Use of TDF as a Supplemental Fuel at Other Industrial Facilities

Several coal-fired boilers at industrial manufacturing facilities have reported using TDF as a supplemental fuel on a commercial or test basis. Further, TDF has been considered as a secondary fuel at several boilers firing biomass or refuse-derived fuel (RDF). This chapter summarizes information obtained on some of these facilities.

Note that data from a boiler burning TDF at a silicon manufacturing facility, Dow Corning in Midland, Michigan, are reported in Chapter 5 with waste wood boilers, because the primary fuel for this boiler is wood chips. Further, data on TDF use at Boise Cascade, an "other" manufacturing facility, are included in Chapter 4 with cement manufacturing, because the rotary kiln used to manufacture lime is similar to the rotary cement kilns.

7.1 DESCRIPTION OF INDUSTRIES

As of the Summer of 1991, at least eight industrial facilities have used TDF commercially or have tested TDF. These facilities are listed in Table 7-1. Only one, Firestone Tire Manufacturing in Decatur, IL, is known to be using TDF currently on an on-going basis.2 Two, Hannah Nickel in Oregon, and Firestone Tire Manufacturing in Des Moines, Iowa, are no longer burning tires. Hannah Nickel closed, and, although it has reopened under new ownership, the facility has no plans to burn tires.3 The boiler at Firestone in Iowa was shut down, because it could not meet particulate limits burning the very large agricultural tires manufactured at the plant.2

At Les Schwab Tires in Oregon, the small package steam generator uses 25 tires per hour. It has been in operation

Table 7-1. Other Industrial Boilers with TDF Experience

COMPANY AND LOCATION TDF USE__Al« EH I til QMS TEST DATA_BOILER(t) DESCRIPTION_COWENTS/REFERENCES

Table 7-1. Other Industrial Boilers with TDF Experience

COMPANY AND LOCATION TDF USE__Al« EH I til QMS TEST DATA_BOILER(t) DESCRIPTION_COWENTS/REFERENCES

Archer Daniels Midland Decatur, IL

Currant; long-term test basis; Installing their own shredder on-site

Test burning may occur. In April 1991; IL EPA arented Company a long term permit; doing testing and tire-burning on their cwi;

Grain processing plant. Reference 1

Catarplllar Tractor IL

Test planned for suaasr 1991

Spreader stoker boiler making process steam

Reference 1

F1r«atone Tire Des Moines, IA

Psst; could burn 100 tpd; 20,000 Ib/hr; 500,000 tlres/hr; burned targe agrlc. tires I other wests.

Exceeded opacity limit; needed fabric filter, but decided not econ. feasible.

1983 pulsating floor furnace.

Shut down 1987 for exceeding opeclty limit. Reference 2

Firestone Tire Decatur, IL

Current; can burn 100 tpd; 22,000 Ib/hr; 500,000 tlres/yr; passenger tires; burns 25X by weight pssssngsr tires ♦ other rubber scrsps; rsst Is wood, paper, misc.; BOX of Btu ceaws from tires.

Meesures particulates, CO and CO, only; opacity

1984 pulsating floor furnace; hydraulic ram pushes wsste from charging hopper Into primary coab. chssfcer with stepped hearth; water cooled waits In chaster; pulses of air shake the fuel charge and move It down hearth; typical rvn Is 7 to 17 days.

Permit limits nafcer of operating hours; can burn 100X tires. References 2 snd 3

Hannah Nickel OR

Past

Unknown

At one time, burned tires for 2-3 years in nickel calclners.

Primary nickel plant producing nickel awtal; abandoned tire burning ant dosed plant; new omer has opened plant, but has no plans to burn tiras. Reference 4

Las Schwab Tires Prlnavllta, OR

Currsnt; 25 whole tires per hour; both pssssnger and light truck tires

Unknotn

Small steam generator

Retreader. Reference 2

Monaanto Company Sauget, IL

Test besls; 20X TDF, wireIn, 2» x 2»

Yea; test 12\90 boiler «8; tested PH, SO,, HO,, CO, Fl, HCl, total organlcs, metals, dloxln; TDF blended with coal.

Spreader stoker Traveling grate boiler; ESP controlled

Chemicals plsnt. References 5 and 6

Tabla 7-1. (Concluded)

COMPANY AMO LOCATION

TDF USE

AIR EMISSIONS TEST DATA

BOILER(S) DESCRIPTION

COMMENTS/REFERENCES

Saginaw Dlvlalon, CMC Saginaw, Michigan

Taat baila; SX TDF

Tea; taatad boiler «6 In 11/83 for PM, SO,, NO,, at 0 and 10X TDF; tested #2 In 3/60 for PM, SO,, SO,, NO,, at 0 and SX TDF; tested #2 In 1/69 for PM at 0, 10. IS. and 20X TDF._

•2 spreader stoker traveling grate, SO,000 lb/hr; controlled by multlclone.

Steering and geer facility. References 7, 8, and 9

Cfl ft o tlwii »nd RffwPtrlYrö fwl fwMltUi

Akron Recycle Energy

Systcai

Akron, OH

Unknown

Refuse-derived-fuel power plant. Reference 10

Cfl c

RDF plant(a). Nam unknown SC

Refuaa-derlved-fuel power plant M mm unknown Colurfxja, OH

■ lomass burner Name unknown ME

Unknown

Yea; performed 24 hr test to get permitted; CEMS measurements only; on 3rd shift exceedances occurred, and no permit approved. Ccopany wants to try again.

Has capability to burn tires Unknown

Problems In State in past burning TOF In REF bolters; none occurring now. Reference 11

Refuse-derived-fuel power plant. Reference 10

Currently being permitted by Maine DEP. Reference 12

tr a

since 1987 with moderate success. Whole tires are automatically fed into the unit, which burns tires at 2000T and produces 100 psig process steam.2

Four facilities are currently testing tires, as shown in Table 7-1. Three are testing on an occasional basis, but Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), a grain processing plant in Decatur, Illinois, has been granted a long-term test permit by the Ohio EPA.1 Little information was gathered regarding boiler configuration or pollution control devices in use at these facilities.

Four plants are reported to have considered burning TDF supplementally in boilers with a primary fuel of biomass or refuse-derived fuel. These plants are listed in Table 7-1. Two RDF fired power plants are attempting to obtain permits to burn tires.10 One biomass burner in Maine is reportedly in the permit process, and has been designed with the capability of burning tires.12 Personnel at the State Air Pollution Agency in South Carolina indicated that several municipalities had tried, unsuccessfully, in the past to burn TDF in their RDF incinerators.11 No information was obtained on boiler configuration or air pollution control equipment.

7.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Descriptive information of equipment or process flow was obtained for only one facility. The Firestone Tire Manufacturing facility in Decatur, Illinois, operates a pulsating floor boiler. A hydraulic ram stokes the chamber, which has a stepped grate. Pulses of air shake the fuel charge, and move it down the hearth.2 The boiler burns tires and other waste on a batch basis; a typical run lasts from 7 to 17 days.2

7.3 EMISSIONS, CONTROL TECHNIQUES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS

Emission test data were evaluated for two facilities: Monsanto Company in Sauget, Illinois, and Saginaw Steering and Gear, in Saginaw, Michigan. Figure 7-1 summarizes percent change in particulate, S02, and NOx emissions at these two facilities.

Test results for Monsanto are summarized in Table 7-2. Testing in 1990 measured criteria pollutants, HC1 and HF while burning 100 percent coal, and while burning coal and 20 percent TDF. Emissions of all pollutants decreased, except CO and S02. The increase in CO does not appear significant given the negligible emission rate of CO in both tests.5

Three sets of tests have occurred at Saginaw Steering and Gear. The first, in 1983, measured particulate, SOz and N0X, in Boiler #6.7 All three pollutants increased at 10 percent TDF compared to baseline.7 In 1988, boiler #2 was tested for particulate, S02, S03, at baseline and 5 percent TDF. Particulate, S03, and NOx increased, while S02 decreased.9 In 1989, particulate emissions from boiler #2 were tested given this time at four TDF levels: 0, 10, 15, and 20 percent.8 Particulate emissions rose throughout the series.8 Table 7-3 summarizes all these data.

7.4 OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY IMPACTS

No information on other environmental and energy issues was obtained for these sources.

7.5 COST CONSIDERATIONS

No information on cost considerations was obtained for these sources.

1 -50

1 ' 1 1 i —>-1

if H

'/A+,s

w i -30 \w

Figure 7-1. Sugary of percent change in S02, NO. and particulate emissions at Monsanto Chemicals and Saginaw Geai?'7'8-9

Monsanta 20% TDF

Saginaw #6 10% TDF

Saginaw #2 5% TDF

Saginaw #2 10% TDF

Saginaw #2 15% TDF

Saginaw #2 20% TDF

Table 7-2. Summary of Emissions at Monsanto

Sauget, IL5

December 18-19, 1990

100% Coal lb/hr

80% Coal, 20% TDF % lb/hr

Change

Particulate

3.60

1.79

-50

CO

0.38

0.53

+40

VOC

1.04

0.73

-30

so2

83.0

109.0

+31

NOx

34.7

24.3

-30

HCl

13.5

9.59

-29

HF

0.93

0.84

-10

Metals Dioxin

Test

Data Not Available

Yet

Table 7-3. Summary of Air Emissions Test Data While Burning TDF at Saginaw Steering and Gear7,8'9'* Saginaw, MI

Baseline

Date

Boiler

Pol I Lit ant

100% Coal

5X TDF

10X TDF

No.

lb/hr

lb/hr

lb/hr

Noveafeer

6

Particulate

28.34

76.99

2-3, 1983

106.75

161.34

81.98

84.42

March 22-

2

Particulate

6.93

7.02

24, 1988

(0.2656

(0.2628

lb/MMBtu)

lb/MMBtu)

S0j

34.7

40.2

SOj

6.11

2.35

4.06

8.59

January

2

Particulate

4.42

15X TDF lb/hp

20% TDF

Ib/hr

23-26, 1989

11.40

11.72

* TDF burned supplementally with coal.

7.6 CONCLUSIONS

The results of burning TDF as supplemental fuel at other industrial facilities are inconsistent and incomplete. Because of this, no conclusions can be made as to the effects of burning TDF in other industrial facilities.

7.7 REFERENCES

1. Telecon. Clark, C., Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES), with Justice, A., Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. February 19, 1991. Illinois TDF testing plans.

2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Markets for Scrap Tires. EPA/530-SW-90-074B. September 1991.

3. Ohio Air Quality Development Authority. Air Emissions Associated with the Combustion of Scrap Tires for Energy Recovery. Prepared by: Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. May 1991.

4. Telecon. Clark, C., PES, with Fuller, B., Oregon Department of Air. February 28, 1991. Oregon TDF experience.

5. The Almega Corporation. Boiler Emissions and Efficiency Testing TDF/Coal Mixed Fuel Project. Prepared for Monsanto Company, Sauget, IL. December 18 and 19, 1990.

6. Telecon. Russell, D., PES, with Purseglove, P., Illinois EPA. February 14,1991. TDF experience in Illinois.

7. A.H. Environment, Inc. Report to Saginaw Steering and Gear, GMC. Boiler #6. November 2, 3, 1983.

8. Affiliated Environmental Services, Inc. Report to Saginaw Div/GMC on Stack Particulate Samples Collected on Boiler #2 At General Motors Steering Gear, Saginaw, MI. February 10, 1990.

9. Swanson Environmental, Inc. Air Emission Study Plant #2 Powerhouse, Boilers #1 and #2. Prepared for Saginaw Division, GMC, Saginaw, Michigan. March 22-24, 1988.

10. Telecon. Clark, C., PES, with Hilkins, T., Ohio EPA, Air Division. February 28, 1991. TDF Use in Ohio.

11. Telecon. D. Russell, PES, with L. Bunn, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. February 14, 1991. TDF experience in SC.

12. Telecon. D. Russell, PES, with L. Hamjian, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Region I. February 15, 1991. Facilities burning TDF in Region I.

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