Foreword

The market for scrap tires and the technology for recycling and/or pyrolyzing them are discussed in this book. The management of scrap tires has become a growing problem in recent years. Over 242 million scrap tires are generated each year in the United States. In addition, about 2 billion waste tires have accumulated in stockpiles or uncontrolled tire dumps across the country. Millions more are scattered in ravines, deserts, woods, and empty lots.

Scrap tires present unusual disposal problems. The very characteristics that make them desirable as tires—long life and durability—make disposal almost impossible. The fact that tires are thermo-set polymers means that they cannot be melted and separated into their chemical components. Tires are also virtually immune to biological degradation. Landfilling scrap tires is unacceptable for several reasons, not the least of which is the fact that they tend to rise to, and break through, the surface liner. In addition, scrap tires are excellent breeding grounds for mosquitoes; and uncontrolled tire dump sites, as well as being unsightly, are potential fire hazards, which could burn for months.

A law passed late in 1991 may alleviate some of these problems. The use of asphalt-rubber (A-R) may be required in 5% of new pavement as early as 1994, with a projected increase to 20% by 1997. While costs for A-R can run twice those of standard asphalt pavement, the expected lifespan may also double, using a surface thickness roughly half that currently used.

The book is presented in two parts. Part I covers the problems associated with scrap tires and identifies existing and potential source reduction and utilization methods that may be effective in solving the tire problem. Barriers to increased utilization and options for removing the barriers are identified and evaluated. Part II provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel, and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of Part II is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. The information in the book is from the following documents:

Markets for Scrap Tires, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of

Solid Waste, October 1991.

Burning Tires for Fuel and Tire Pyrolysis, prepared by Charlotte Clark, Kenneth Meardon, and Dexter Russell of Pacific Environmental Services for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1991.

The table of contents is organized in such a way as to serve as a subject index and provides easy access to the information contained in the book.

Advanced composition and production methods developed by Noyes Data Corporation are employed to bring this durably bound book to you in a minimum of time. Special techniques are used to close the gap between "manuscript" and "completed book." In order to keep the price of the book to a reasonable level, it has been partially reproduced by photo-offset directly from the original reports and the cost saving passed on to the reader. Due to this method of publishing, certain portions of the book may be less legible than desired.

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