parameter uncertainty 127-128 penitentes 22,24-26 effect of snow 15 energy balance partition for flat snow and 24 factors affecting formation of 25 insolation 24 sensitivity of energy balance 24-26 permafrost definition 59 distribution 253 geophysical measurements 60 monitoring in high mountain areas 59-71

monitoring programs 59 soil water and 57-122 point observations 125,128,133 pore-size distribution index 119 positive degree-day method 8 positive degree-day sum, calculation of 10-11 positive degree-days, monthly 10, 11

precipitation and runoff formation 217-218 in alpine mountain ranges 217 daily depth 136 differentiating between forms of 134

estimation of snowfall during 10 increase with altitude 10 regional distribution 257 sensitivity of simulated precipitation to surface characteristics 228 precipitation data, triangular fuzzy numbers for 133 precipitation-runoff models 249 and sediment transport 256-257 recommendations 258 process-correlation models 186, 187

radiation, at energy balance stations

68, 69 rain gauges 234 rain, interception in forests 36 rainfall, detecting patterns in mountainous catchments 243

rainfall radar data 234-235, 242-243 beam blockage 234-235, 242 calibration 236-237 use within hydrological models 243

random errors, in observations 128 RE method 105,108,109,118 regional climate models (RCMs) 277, 278

remote sensing, for obtaining snow data 46 resistivity cumulative differences per day

66, 67 DC surveys 60 dependence on temperature 61,

63, 64, 65 estimation of unfrozen water content from measurements of 61 measurements using fixed-electrode arrays 62-63

resistivity-temperature relationships

and constitutive laws 102-103 Rofenache annual runoff 268 characteristics 265 CV-values of modeled discharge for July-August 269 effect of climate change and complete melting of glaciers 272, 273 effect of climate change and 50% reduction of glacier 271, 272-273 hydrometeorological conditions and change in discharge after doubling of CO2 and complete melting of glaciers 273 location 264 runoff and floods, in the Alps

217-220 runoff formation, precipitation and

217-218 runoff generation models 218 runoff production, control of 305

Saguenay, Quebec flood application of MC2 coupled to CLASS model 226-227 scatter plot of 48-h accumulated precipitation 227

scatter plot of 48-h accumulated precipitation and sensitivity to surface vegetation 228 Saguenay region, location 228, 229 Santis, Switzerland day of year with peak runoff

282, 284 energy and radiation fluxes evolution 286, 287 location 279 maximum temperature rise scenario 287 mean temperature rise scenario

284-287 minimum temperature rise scenario 287 number of snow-covered days 282

radiation and energy fluxes daily evolution 283 runoffevolution 284 snow cover duration 286, 288 snow depth 282 snowpack variability 287, 288 sap flux, from Douglas-fir trees 153 Satluj river basin depletion of SCA 48 depletion of SCA under different climatic scenarios 52, 53 depletion of SCA with time 50 increase in melting area with increase in mean temperature over the melt period 52, 53 location map 47 main physical characteristics 47 study period and data used 48 saturated conductivity, in upper soil layers 112, 113 saturated conductivity of Toce River basin soils comparison of estimates after field and laboratory data 109, 111

comparison of estimates after field data 109,111 dependency on altitude 113, 114 saturated hydraulic conductivity, and water retention relationships for Alpine mountain soils 101-121 saturation excess runoff 136 Schilthorn, Swiss Alps 2-D geophysical ground monitoring 60 annual precipitation 62 calculating unfrozen water content 64

characteristics of the field site 61

geoelectrical monitoring 66-67 laboratory experiments 63-66 location 61,62 mean annual air temperature

(MAAT) 62 resistivity, temperature and unfrozen water content plotted against time 65 resistivity-temperature curves for saturated and dry material 63, 65 results 63 -67 seasonal variation of vertical temperature profile 63 temporal evolution of temperature 63

sediment sources, modeling 253 sediment transport, and precipitation-runoff models 256-257 sediments, differentiating according to sources 258 short-wave radiation model 20-21 simulated annual site water balance summary 154 simulated seasonal water flux trends

154-157 simulated subsurface flow, comparison to total simulated streamflow at Elizabeth, Enterprise and Dailey watersheds 298,299 simulated water balance trends

154,155, 156 simultaneous heat and water

(SHAW) model 148,151,157 conceptual diagram 151 validation 153-154 single ring infiltrometer method

102,104, 105-109, 118 slope models 252-256, 257-258 snow and ice melt 5 -55 effects on vegetation occurrence and distribution 208-209 evaporation in forests 36 socioeconomic effects of change in mountain 3 snow and ice melt 5

from glacier and rocky areas 11 methods for calculating 7-14 snow and ice penitentes 18 snow cover analysis at Disentis and Santis 281, 282 effects on vegetation on soil moisture and 209, 210 height at Schilthorn 67, 69

in continental eastern Norway

199, 200 in Scandes Norwegian mountains 186

relationship between cumulative degree-days and depletion of 51

runoff from melt of 2, 3 spatio-temporal distribution 199, 201

snow cover maps 46 snow cover patterns, future investigation improvements 42

snow covered areas application of 54 application for snow melt modeling studies 45 assessment using air temperatures during melt in a mountainous basin 45-55 depletion in Satluj basin under different climatic scenarios 53

impact of climate change on 52 interpolation of 50 methods for measuring 46-47 relationship with CDD 54 satellite data 46

Satluj River basin study period and data used 48 simulation of 50-52 variation in 45 snow depth, measured and simulated at Grachen 81 snow melt computation 136 discharge measurements at

Hannigalp 78-79 prediction of melt in Himalayan rivers 45 under different temperature increase scenarios in the Swiss Alps 277-289 snow melt models 46, 277 snow melt runoff improving forecasts of 29 -44 socioeconomic consequences in changes to 3 snow melt runoff model (SRM) 29, 45

snow melt simulation, resolution impact investigation 29 snow packs evolution of 30

observed and simulated at Disentis and Santis 281,282

snow packs in forest canopy, conditions affecting 33-34 snow penitentes 15,18 soil depths, estimates made by experts 129 soil frost 73

effect on aquifer recharge at snowmelt 81 -82 and groundwater recharge numerical modeling 77-78

soil hydraulic properties 101 soil moisture during dry event at Pallanzeno 97, 98

during wet event at Pallanzeno 97-99

effects on vegetation of snow cover and 209, 210 restricting fuzziness of modeled 136

spatio-temporal variability 200, 204

TDR measurement 86 uncertainty of simulated 136 variability in E. Norwegian mountains 194 soil moisture content, comparison between simulated CLASS and observed data in Quebec, Canada 225 soil moisture profiles, behaviour of 96

soil pore-size distribution sensitivity,

Mella River basin 116,117 soil properties, Enns river basin 134

soil saturated conductivity 118 after field data 103-105 and water retention relationships 102

estimates comparison for pedogenetic and land-use classes of Toce River Basin 112

measurement of 102 soil saturated conductivity map, Toce river basin 108, 109 soil texture, for Monongahela river basin 294, 295 soil water, and permafrost

57-121 soil water content daily mean values 88, 89 simulated and measured 154, 155

soil water flow 73

soil water retention relationships estimation of 105 of Toce River basin soils 113, 114

soil water transfer models 73 soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer

(SVAT) schemes 73 soils, sensitivity of bubbling pressure to organic matter content and grain size distribution at Mella River basin 117 solid precipitation, in forests 35 Solk (Austria) study area 249 characteristics 248 location 248 slope model 252 soil sequence 252 sorptive number 103 Southern Black Forest 235 streamflows, annual and monthly simulated vs observed discharge 138-139,140 structural stability 300 structural uncertainty 127 subgrid parameterization methods 30, 33-37 of forest climate 33-34 of topography 33, 34 subgrid parameterizations comparison of simulated discharges 37-40 quantitative validation of simulated results 40-41 subsurface flow routing model

(SFRM) 292 surface energy balance model (SEBM) description 278-279 observations and control run

282-284 results 282-287 temperature increase scenarios 280, 284-287 surface microtopography modeling 21-22

surface properties, parameterizing by geomorphological zoning 249-257 surface runoff 101 at Hannigalp 79 schematic instrumental setup for collecting 76 surface sea level pressure, South

America 17 surface soil saturated conductivity, Mella River Basin 108, 110 surface soil, water balance in 85-100

SVAT (soil-vegetation atmosphere transfer) model ISBA 30 Swiss Alps 60, 162, 163, 248, 249 snowmelt under different temperature increase scenarios 277-289 southern 74 system state uncertainty, carry-over from time t to t + 1 145 systematic errors 128 Szrenica study site evapotranspiration and condensation daily and weekly variations 178-179 evapotranspiration and condensation hourly variations 169-171 experimental design 164 fog 163 location 163 meteorological variables comparison 174-175 precipitation 163 results and discussion 169-171 transpiration, evaporation and condensation comparison 176

TAC model 238 TACd model 238, 242 talus slopes 253 Tauern, schist rocks 253 temperature point measurements of 133 snowmelt under different temperature increase scenarios 277-289 temperature dynamics classification 208 lower alpine belt spatial differentiation 203,205 middle alpine belt spatial differentiation 203, 206 Ticine-Toce watershed 86 Tien Shan, Pamir 264, 265 time domain reflectometry (TDR)

86, 89-91 Toce River basin 102,105 characteristics 86, 106 comparison between moisture of sieved, bulk or crumbled soil samples 117, 118 infiltration tests and areal frequency 107 location 87,106 preliminary analysis 107 soil hydraulic characteristics 87,

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