Tire and TDF Use in Portland Cement Kilns

The portland cement production process is extremely energy intensive (from 4 to 6 million Btu's (MMBtu's) are required to make a ton of product) therefore, alternative and cost-effective fuel options are of great interest. Waste tires have been tried as a supplemental fuel in well over 30 cement kilns and in at least one rotary lime manufacturing kiln. Currently, tires are in use, either on a trial or permanent basis, in 11 cement kilns and one lime kiln. A cement kiln provides an environment...

TDF as Fuel in Waste Wood Boilers at Pulp and Paper Mills

Diagram Bark Conveyor

Pulp mills generate large amounts of waste wood products, such as bark and contaminated wood residues, in the process of making wood chips for the pulp digester. Also, many paper companies operate saw mills adjacent to the wood yard to maximize resources these mills generate waste wood slabs, logs, trimmings, pellets, shavings, saw dust, etc., that can be a solid waste disposal problem.1 Heating value of these waste wood ranges from about 7,925 to 9,010 Btu's per pound of fuel, on a dry basis....