Dedicated Tiresto Energy Facilities

Most facilities that burn tires or TDF use the rubber to supplement a primary fuel such as coal, gas, or waste wood. One company, however, the Oxford Energy Company, is operating two electric power plants using tires as the only fuel, and is planning several more. Two dedicated tires-to-energy facilities, are currently operational in the United States the Modesto Energy Project in Westley, California, and the Exter Energy Company in Sterling Connecticut. The Modesto Energy Project is a...

Scrap Tire Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the process of thermal degradation of a substance into smaller, less complex molecules. Many processes exist to thermally depolymerize tires to salable products. Almost any organic substance can be decomposed this way, including rice hulls, polyester fabric, nut shells, coal and heavy crude oil. Pyrolysis is also known as destructive distillation, thermal depolymerization, thermal cracking, coking, and carbonization. Pyrolysis produces three principal products - pyrolytic gas, oil,...

On Scrap Tires

Rubber and Plastic News 1725 Merriman Road, Suite 300 Akron, Ohio 44313 Telephone 216-836-9180 Crain Communications, Inc. Tire Business 1725 Merriman Road, Suite 300 Akron, Ohio 44313 Telephone 216-836-9180 National Solid Wastes Management Association Recycling Times 1730 Rhode Island Avenue, NW - Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20036 Telephone 202-861-0708 National Solid Wastes Management Association Waste Age 1730 Rhode Island Avenue, NW - Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20036...

Waste Tires Scrab Manufacturer Mail

Air pollution control agency personnel have an increasing need for technical information describing the air pollution implications of several methods of waste or scrap tire disposal. Environmental concern for tire disposal has historically focused on the solid and hazardous waste issues involved. Further, much information has already been written describing the comparative merits of disposal alternatives such as recycling, pyrolysis, and burning for fuel, in minimizing scrap tires and...

Overview of Process Units Burning Tires for Fuel

Controlled burning of tires or TDF for fuel value occurs most frequently in two types of process units - kilns and boilers. This chapter will describe the general process operation of cement kilns and boilers. The various types of boiler configurations will be described with attention to the implications for burning tires or TDF. Kilns in two industries have burned tires or TDF supplementally - lime manufacturing and, more commonly, cement manufacturing. Currently, in the U.S., a few boilers...

Use of TDF as a Supplemental Fuel at Other Industrial Facilities

Several coal-fired boilers at industrial manufacturing facilities have reported using TDF as a supplemental fuel on a commercial or test basis. Further, TDF has been considered as a secondary fuel at several boilers firing biomass or refuse-derived fuel (RDF). This chapter summarizes information obtained on some of these facilities. Note that data from a boiler burning TDF at a silicon manufacturing facility, Dow Corning in Midland, Michigan, are reported in Chapter 5 with waste wood boilers,...

TDF as Fuel in Waste Wood Boilers at Pulp and Paper Mills

Diagram Bark Conveyor

Pulp mills generate large amounts of waste wood products, such as bark and contaminated wood residues, in the process of making wood chips for the pulp digester. Also, many paper companies operate saw mills adjacent to the wood yard to maximize resources these mills generate waste wood slabs, logs, trimmings, pellets, shavings, saw dust, etc., that can be a solid waste disposal problem.1 Heating value of these waste wood ranges from about 7,925 to 9,010 Btu's per pound of fuel, on a dry basis....

Executive Summary

The management of scrap tires has become a growing problem in recent years. Scrap tires represent one of several special wastes that are difficult for municipalities to handle. Whole tires are difficult to landfill because they tend to float to the surface. Stockpiles of scrap tires are located in many communities, resulting in public health, environmental, and aesthetic problems. This report discusses the problems associated with scrap tires and identifies existing and potential source...

Fly Ash Gypsum

Oxford Energy Process Flow Sheet.1 pushing the burning tires through the boiler. Essentially all of the slag and ash is moved along the reciprocating grates. At the end of the grates, the slag and ash fall into a water quench on a submerged conveyor, which then transports the ash and clay to storage hoppers,1 for sale as by-products.3 Although tires begin to ignite at about 600*F, the boilers are operated above 2000*F to ensure complete combustion of organic compounds emitted by the...

No of Tires Percentage of 242 Method of RecoveryIn millions Million Scrap Tires

Crumb Rubber for Pavements 2.0 0.8 Landfill, Stockpile and 188 77.6 Dumping Total Scrap Tires* 242 100.0 * Retreads (33.5 million) and reused tires (10 million) are not counted as scrap tires. Source Franklin Associates, Ltd. and Dr. Robert Hershey. Estimates based on published data and technical discussions. Figure 3 Destination of Waste Tires, 1990 Sources Table 5 Figure 3 Destination of Waste Tires, 1990 Sources Table 5 are to drill holes in the tires so that the water drains or to remove...

Contents and Subject Index

OVERVIEW Introduction Source Reduction Alternatives Recycling Alternatives Tire Combustion Tire Source Reduction Alternatives Recycling Alternatives Tire to Energy Alternatives Pyrolysis Alternatives Barriers to Increased Scrap Tire Options for Mitigating the Scrap Tire 1. ASSESSMENT OF PRESENT SITUATION 21 Introduction Generation of Waste Tires Environmental Problems Associated with Waste Tire Stockpiles 24 Fire Source Reduction of Waste Tires Design Retreading Disposal of Waste Tires Whole...

Recycling Alternatives

Some recycling alternatives use whole tires, thus requiring no extensive processing other alternatives require that tires be split or punched to make products and still other alternatives involve tires that are finely ground enabling the manufacture of crumb rubber products. Some applications for each alternative are listed below Artificial reefs and breakwaters Playground equipment Erosion control Highway crash barriers Floor mats, belts, gaskets, shoe soles, dock bumpers, seals, muffler...

Market Barriers to Waste Tire Utilization

The previous chapter has discussed the current status of utilization of tires. This chapter will discuss market barriers to their utilization. There are substantial barriers to the utilization of waste tires. These barriers can be classified into two main types - economic and noneconomic. Economic barriers refer to the high costs or limited revenues associated with various waste tire utilization methods which make them unprofitable. No tire processor will invest time or capital unless there is...

Assessment of Present Situation

About 242 million automotive, truck, and off-road tires are discarded in the United States each year. This is approximately equal to one waste tire per person per year. Additionally, there are 33.5 million tires that are retreaded and an estimated 10 million that are reused each year as second-hand tires. It is estimated that 7 percent of the discarded tires are currently being recycled into new products and 11 percent are converted to energy. Nearly 78 percent are being landfilled, stockpiled,...

References

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. The Solid Waste Dilemma An Agenda for Action. February 1989. 2. Demos, E.K., Ph.D. and T.A. Sladek, Ph.D. Disposal Techniques with Energy Recovery for Scrapped Tires. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force. June 1987. 3. Hope, M.W. Scrap Tire Analysis for Minnesota. Waste Recovery, Inc. October 1985. 4. Phone conversation with Bill Vincent. Texas Tire Disposal, Fort Worth, Texas. 1989. 5. Telephone Conversation with Jack Zimmer, Goodyear....

Tire and TDF Use in Portland Cement Kilns

The portland cement production process is extremely energy intensive (from 4 to 6 million Btu's (MMBtu's) are required to make a ton of product) therefore, alternative and cost-effective fuel options are of great interest. Waste tires have been tried as a supplemental fuel in well over 30 cement kilns and in at least one rotary lime manufacturing kiln. Currently, tires are in use, either on a trial or permanent basis, in 11 cement kilns and one lime kiln. A cement kiln provides an environment...

Appendix B State Contacts for Waste Tire Programs

Alabama Department of Environmental Management Solid Waste Section 1751 Congressman W.L. Dickinson Drive Montgomery, Alabama 36130 Telephone 205-271-7761 Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation P.O. Box O Juneau, Alaska 99811-1800 Telephone 907-465-2671 Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology Solid Waste Division P.O. Box 9583 Little Rock, Arkansas 72209 Telephone 501-570-2858 California Waste Management Board 1020 Ninth Street,...