Contents and Subject Index

OVERVIEW 1

Introduction 1

Source Reduction Alternatives 1

Recycling Alternatives 2

Tire Combustion 3

Tire Pyrolysis 4

PART I

MARKETS FOR SCRAP TIRES

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8

The Scrap Tire Problem 8

Source Reduction Alternatives 13

Recycling Alternatives 14

Tire to Energy Alternatives 15

Pyrolysis Alternatives 15

Barriers to Increased Scrap Tire Utilization 16

Options for Mitigating the Scrap Tire Problem 18

Study Conclusions . 19

1. ASSESSMENT OF PRESENT SITUATION 21

Introduction 21

Generation of Waste Tires 22

Environmental Problems Associated with Waste Tire Stockpiles 24

Mosquitoes 24

Fire Hazards 28

Source Reduction of Waste Tires 29

Design Modifications 29

Reuse 29

Retreading 30

Disposal of Waste Tires 31

Whole Tire Disposal 31

Shredded Tire Disposal 31

State Legislation Affecting Tire Disposal 32

Utilization Alternatives 35

Applications of Whole Waste Tires 35

Artificial Reefs and Breakwaters 35

Playground Equipment 39

Erosion Control 39

Highway Crash Barriers 39

Applications of Processed Waste Tires 40

Splitting/Punching of Tires 40

Manufacture of Crumb Rubber from Scrap Tires 40

Crumb Rubber in Rubber and Plastic Products 41

Crumb Rubber in Railroad Crossings 41

Rubber Reclaim 42

Crumb Rubber Additives for Pavements 43

Rubber Modified Asphalt Concrete 43

Asphalt-Rubber 44

Research and Demonstration of RUMAC and Asphalt-

Rubber 46

Markets and Life Cycle Cost of RUMAC and Asphalt-

Rubber 47

Lightweight Road Construction Material 48

Playground Gravel Substitutes 49

Sludge Composting 50

Combustion 51

Power Plants 52

Modesto Power Plant 52

Sterling Power Plant 57

Erie Power Plant 57

Nevada Power Plant 58

Tire Manufacturing Plants 58

Cement Kilns 59

Genstar Cement 61

Arizona Portland 63

Southwestern Portland 63

Pulp and Paper Production 64

Tire-Derived Fuel Supply 64

Use of Tire-Derived Fuel 64

Small Package Steam Generators 65

Pyrolysis 66

Baltimore Thermal 67

TecSon Corporation 67

Conrad Industries 67

Firestone Tire & Rubber Company 68

The Oil Shale Corporation(TOSCO) 68

2. MARKET BARRIERS TO WASTE TIRE UTILIZATION 69

Introduction 69

Rubber Asphalt Paving Systems 75

Economic Barriers 75

Noneconomic Barriers 76

Combustion 77

Economic Barriers 77

Power Plants 77

Tire-Derived Fuel 79

Noneconomic Barriers 81

Power Plants 81

Tire-Derived Fuel 82

Pyrolysis 83

3. OPTIONS FOR MITIGATING THE WASTE TIRE PROBLEM 84

Introduction 84

Regulatory Options—Based on Existing State Programs 85

Funding Sources 86

Taxes or Fees on Vehicle Titles or Registration 86

Taxes or Fees on the Sales of New Tires or the Disposal of Old Tires 86

Fees on the Permitting of Tire Processing or Disposal Facilities, and the Use of State Budget Appropriations 86

Identify and Clean Up Tire Dumps 86

Methods for Managing Current Tire Disposal 87

Stockpile Regulations 87

Processor Regulations 87

Hauler Regulations 87

Market Development Incentives 88

Rebates for Tire Recycling and Energy Uses 88

Grants and Loans by State Governments 89

Funds for Testing Innovative Uses of Scrap Tires 90

Regulations Regarding the Landfilling of Tires 90

Other Regulatory and Non-Regulatory Options 90

Procurement Strategies 91

Research 91

Additional Coordination Among States and Localities 92

Education and Promotion 92

Waste Exchanges 93

Tradeable Credits 94

Tax Incentives 94

4. CONCLUSIONS 95

REFERENCES 97

APPENDIX A: EPA REGIONAL OFFICES 102

APPENDIX B: STATE CONTACTS FOR WASTE TIRE PROGRAMS 104

APPENDIX C: ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON SCRAP

TIRES 115

PART II

TIRES FOR FUEL AND TIRE PYROLYSIS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 121

Technical Approach 122

Sources of Information 122

Results 123

Effect on Emission 123

Electric Utilities 124

Cement Manufacturing 124

Pulp and Paper Mills 126

Other Industries 126

Pyrolysis 127

Emission Control Devices 127

Cost Indications 128

Conclusion 129

1. INTRODUCTION 130

1.1 Waste Tire Generation and Disposal 131

1.2 Waste Tires As Fuel 132

1.2.1 Waste Tire Characteristics and Composition 134

1.2.2 Waste Tire and TDF Cost Considerations 134

1.2.3 Air Pollution Emissions Issues 139

13 Markets for Tires As Fuel 140

1.4 State Waste Tire Disposal Programs 141

1.5 Methodology 146

1.6 References 148

2. OVERVIEW OF PROCESS UNITS BURNING TIRES FOR FUEL 159

2.1 Kilns 151

2.2 Boilers 151

2.2.1 Pulverized Coal Boilers 153

2.2.2 Cyclone Boilers 154

2.2.3 Stoker Boilers 155

2.2.3.1 Spreader Stoker Boilers 157

2.2.3.2 Overfeed Stoker Boilers 159

2.2.3.3 Underfeed Stoker Boilers 159

2.2.4 Fluidized Bed Boilers 160

2.3 References 166

3. DEDICATED TIRES-TO-ENERGY FACILITIES 168

3.1 Industry Description 168

3.2 Process Description 170

3.2.1 General Operation 171

3.2.2 Operational Difficulties 173

3.3 Emissions, Control Techniques and Their Effectiveness 175

3.3.1 Emissions 175

3.3.2.2 Fabric Filter 181

3.3.2.3 Scrubber 182

3.3.3 Permit Conditions and Issues 183

3.4 Other Environmental and Energy Impacts 184

3.5 Cost Considerations 185

3.6 Conclusions 187

3.7 References 188

4. TIRE AND TDF USE IN PORTLAND CEMENT KILNS 189

4.1 Industry Description 192

4.2 Process Description 197

4.2.1 Mixing and Grinding 197

4.2.2 Calcination 200

4.2.3 Preheaters and Precalciners 200

4.2.4 Finished Cement Grinding 202

4.2.5 Tires As Fuel in the Kiln 206

4.3 Emissions, Control Techniques and Their Effectiveness 207

4.4 Other Environmental and Energy Impacts 222

4.5 Cost Considerations 223

4.6 Conclusions 224

4.7 References 225

5. TDF AS FUEL IN WASTE WOOD BOILERS AT PULP AND

PAPER MILLS 227

5.1 Industry Description 228

5.2 Process Description 231

5.3 Emissions, Control Techniques and Their Effectiveness 234

5.3.1 Emissions 234

5.3.1.1 Particulate Emissions 241

5.3.1.2 Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 242

5.3.1.3 Nitrogen Oxides Emissions 242

5.3.1.4 Carbon Monoxide Emissions 242

5.3.1.5 Heavy Metals and Polynuclear Aromatics (PNA) 242

5.3.2 Control Techniques 248

5.4 Other Environmental and Energy Impacts 251

5.5 Cost Considerations 251

5.6 Conclusions 252

5.7 References 253

6. TIRES AND TDF AS SUPPLEMENTAL FUEL IN ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS 256

6.1 Industry Description 256

6.2 Process Description 256

6.2.1 Materials Handling 259

6.2.2 Combustion 261

63 Emissions, Control Techniques and Their Effectiveness 263

6.3.1 Particulate Emissions 263

6.3.2 S02 Emissions 269

6.3.3 NO, Emissions 271

6.3.4 CO Emissions 271

6.3.5 Trace Metal Emissions 271

6.3.6 Other Air Emissions Information 271

6.3.7 Control Equipment Issues 275

6.4 Other Environmental and Energy Impacts 278

6.5 Cost Considerations 278

6.6 Conclusions 278

6.7 References 281

7. USE OF TDF AS A SUPPLEMENTAL FUEL AT OTHER INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES 283

7.1 Description of Industries 283

7.2 Process Description 286

7.3 Emissions, Control Techniques and Their Effectiveness 287

7.4 Other Environmental and Energy Impacts 287

7.5 Cost Considerations 287

7.6 Conclusions 290

7.7 References 291

8. SCRAP TIRE PYROLYSIS 292

8.1 Process Description 293

8.1.1 Materials Handling 295

8.1.2 Generic Reactor Description 295

8.2 Specific Reactor Types 299

8.2.1 Sealed Box 301

8.2.2 Rotary Kiln 302

8.2.3 Screw Kiln 302

8.2.4 Traveling Grate Kiln 303

8.2.5 Fluidized Bed 303

8.2.6 Other Reactors 303

8.3 Environmental Impacts 304

8.3.1 Particulate Emissions 304

8.3.2 VOC Emissions 306

8.3.3 Other Emissions 307

8.4 Other Environmental and Energy Impacts 307

8.5 Cost Considerations 311

8.6 Conclusions 314

8.7 References 316

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