Poet TownMnd V7\ Crown Zotoibach PW1 Packaging Co<p o< America pjjl Dow Coming r~l Champion VA 2% TDF 1.5% TDF liiiiiJ 15% TDF LXJ 4% TDF
Figure 5-8. Percent change in metals emissions at five mills burning TDF.
Anthracene Phenanthrene Flouranthene Pyrene
Benzo(b)Flouranthene Benzo(K) Flouranthene Benzo(a)Flouranthene Chrysene Benzene
Port Townaend 7%TDF
Crown Zellerbach 'A 2%TDF
Packaging Corp of America
Figure 5-9. Percent change in emissions of PNA's at three paper mills burning TDF.
A positive result of TDF use in waste wood boilers is that facilities are able to burn sludge and waste wood more successfully, decreasing the likelihood of solid waste disposal problems. Results from a series of waste wood boiler performance tests using ASME codes concluded that use of TDF supplementally in hog-fuel boilers enhances combustion of wood waste, and enables disposal of biological sludge in conjunction with wood waste without necessitating use of other fossil fuels such as coal.2 No applicable environmental limits were exceeded during these tests.2
As noted earlier, use of TDF by Smurfit is currently limited to 1 percent of the boiler fuel (by weight) by their air permit. Smurfit hopes to increase the percent TDF burned to 5 percent when an ESP is brought on-line to control their larger boiler. Smurfit personnel believe that the use of the ESP may increase the zinc content of the ash, thereby affecting its quality. This increase in zinc is expected because the ESP will pick up the fine zinc oxide particles with much more efficiency than the scrubber. In addition, an increase in TDF burned will increase zinc levels.15
Economically, the advantages of TDF can be very site-specific. Primary, or base load, fuel costs vary significantly, as does the delivered cost of TDF. TDF supplies a consistent and dry Btu input to boilers. This is an important advantage because the wood wastes typically fed to the hog-fuel boilers have a high and variable moisture content, which makes hog-fuel boiler operation a challenge. Availability of TDF is a problem at some mills. The costs of TDF to a pulp and paper mill is affected by whether there is a tipping (tire disposal) fee or State rebate incentives that provide revenue to offset TDF costs. For example, Smurfit paid between $39 and $43 p r ton in 1990 and part of 1991, respectively, for their TDF. A rebate program lowered the respective costs to approximately $21 and $23 per ton of TDF, for an equivalent rebate of $18 and $20 per ton.15
Burning tires or TDF in a waste-wood boiler improves the performance of the boiler system. The high energy and low moisture content of TDF help stabilize boiler operations and overcome some of the operating problems caused by fuel with low heat content, variable heat content, and high moisture content.
Unfortunately, using TDF in hog-fuel boilers appears to deteriorate emissions quality. In every set of data, particulates in the emissions increased with a corresponding increase of TDF usage. The other criteria pollutants also increased in most cases, but not as consistently as. particulates.
Cost considerations are site-specific and depend on the availability, cost, and transportation of alternative supplemental fuels.
1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Compilation of air Pollution Emission Factors, Fourth Edition, AP-42.
2. Jones, R.M., M. Kennedy, Jr., and N.O. Heberer "Supplemental Firing of Tire-derived Fuel (TDF) in a Combination Fuel Boiler." TAPPI Journal. May 1990 pp.107-113.
3. Ohio Air Quality Development Authority. Air Emissions Associated with the Combustion of Scrap Tires for Energy Recovery. Prepared by: Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. May 1991.
4. Telecon. Clark, C., Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES), with Bosar, L., Fort Howard Corporation. February 27, 1991. TDF experience.
5. Telecon. Russell, D., PES, with Thorpe, L., Georgia-Pacific Paper Co., March 1, 1991. TDF experience.
6. Telecon. Clark, C., PES, with Fuller, B., Oregon Department of Air. February 28, 1991. TDF use in State.
7. Telecon. Clark, C., PES, with Jones, B., Inland-Rome Paper Co., March 6, 1991. TDF experience.
8. Telecon. Clark, C., PES, with Koziar, P., Wisconsin Waste Tire Program. February 20, 1990. TDF use in State.
9. Telecon. Clark, C., PES, with Miller, S., Smurfit Newsprint. February 27, 1991. TDF experience.
10. Telecon. Clark, C., Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES), with Crispin, D.M., Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Hazardous and Solid Waste Division. February 27, 1991. TDF use in State.
11. Telecon. Clark, C., PES, with Wickwire, L., Willamette Industries. March 5,1991. TDF experience.
12. Memorandum from Clark, C., PES, to Michelitsch, D., EPA/ESD/CTC. Summary of Meeting with Scrap Tire Management Council. October 29, 1991.
13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Nonfossil Fuel Fired Boilers — Background Information. EPA-450/3-82-007. March 1982.
14. Schwartz, J.W., Jr. Engineering for Success in the TDF Market. Presented at Recycling Search Institute Scrap Tire Processing and Recycling Seminar. West Palm Beach, FL., April 27, 1989.
15. Memorandum from Clark, C., PES, to Michelitsch, D., EPA/ESD/CTC. October 28, 1991. Site Visit — Smurfit Newsprint.
16. Washington State Department of Ecology. Polynuclear. Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Metals Emitted from the Burning of Tires at Crown Zellerbach, Port Angeles, Washington, June 10 and 11, 1986. Source Test 86-10a.
17. Washington State Department of Environmental Source Test Summary of Emissions to Atmosphere from Port Townsend Paper Co., Port Townsend, Washington. February 25 and March 5, 1986. Report No. 86-01.
18. Horizon Engineering. Particulate emissions test report on Smurfit Newsprint's #9 Hogged Fuel-Fired Boiler. Tire Chip Supplement Trials at Newberg, Oregon. January-March, 1987.
19. Horizon Engineering. Stack Emission Test Report. Smurfit Newsprint's No. 10 Hogged Fuel Fired Boiler. Tire Chip Supplement Trials. Newberg, Oregon. May-July 1987.
20. Horizon Engineering. Stack Emission Test Report. Smurfit Newsprint's No. 10 Hogged Fuel Fired Boiler. Fiber-Based-Fuel Trials and Annual Tests. Newberg, Oregon. November 14-17, 1989.
21. Clean Air Engineering. Report on Diagnostic Testing. Performed at Nekoosa Packaging Tomahawk Mill. Units 7,8, and 10. Tomahawk, Wisconsin. CAE Project No. 4842/2. November 7,1989.
22. EDI Engineering and Science. Report of Tire Chip Test Bum. Performed for Dow Corning, Midland Michigan, on the Wood Fired Boiler. March 9-29, 1989.
23. Pace Incorporated. Results of the March 12-16, 1990 TDF Trial burn Testing on the Unit 3 Stack at the Champion International Corporation Facility Located in Sartell, Minnesota.
24. Drabek, J., and J. Willenberg. Measurement of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Metals from Burning Tire Chips for Supplementary Fuel. State of Washington Department of Ecology. Presented at 1987 TAPFI Environmental Conference. Portland,Oregon. April 26-29, 1987. 12 pp.
Horizon Engineering. Stack Emission Test Report. Smurfit Newsprint No. 10. Hog Fuel Fired Boiler. Annual Compliance Tests. Newberg, Oregon. August 14, 1991.
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