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In the former Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin (1879-1953), ethnography became a branch of the historical sciences, oriented according to Marxist historical materialism. The pioneering work of Boris Dolgikh, starting with his thesis defended in 1946, has inspired numerous works on the history of Siberian Native peoples. Many were conceived as studies of ethnogenesis. Given the objective definition of the concept of ethnos central in Soviet ethnography, and the assumption that ethnoses generally develop in situ with minimal diffusion, it was possible, as for example Ilia Gurvich illustrated in several of his works, to study developments over long periods extending back into prehistory. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the study of the history of northern Russian Native peoples tends to align with the methods and assumptions of western scholarship, as exemplified in the broad overviews of James Forsyth and Yuri Slezkine, in the research of Igor Krupnik and Peter...
As conveyed in this chapter and in emerging scholarship, the PMT model has demonstrated promise in providing a more refined account of adaptive behaviour (Grothmann and Reusswig 2006). Scholarship in this area can be furthered by efforts to assess the PMT variables with psychological measures. The strength of psychological measures lies in their ability to assess individual perspectives, attitudes, and emotions with in ways that are not possible with demographic or broader sociological variables. Understanding adaptive behaviour more fully requires getting inside the heads of the people who are faced with adaptive or risky choices psychological measures uniquely afford this perspective. Finally, analytical approaches such as structural equation modeling or growth curve analysis that can represent the simultaneous contributions of variables and the relationships among them, as shown in the PMT and the risk-as-feelings approach, holds promise in moving the field ahead in further...
Though all but forgotten today, Polish-born anthropologist Marie Antoinette Czaplicka rightly holds a distinguished place in the history of Arctic scholarship. Her pioneering contributions to the field came at a time in the early 20th century when the fledgling science of man was almost wholly a male preserve, and northern exploration was exclusively so. She was remarkably productive during what was a very brief career she published three books and numerous papers in a single decade before her death at the age of 38 in 1921. Czaplicka's first, and arguably her most important, contribution to Siberian scholarship was completed before she ever set foot in that vast country. In
The creators of PMT were prescient in incorporating both cognitive and emotional processes in their model (Rogers 1975 Rogers and Prentice-Dunn 1997). In some respects the PMT model anticipated more recent scholarship in the field of decision-making and risk-taking under conditions of uncertainty (Loewenstein et al. 2001 Slovic et al. 2004 Slovic and Peters 2006). This research has challenged the existing consequentialist decision-making models (e.g. Kahneman and Tversky 2000) that viewed emotional processes as deriving from cognitive evaluations of anticipated outcomes and subjective probabilities or from behavioural outcomes following a decision. The risk-as-feelings perspective (see Fig. 10.2) recognizes that feelings stemming from the benefit (or harm) from taking the risk previously exists alongside cognitively-based evaluations of factual, descriptive, or abstract information about the risk (Kaplan 1991 Loewenstein et al. 2001 Slovic et al. 2004 Weber 2006). In other words, both...
Generated through interdisciplinary scholarship in ecology, thinking that has been advanced thanks to scholars such as Rachael Carson, Herman Daly, and Aldo Leopold. Advances in the social sciences, through study of human social organization and land relationships, have benefited common property management. A significant influence came from responses to Garrett Hardin's tragedy of the commons thesis. Hardin (1968), by way of metaphor, described an open to all pasture, invariably overgrazed while each pastoralist increased his her herd size, so optimizing individual production without due regard for other herders and without regard for the pasture. Hardin advocated that the tragedy of overexploitation and population growth could only be overcome by abandoning the commons. He argued for the incorporation of formal property rights, restricting access through state processes or privatization.
In the education sector, the AMS offers a variety of undergraduate scholarships and graduate fellowships to support students wishing to undertake a career in the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. The AMS considers education as one of its strategic areas of intervention because,
We would like to thank the following people for their helpful discussions and careful criticisms rendered during various drafts of this paper Claudia C. Johnson, Bradley B. Sageman, and several anonymous reviewers. Discussions with Paul Leary helped to give us insight into a number of survival mechanisms seen in the Cenomanian-Turonian microbiota. PJH would like to thank the Amoco Foundation for a scholarship which gave him the time initially to start working on the ideas contained within this paper and to the Fulbright Commission for the opportunity to finish it. He would also like to thank all the staff of the Institut and Staatsammlung f r Pal ontologie und historische Geologie for their hospitality during his stay in M nchen, FRG. EGK's work was partially supported by NSF grant EAR 8411202.
Cal Society, the American Geophysical Union, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Iota Sigma Pi. She is the recipient of a number of awards, including the Governor General's Medal at Trent University, a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship, a National Research Council of Canada Science Scholarship, Golden Key National Honor Society, and a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowship. She has been elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has several awards for undergraduate teaching.
The Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies (ACUNS) represents Canada's northern and polar researchers working at member universities and colleges. Founded in 1977, in Churchill, Manitoba, as a nonprofit organization, the Association is a charitable organization with six important functions (1) to represent interests of members by promoting policies and practices that support northern scholarship, (2) to establish mechanisms through which resources can be allocated to members so as to increase knowledge of the north and ensure northern training, (3) to enhance opportunities for northern people to become leaders and promoters of excellence in education and research important to the north, (4) to facilitate the understanding and resolutions of northern issues, (5) to initiate programs that will increase public awareness of northern sciences and research, and (6) to cooperate with other organizations, public, private, and international, concerned with northern studies....
Research has shown that improving the effectiveness of international agreements will require a variety of mechanisms to verify compliance (Mitchell, 2003 Winkler, 2008 see also Chapter 16). Scholarship in this area has pointed out many of the constraints to monitoring and implementation, including establishing baselines, measuring GHGs, documenting additionality (that is, what countries and other actors are doing in addition to what would have been implemented in the absence of climate agreements) and leakage (emissions reductions in areas with strong policies being offset by increases in areas with weaker policies Laurance, 2007 Santilli et al., 2005). Substantial improvements in technical capabilities will be required to meet these needs.
The constructivist stance creates a critical relationship to knowledge - if there is no objective truth to be revealed - no essence - there can be no ranking of knowledges as being more or less truthful. This has spurred controversies and extended debates about relativism in the so- called Science Wars of the 1990s.75 But as scholarship with a con-structivist approach evolved, it created analytical space to focus attention on the social structures and processes that create our pictures of reality and the actors that participating in the creation.
Students who have fulfilled the requirements of a Ph.D. program may be awarded one of several postdoctoral appointments the scholar, fellow, or investigator. Postdoctoral scholarships are awarded for 18 months in the fields of oceanography, biology, chemistry, engineering, geology, geophysics, mathematics, meteorology, physics, and biology. In addition, professionals in law, social sciences, or natural sciences may apply for Marine Policy Fellowships, which focus on the examination of maritime conflicts. The WHOI also appoints postdoctoral investigators to positions that fall within the parameters of existing research contracts or grants.
Holmes earned a National Scholarship Award in physics and enrolled at the Royal College of Science in London in 1907. The curriculum required all students to take mathematics, mechanics, chemistry, and physics during their first year, and Holmes took an elective geology course in his second year. The president of the Geological Society, William Watts, taught the course and enticed Holmes to change his course of study during his third year. Fortuitously, Robert J. Strutt (1875-1947) from the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University had joined the college at the same time Holmes enrolled. Strutt was one of the physicists who made public his belief that
Local capacity building can also operate at multiple scales. Education is clearly central to this goal, from providing on-the-ground biodiversity training in parataxonomy (Janzen, 2004b Sheil and Lawrence, 2004) to training professional national park staffs to facilitating advanced degrees for local students via scholarships and other mechanisms (Rodriguez et al., 2007). But even more basic contributions (local-language publications and extension efforts, computer and telecommunications access, etc.) can be extremely beneficial.
Friel's work reveals the mirage to be pervasive, indeed, as big as the desert. This does not mean of, course, that everything that Lomborg writes is wrong or invalid but that it is a house of cards to a highly disturbing degree. Friel has used real scholarship to reveal the flimsy nature of the scholarly foundation of Lomborg's work. The irony is that had Lomborg's scholarship been sound and some of the concerns of environmental scientists been demonstrated to have been incorrect, nobody would have been happier than scientists like myself. If there were not a grave and rapidly mushrooming biodiversity crisis, I could indulge in the intellectual joys of studying the marvels of life on Earth (my original motivation) without having to be concerned about biodiversity loss and ways to restrain it. So let us hope a lesson has been learned, in particular that hope is false when based on poor scholarship. Even in this electronic age, where some students think any citation prior to the...
Focus, but has since shifted to include international affairs. With a variety of outlets for data dissemination, RFF provides intellectual leadership in environmental economics. Research methods are based in the social sciences and quantitative economic analysis, including cost-benefit trade-offs, valuations, and risk assessments. RFF scholars compile core knowledge on a range of environmental topics, with the goal of contributing to scholarship, teaching, debate, and decision making. One major division of research is energy, electricity, and climate change.
Five schools and one college, containing 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological research. MIT is one of two private land-grant universities, as well as a sea-grant and space-grant university. The mission of MIT is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century.
Legal scholarship on the climate change problem reflects two contrasting approaches to international law - what might be called a hard and a soft approach. The hard approach views international law essentially in domestic criminal law terms, as a command backed by the threat of sanctions, while the soft approach views international law in facilitative terms, as a means of fostering greater cooperation among countries. At the risk of oversimplification, the UNFCCC reflects a soft approach to the climate change problem, while the Kyoto Protocol reflects a much harder approach. Despite early hopes that the UNFCCC would include a clear commitment to stabilize or even reduce GHG emissions, it does not impose strong substantive commitments on countries - for example, targets and timetables on GHG emissions or common response measures such as carbon taxes or energy efficiency standards. Instead, it puts in place a long-term, evolutionary process to address the climate change problem that (1)...
Barry, Professor of Geography and Director of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and World Data Center (WDC) for Glaciology of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences of the University of Colorado in Boulder and host for my 8 months Fulbright Foundation Scholarship in 2004 in the U.S.A. Without his generous suggestion that I should use the stay for writing this book, and without his supervision, this task would not have been completed.
The goals of the Aleut Corporation include improving the economic and social lives of Aleut people through successful business ventures, providing significant dividends and benefits to its shareholders, and preserving Aleut culture. The corporation also funds The Aleut Foundation (TAF), a private nonprofit foundation formed in 1987 to support the economic and social needs of its enrollees and their descendants by offering scholarship, job referral, and cultural preservation programs that promote socioeconomic stability and cultural awareness.
One of Armstrong's lasting legacies remains his scholarship for the Polar Record (the Scott Polar Research Institute's journal), to which he contributed for more than 40 years. The breadth of his research was remarkable annual reviews of Northern Sea Route activities ice atlases northern agriculture and mining northern peoples railways education, employment and wage differences in the Arctic polar drifting stations and Arctic climatology Arctic place names ethical problems of northern development as well as scores of polar historical notes and obituaries of prominent polar personalities. He collaborated with George Rogers of Alaska and Graham Rowley of Canada to write a standard reference, The Circumpolar North A Political and Economic Geography of the Arctic and Sub-arctic (1978). This influential work on Northern affairs described in a single volume the range of differing political, economic, and social systems in the North. During Armstrong's career and travels throughout the...
Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation under Scholarship No. F-ZA 054 2005-2006 and by ONR research grants N00014-03-1-0479 and N00014-04-6-0524. The authors are grateful to Melicie Desflots for providing the MM5 numerical simulations, to Robert Rogers and Jason Dunion for making available a code for Shapiro's (1983) model and to Anastasios Tsonis and James Elsner for reviewing this manuscript.
Stommel attended New York City's public schools. He spent one year at Townsend Harris High School but finished high school at Freeport, Long Island, because his family had moved there. Thanks to his receiving a full scholarship, he was able to enroll at Yale University, from where he graduated in 1942. He remained at Yale for two years following graduation, teaching analytic geometry and celestial navigation in the Navy's V-12 program. He also spent six months at the Yale Divinity School, but his lifelong ambivalence toward religion made the ministry an unsuitable vocation for him. In 1944, renowned astrophysicist Lyman Spitzer suggested that Stommel apply for work at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Massachusetts an organization that was fast becoming a decisive part of the U.S. war effort. Stom-mel was recruited to work in acoustics and antisubmarine warfare but disliked his assignment and tried to be employed in other areas.
Similar and uniquely new plants confronted botanists. Standardized nomenclature was developed using a taxonomy derived from Latin names. Latin, the language of scholarship until the 20th century, was used to assign a universal name to plants with different common names or national names in the many European languages. The use of Latin, a dead language, prevents changes in names that would occur in a living language, thereby creating lasting scientific precision.
Politicians are also under continued pressure to increase the quality of education, and this has resulted in the phenomenon known as 'grade inflation'. Every year the average grades of schoolchildren in the A-levels that control university entrance continue to rise. This is hailed with enthusiasm by the politicians, but everyone knows that this has been achieved by lowering the standards. The result is to give young people an inflated opinion of their abilities, and to make it more difficult for the universities to make a fair selection. The increasing tendency of students to object if they are not chosen, and the possibility of wide and damaging publicity, has also made the task of those responsible for university entrance far more difficult. Another problem is that universities have expanded beyond the numbers of qualified candidates in some subjects. The university is then faced with a difficult decision either to admit sub-standard candidates to fill the quota or to maintain the...
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Regime theory dates back to the study of international law in medieval Europe. In modern international relations scholarship, it has an early expression in a belief in international institutions for promoting peace after World War I, which became known as the idealist school. In the 1930s, the failure of the League of Nations led to a debate be