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Figure 6-6.

Dioxin and furan emission rates when burning waste tires compared to coal."

Note: Tick mark indicates average emission rate; bar shows +/-2 standard deviation range in data. Bars are truncated at zero.

l.Oxin

5.0x10'

o it

l.Oxin

5.0x10'

Emission Increase

1 .

I

R I R

1 '

1

II

Emission Decrease

1.0x10 6

5.0x10

-5.0x10

-l.OxlO6

tt S

81 Hg

1.0x10 6

5.0x10

-5.0x10

-l.OxlO6

Figure 6-7. Dioxin and furan emission rate changes when burning waste tires compared to coal.18

Note: Positive change indicates an emission increase when burning tires blended with coal as compared to coal only. Tick mark (►) indicates average change; bar show +/-2 standard deviation range in data.

than the ash generated from waste wood alone. This ash hindered the flow of the scrubber media and increased microbridging in the annulus, allowing more unscrubbed particulate matter to penetrate the scrubber. Further, the ash burden to the scrubber was 50 percent higher than normal, overloading the scrubber. Last, the high carbon content of the ash, together with the high ash loading, caused the electrostatic grid current to rise to a point that the scrubber control circuit dropped the grid voltage.

6.4 OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY IMPACTS

Slag leachate tests performed at WP&L showed no changes as a result of burning TDF.18 Table 6-7 shows a summary of results of metals analysis on the slag at WP&L.

6.5 COST CONSIDERATIONS

One company, WP&L, purchases TDF at a cost of $20 to $30 per ton delivered. On an energy basis, this is $0.67 to $1.00 per MMBtu.22 The State of Wisconsin has an incentive program that reimburses WP&L for disposing of scrap tires originating in Wisconsin. The reimbursement rate is $0.20 per tire, or about $20 per ton, based on an average tire weight of 20 pounds per tire. With this incentive, the cost of TDF to WP&L is between zero and $0.33/MMBtu. The cost of coal, delivered, to WP&L ranges from $1.80 and $2.00/MMBtu.22

6.6 CONCLUSIONS

Based on the experience and the emissions data from power plants burning tire or TDF, the use of tires and TDF as supplemental fuel is viable. In many cases, the quality of the emissions actually improves with increased use of tires or TDF as supplemental fuel.

Table 6-7. Comparison of the Heavy Metal Content of Slag at Baseline and 5% TDF at Wisconsin Power And Light18

Trace Metal

* Below detection limit (DL).

<0.002 0.01 <0.1 <0.0002 2.89 0.0004 <0.02 0.06 <0.003 0.0002 <0.02 <0.002 <0.01 <5 0.02 40

>-50 DL* DL* DL* -40 DL* DL* >200 >25 DL* DL* DL* DL* DL* >100 +43

* Below detection limit (DL).

Because electric utilities use so much primary fuel, they obtain the best prices for the fuel and transportation. As a result, the differential savings, per million Btu's, are less than other industries. On the other hand, the benefits of using tires or TDF on creating stable operating conditions in the boiler may be more important than the differential cost savings for the overall profitability.

6.7 REFERENCES

1. Telecon. C. Clark, Pacific Environmental Services, Inc., (PES), with Stopek, D., Illinois Power Co. March 7, 1991. TDF use at Illinois Power

2. Telecon. C. Clark, PES, with McGowin, C., Electric Power Research Institute. February 15, 1991. TDF experience at utility oilers.

3. Telecon. D. Russell, PES, with Purseglove, P., Illinois EPA. February 14, 1991. TDF experience of Illinois facilities.

4. Burns & McDonnell. Tire-Derived-Fuel Emissions Test Report for Illinois Power Co. at their Baldwin Station Unit 1. March 1991.

5. Stopek, D.J., A.K. Minis, J.A. Stumbaugh, and D.J. Diewald. Testing of Tire-Derived Fuel at a 560 MW Cyclone Boiler. Presented at the EPRI Conference: Waste Tires as a Utility Fuel. San Jose, CA. January 28, 1991.

6. Telecon. D. Russell, PES, with Gulash, T., Manitowoc Public Utility. February 25, 1991. Experience with TDF at Manitowoc.

7. Phalen, J., A.S. Libal, and T. Taylor. Manitowoc Coal/Tire Chip-Cofired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Project. Presented at EPRI Conference: Waste Fuels in Utility Boilers. San Jose, CA. January 28, 1991.

8. Howe, W.C. Fluidized Bed Combustion Experience with Waste Tires and Other Alternate Fuels. Presented at EPRI Conference: Waste Tires as A Utility Fuel. San Jose, CA. January 28, 1991.

9. Northern States Power Co. Alternative Fuel Firing in Atmosphere Fluidized-Bed Combustion Boiler. EPRI CS-4023. Final Report. June 1985.

10. Telecon. C. Clark, PES, with Justice, A., Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. February 14, 1991. Tire recovery program at Illinois.

11. Telecon. D. Russell, PES, with Horvaf, M., Ohio Edison. February 26, 1991. Experience with tires-for-fuel.

12. Horvath, M. Whole Tire and Coal CoFiring Test in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler. Presented at EPRI Conference: Waste Fuels in Utility Boilers. San Jose, CA. January 28, 1991.

13. Memorandum from Clark, C., PES, to Mlchelitsch, D., EPA/ESD/CTC. Summary of Meeting with Scrap Tire Management Council. October 29, 1991.

14. Telecon. D. Russell, PES, with Rolfes, M., Otter Tail Power. February 25, 1991. TDF experience.

15. Ohio Air Quality Development Authority. Air Emissions Associated with the Combustion of Scrap Tires for Energy Recovery. Prepared by: Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. May 1991.

16. Gaglia, N., R. Lundquist, R. Benfield, and J. Fair. Design of a 470,000 lb/hr Coal/Tire-Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler for United Development Group. Presented at EPRI Conference: Waste Fuels in Utility Boilers. San Jose, CA. January 28, 1991.

17. 0«Brien, M.V., and W.C. Hanson, United Power Association, Elk River, MN. Shredded Tires for Electric Generation. Presented at APCA. Atlanta, GA. June 19-24, 1983.

18. Wisconsin Power and Light Company. The Operational and Environmental Feasibility of Utilizing Waste Tires as a Supplemental Fuel in a Coal-Fired Utility Boiler. Preliminary Report. State of Wisconsin, 1990. Waste Tire Management and Recovery Program.

19. Telecon. C. Clark, PES, with Eirschele, G., Wisconsin Power and Light. February 20, 1991. TDF experience.

20. Hutchinson, W., G. Eirschele, and R. Newell. Experience with Tire-Derived Fuel in a Cyclone-Fired Utility Boiler. Presented at EPRI Conference: Waste Fuels in Utility Boilers. San Jose, CA. January 28, 1991.

21. Schreurs, S.T. Tire-Derived Fuel and Lignite Co-Firing Test in a Cyclone-Fired Utility Boiler. Presented at EPRI Conference: Waste Fuels in Utility Boilers. San Jose, CA. January 28, 1991.

22. Memorandum from Russell, D., PES, to Michelitsch, D., EPA/ESD/CTC. November 8, 1991. Site Visit — Wisconsin Power and Light Company.

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