Schematic Diagrams and Service Manuals

Electronics Repair Manuals

This website allows you to find the repair manuals for any electronic devices that you could think of. You will also be able to access schematic diagrams and other useful materials for repairing electronics. You will be able to find the documents that you need to repair your TV, your DVD and VCR players, your mobile phones and cameras, and computer monitors, plus more! You will even be able to find the diagrams and repair guides for very old devices, so you don't have to worry if you think that the guide is out of print; chances are that this site will have it! You don't need to freak out now when your TV breaks down; you will be able to find the guide to repair it and have it working again in no time! Most of the guides come in easily downloadable PDF files, so you can read them on your computer, phone, or tablet! Read more here...

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Table 9 Cracking Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

Diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in utility water systems 18 . Wastes generated from wastewater treatment systems include API CPI separator sludge, dissolved-air flotation or induced-air flotation system floats, pond and tank sediments, and biosolids. Of these, only the biosolids from the biological wastewater treatment system may be nonhazardous. Figure 10 shows a refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solids waste in wastewater treatment systems 18 .

Model Basics and Structure

Figure 3.1 Schematic diagram of the climate model components used for typical climate change runs. The general circulation model of the atmosphere also includes land surface processes like evapotranspiration, river run-off and the ocean module contains sea ice thermodynamics and rheology. Volcanism as well as solar radiation changes is handled as external processes like atmospheric trace substance concentration changes due to anthropogenic activities (MPI, 2006b)

Contaminated Water and Pressures Produced in the Landfill Site

Figure 2 Schematic diagram illustrating cumulative settlement of waste due to decomposition of organic matter versus time. Decomposition stages (1) aerobic, (2) anaerobic (nonmethanogenic), (3) anaerobic (methanogenic), (4) anaerobic decline, (5) return to anaerobic growth. (After Wardwell et al. 9 .) Figure 2 Schematic diagram illustrating cumulative settlement of waste due to decomposition of organic matter versus time. Decomposition stages (1) aerobic, (2) anaerobic (nonmethanogenic), (3) anaerobic (methanogenic), (4) anaerobic decline, (5) return to anaerobic growth. (After Wardwell et al. 9 .)

Interaction of the southern LIS and North Atlantic Ocean oscillations of the Mississippi Hudson valley routings

Figure 28.7 Schematic diagram of ocean-ice interaction and oscillatory switching of Mississippi runoff to and from Hudson River Valley (after Clark et al., 2001). See text for explanation. Figure 28.7 Schematic diagram of ocean-ice interaction and oscillatory switching of Mississippi runoff to and from Hudson River Valley (after Clark et al., 2001). See text for explanation.

Cleaning Procedure Tests And Results A Battery Casing Wastes

The second step entailed separation of the casing material from the metallic lead, rocks, and foreign matter by screening and elutriation. Since metallic lead has a much higher density than the rocks and casings, a gravity separation is possible. The separation technique used in this work was water elutriation, but air or other density separation devices would be effective. The feed material was screened through 3 4- and 3 8-in. screens, and in both plus fractions the metallic lead and rocks were separated from the pieces of battery casings by elutriation. The minus 3 8-in. material was rescreened through 4 and 8 mesh screens. Because the suspension of the different materials is a function of the surface area as well as density, it was preferable to screen the material into similar size fractions to provide a consistent feed for the laboratory-scale water elutriation system. A schematic diagram of the equipment used is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 Schematic diagram of water elutriator....

Investigating The Ocean Through Computer M00elung

Figure 4.18 Schematic diagram to illustrate three types of grids used in three-dimensional models, (a) Section showing the bathymetry of the region being modelled. In (b) to (d) the horizontal coordinate system is represented by fine vertical lines, while the vertical coordinate system is indicated by fine horizontal, sloping or curved lines. The most conventional system is (b), known as a 'level' model, because the vertical levels are fixed in (c), the 'terrain-following' model, the heights of the boxes are a fixed proportion of the ocean depth and in (d), known as an isopycnic model, the vertical coordinates are isopycnals. In each case, the equations relating to flow velocity are solved for points at the centres of the faces of the grid boxes (cf. Figure 4.17), while those relating to transport of heat and salt are solved for points in the centres of the grid boxes themselves.

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes

The pollution problems arising from excessive amounts of certain nutrients in wastewater are the most common reason for advanced waste-water treatment and mainly caused by nitrogen-rich and phosphorus-rich compounds. The nitrogen-rich substances, such as proteins, are biologically converted into ammonia through a process called ammonification. The excessive amount of nutrients in discharged treated wastewater will lead to a problem called eutrophication. The eutrophication problem associated with algae blooms and deaeration of the receiving waterbody results from oxidation of ammonia to nitrate by the nitrifying bacteria (this process is called nitrification) and can suffocate fishes and other animals living in the polluted water. High concentrations of nitrate in water are toxic to both humans and animals. A schematic diagram in Fig. 5.1 shows the simplified nitrogen cycle in the environment.

Process Description

Figure 14.1 presents a schematic diagram of a lagoon. The structure is typically an earthen basin constructed with sloping sidewalls. To minimize construction costs, the Figure 14.1 Schematic diagram of a lagoon (vertical dimension exaggerated). Figure 14.1 Schematic diagram of a lagoon (vertical dimension exaggerated).

Methodology Systems Analysis Framework

One of the first steps in the methodology is to define what is meant by the 'System' to be assessed. Figure 2 provides a schematic diagram of the basic components of a CO2 storage system, viz Figure 2. Schematic diagram of CO2 storage system (cf. the more realistic representation shown in Figure 3).

AX Bln[Iii0 J2kyXy Ft

A schematic diagram of the complete feedback system implied by these equations is shown in Fig. 12-1, emphasizing the potential destabilizing role of the carbon cycle discussed in Chapter 10, the interrelations of the ice-sheet variables ( , D, C , Wb, and < Si) described in Chapter 9, and the connection of the main slow-response variables (fi, , 0, Sip) with the fast-response variables representing the surface climatic state and the oceanic circulations governed by a coupled AGCM and OGCM. The composite surface climatic state is denoted by the symbol E, which includes all atmospheric and surface state variables (e.g., T, V, P, E, (p , ). As a rough categorization, large values of represent a warm climate characterized by high temperature and snowline

Scalar and vector fields

Figure 9.5 Schematic diagram of a position vector r whose components are x, y and z. Figure 9.5 Schematic diagram of a position vector r whose components are x, y and z. Figure 9.6 Schematic diagram of a position vector r and an increment of it dr. Figure 9.6 Schematic diagram of a position vector r and an increment of it dr.

Land Applications and Surface Disposal

A schematic diagram of a rotary dryer for sludge dewatering. Figure 7.12. A schematic diagram of a rotary dryer for sludge dewatering. Figure 7.13. A schematic diagram of a multieffect evaporator for sludge de-watering. Figure 7.13. A schematic diagram of a multieffect evaporator for sludge de-watering.

Theoretical models of fractionation

Schematic diagram illustrating the shift in the absorption spectrum for the heavy isotopologues. In the ZPE model (Yung and Miller, 1997), the additional mass of the heavy isotopologues decreases the ZPE level and blue-shifts the absorption spectrum, causing enrichment of the isotopologues at wavelengths longer than the peak absorption. Fig. 14.7. Schematic diagram illustrating the shift in the absorption spectrum for the heavy isotopologues. In the ZPE model (Yung and Miller, 1997), the additional mass of the heavy isotopologues decreases the ZPE level and blue-shifts the absorption spectrum, causing enrichment of the isotopologues at wavelengths longer than the peak absorption.

Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment

It is impossible to describe every system here therefore, only a select few that are often used in treating soft drink wastewater are discussed in this chapter. Figure 3 shows the schematic diagram of various anaerobic reactors, and the operating conditions of the corresponding reactors are given in Table 4.

AMSR 2002presentSwath width 1445 km

Figure 73.2 Schematic diagram illustrating the geometry of repeat pass synthetic aperture radar interferometry. Ai and Aj are the positions of the satellite at epochs i and j, B is the separation in space, or baseline, between the two measurements and r and rj are the ranges to a target on the surface. Figure 73.2 Schematic diagram illustrating the geometry of repeat pass synthetic aperture radar interferometry. Ai and Aj are the positions of the satellite at epochs i and j, B is the separation in space, or baseline, between the two measurements and r and rj are the ranges to a target on the surface.

UpFlow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was developed by Lettinga, van Velsen, and Hobma in 1979.27 It is simple in design and is a combination of physical and biological processes.27,28 It can be categorized under suspended growth systems.28 The wastewater flow to be treated is sent upward from the bottom of the reactor. At the bottom of the reactor, wastewater contacts with the active anaerobic sludge solids distributed over the sludge blanket. The sludge blanket contains granules of microorganisms (0.5-2 mm in diameter). If maintained under the proper conditions (e.g., proper mechanical agitation), the good flocculation settling characteristics of these granules do not allow them to wash out from the reactor.27,28 The sludge solids concentration in the sludge blanket can be as high as 100,000 mg L. At the sludge blanket, organics convert into methane and carbon dioxide following the steps explained in Section 30.5.1.21 The mixture of the above two gases is separated...

GIS and Hydrologic Models

Figure 4 Schematic diagram of a GIS approach for prediction of river discharge using the SCS curve numbers and water quality using the export coefficient model (Mattikalli et al., 1996). Figure 4 Schematic diagram of a GIS approach for prediction of river discharge using the SCS curve numbers and water quality using the export coefficient model (Mattikalli et al., 1996).

Chevron refinery as cooling tower makeup From

Zero Liquid Discharge Figure Diagram

The concept of water reuse and zero liquid discharge in petroleum refineries has been proposed and debated for many years 77 . The principal drawback for zero liquid discharge is the generation of large amount of solid waste, mostly salt from the wastewater. It is this problem that caused USEPA to back off from zero liquid discharge in the 1970s, and it remains the primary deterrent today. However, there are two refineries in Mexico that have recently gone to zero discharge 78 . Wastewater from the refineries and nearby municipalities are treated with biological, physical chemical processes, RO, brine concentrator evaporator and crystallizer to maximize water recycle to the refineries, minimize water makeup from the river and to attain zero liquid discharge. Figure 21 shows a process schematic diagram of the refinery wastewater recycle zero liquid discharge system.

Case Study Broccoli Drying

Latest Conveyor Drying Systems

The temperature of the drying chamber walls was measured with a digital multimeter (METEX ME-32) during drying process. A digital balance (Scaltec SBA 61, Goettingen, Germany) was used to measure the weight loss of sample during drying experiments. The ambient temperature and the relative humidity were also measured and recorded. Pressures and temperatures of the refrigerant were measured with pressure probes (Testo, low high-pressure probes, 0638.01941) and surface temperature probes (Testo, temperature probes, 0628.0019), respectively. All measured values were observed and recorded with a multi-function instrument (Testo 350-XL 454, control unit, Freiburg, Germany) and loggers. The schematic diagram of the drying process and measurements were shown in Fig. 15.1.

Dynamical Models Of The Thermohaline Circulation

Dense water is formed at the surface in small, highly localized regions of the ocean in polar seas. Thus the abyssal circulation seems to be induced by local sources, marked in Fig. 11.9. But for every particle of water that sinks, one must return to the surface. Property distributions reviewed in Section 11.2.1 suggest that the return branch does not occur in one, or a few, geographical locations. It seems reasonable to suppose, therefore, that there is widespread compensating upwelling on the scale of the basin, as sketched in our schematic diagram used to introduce this chapter, Fig. 11.1.

Rotating Biological Contactor

The term rotating biological contactor (RBC) refers to a class of aerobic attached growth bioreactors containing circular shaped corrugated plastic media that are mounted on a horizontal shaft, partially submerged (typically 40 ) in the wastewater, and rotated at a speed of one to two revolutions per minute to alternately expose them to the wastewater and to the atmosphere. Figure 20.1 provides a schematic diagram. A number of manufacturers produce RBC equipment, but they are all similar and produce similar results.

Land Treatment Systems

Waste Water Infiltration System Canada

Fig. 6.6 is a schematic diagram of the use of land for plantation and wastewater land applications. As shown in the diagram, many factors are involved in the overall effect of the water cycle on plants, including land application of wastewater. In most cases, the treated wastewater is applied to the land surface via furrow-flood, sprayer, or drip irrigation. BOD5, TSS, and fecal coliform (FC) are partially removed in the conventional Figure 6.7. (a)(b)(c) A schematic diagram of a slow-rate wastewater treatment system (USEPA, 1981). Figure 6.7. (a)(b)(c) A schematic diagram of a slow-rate wastewater treatment system (USEPA, 1981). Figure 6.8. (a)(b) A schematic diagram of an overland flow wastewater treatment system (USEPA, 1984). Figure 6.8. (a)(b) A schematic diagram of an overland flow wastewater treatment system (USEPA, 1984). Figure 6.9. (a)(b)(c) A schematic diagram of a rapid infiltration wastewater treatment system (USEPA, 1984). Figure 6.9. (a)(b)(c) A schematic diagram of a...

Phenomena Related to Permafrost Degradation

Figure. 13 Schematic diagrams of landslides in the Taldura valley. Before the onset of climate warming (a). Duration of climate warming (b). After the earthquake of 27 September 2003 (c). Figure. 13 Schematic diagrams of landslides in the Taldura valley. Before the onset of climate warming (a). Duration of climate warming (b). After the earthquake of 27 September 2003 (c).

The landocean interface sensitivity of ocean thermohaline circulation to freshwater runoff

Figure 28.8 Schematic diagrams of oscillations of Lake Agassiz area, level and outflow routings as a result of ice retreat, climatic feed-backs and differential rebound. In these diagrams, the external forcing of relatively high summer insolation which drove general ice retreat (Kutzbach et al., 1998) is represented in box 1 with the heavy border. (a) Lake-atmosphere-ice interactions suggest decreased precipitation over the adjacent ice sheet as the lake enlarges, based on numerical modelling by Hostetler et al. (2000). This model accounts for ice retreat and the first opening of eastern outlets following early growth of Lake Agassiz. (b) Following concepts in Teller (1987), a large proglacial lake possibly provided more moisture and nourished growth of the adjacent ice sheet. See text for further explanation. (c) Possible feed-backs and effects using the modelling results of Krinner et al. (2004) for Eurasian glacial lakes. Large lakes induced cool climate that suppressed summer ice...

Processes of Decomposition of Refuse in Landfills

During the biological decomposition process in the landfill, the temperature increases. At elevated temperatures, sulfate concentrations increase. The problems result from the reduction of sulfates to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Hydrogen sulfide is the cause of corrosion of various underground structural members. In sanitary landfill areas, the refuse is nonhomogeneous and contains a large amount of organic matter, generating biological changes caused by decomposition for many years. There are five stages related to the biological activity in the landfill 9 . Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram illustrating the cumulative settlement due to decomposition of organic matter versus time.

Ductile Shear Zone Structures

Figure 8.12 Deformation till at Gliedenberg, Dammer Berge, Germany (Van der Wateren, 1995). The Dammer Berge is a thrust moraine from the Saalian Drenthe advance and which had been overridden when the ice expanded 100 km further to the south. The till is a mixture derived from the four Tertiary and Pleistocene formations which comprise the thrust moraine. A nappe containing these sediments is exposed 50 m upstream (north) from the till outcrop. They are folded and extruded in a diapiric structure, in front of the nappe, cored with Tertiary clay (black). A) Schematic diagram showing deformation till and its source sediments at Gliedenberg, Dammer Berge thrust moraine, Germany (Van der Wateren (1995). Subglacial shearing of the source sediments produced a laminated diamict with numerous boudins and detached intrafolial folds. The lamination therefore is not a sedimentary layering but a transposed foliation, the product of glacitectonic deformation. Numbers refer to caption of Fig....

System Description and Control Strategy

Solar Absorption Chiller Schematic

A schematic diagram of the system studied is represented in Fig. 28.1. The system consists of a solar collector, a storage tank, an absorption chiller, heat exchanger, and auxiliary units. The system operates in four different modes. When solar energy is available for collection and there is a load demand, heat is supplied directly from the collector to the heating or cooling unit. When solar energy is available for collection and there is no heat or cooling demand, heat is stored in the storage unit. On the other hand, if solar energy is not available for collection and there is a load demand, storage then supplies heat to the heating or cooling Fig. 28.1 Schematic diagram of the solar heating and cooling system. Fig. 28.1 Schematic diagram of the solar heating and cooling system. Fig. 28.2 Schematic diagram of the single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chiller. Fig. 28.2 Schematic diagram of the single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chiller.

Rotating Biological Contactors RBC

Rotating Biological Contactor Diagram

Increasingly stringent requirements for the removal of organic and inorganic substances from wastewater have necessitated the development of innovative, cost-effective wastewater treatment alternatives in recent years. The aerobic rotating biological contactor (RBC) is one of the biological processes for the treatment of organic wastewater. It is another type of attached growth process that combines advantages of biological fixed-film (short hydraulic retention time, high biomass concentration, low energy cost, easy operation, and insensitivity to toxic substance shock loads), and partial stir. Therefore the aerobic RBC reactor is widely employed to treat both domestic and industrial wastewater 16-18 . A schematic diagram of the rotating biological contactor (RBC) unit is shown in Fig. 13 it consists of closely spaced discs mounted on a common horizontal shaft, partially submerged in a semicircular tank receiving wastewater. When water containing organic waste and nutrients flows...

Table 11 Lube Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

Industrial Solid Wastes

Figure 8 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in refinery system. Most solid wastes from refineries are Figure 8 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in refinery system. Most solid wastes from refineries are Figure 9 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in utility water system. These wastes may not be classified as hazardous in the United States. (From Ref. 18.) Figure 9 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in utility water system. These wastes may not be classified as hazardous in the United States. (From Ref. 18.) Figure 10 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in wastewater treatment system. All wastes except waste activated sludge are classified as hazardous wastes because of their oil contents. (From Ref. 18.) Figure 10 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid...

Diurnal variation of tropical oceanic convection

Oceanic Convection

Schematic diagram of diurnal variations of convection during the disturbed (upper panel) and undisturbed (lower panel) periods. The dashed curve in the lower panel indicates the time rate of change of the saturation columnar water vapor amount, dW* dt, corresponding to the diurnal cycle of temperature distribution. This quantity represents a direct effect of the radiative cooling heating cycle on available precipitable water (APW), or a change of APW in the first step. The convective response to the direct forcing can induce further changes in temperature and moisture that lead to a corresponding change of APW in the second step. Since observed and simulated diurnal variations of convection are evidently in phase with the idealized cycle, the curve is regarded as a good theoretical limit for diurnal rainfall. The dashed curve in the lower panel indicates the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of diurnal variations of convection during the...

Methods Of Biomass Recycle And Wastage

Wasted Biomass

Figure 5.2 Schematic diagrams of two CSTRs with biomass recycle from sedimentation basins, (a) The Garrett configuration in which biomass is wasted directly from the reactor, (b) Conventional configuration in which biomass is wasted from the sludge recycle flow. Figure 5.2 Schematic diagrams of two CSTRs with biomass recycle from sedimentation basins, (a) The Garrett configuration in which biomass is wasted directly from the reactor, (b) Conventional configuration in which biomass is wasted from the sludge recycle flow.

Belt press filtration

Fresnel Lens Used For Drying Water

A schematic diagram of a belt filter for sludge dewatering. (Courtesy of Falke Bruinsma at http photos.innersource.com) Figure 7.5. A schematic diagram of a belt filter for sludge dewatering. (Courtesy of Falke Bruinsma at http photos.innersource.com) The imperforate basket centrifuge is a semicontinuous feeding and solids discharging unit that rotates about a vertical axis. A schematic diagram of a basket centrifuge in the sludge feed and sludge plowing cycles is shown in Fig. 7.6. Sludge is fed into the bottom of the basket and sludge solids form a cake on the bowl walls as the unit rotates. The liquid (centrate) is displaced over a baffle or weir at the top of the unit. Sludge feed is either continued for a preset time or until the suspended solids in the centrate reach a preset concentration. The ability to be used either for thickening or dewatering is an advantage of the basket centrifuge. A basket centrifuge will typically dewater a 50 50 blend of anaerobically...

Icefacies formation and types

Figure 63.1 Schematic diagram illustrating the process of formation of distinctive basal regelation ice by interaction of the glacier at its basal boundary with bed roughness elements. This process, which contributes to basal motion, is known as Weertman (1957) regelation, and is probably most effective for bed roughness elements with dimensions 10 1-100m. It produces layers of basal ice with distinctive physical and chemical characteristics. Figure 63.1 Schematic diagram illustrating the process of formation of distinctive basal regelation ice by interaction of the glacier at its basal boundary with bed roughness elements. This process, which contributes to basal motion, is known as Weertman (1957) regelation, and is probably most effective for bed roughness elements with dimensions 10 1-100m. It produces layers of basal ice with distinctive physical and chemical characteristics.

Basic Model For A Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

A schematic diagram of a single CSTR is shown in Figure 5.1. A bioreactor with volume V receives a flow at rate F containing only soluble, noninhibitory, biodegradable organic substrate at concentration Sso (in COD units) and sufficient inorganic nutrients to make the organic substrate the growth limiting material. The influent flow and concentrations are constant, as are pH, temperature, and other environmental conditions. Within the bioreactor the heterotrophic biomass uses the substrate as its food source, thereby growing to concentration X,4,, while reducing the substrate concentration to Ss. Biomass decay accompanies the growth so that

Step Feed Activated Sludge

Figure 7.10 presents the schematic diagram for the configuration used to simulate an SFAS system. As in Figure 7.1, five equal sized CSTRs in series were used, with all biomass recycle to the first bioreactor, but in this case the feed was distributed evenly among the bioreactors. All other characteristics of the system, including the flow rates, feed concentrations, etc., were the same as those used to simulate the performance of the tanks-in-series system. Figure 7.10 Schematic diagram of five CSTRs in series with all biomass recycle to the first reactor and the influent distributed evenly among the reactors. Although not shown, solids wastage comes directly from all reactors. This configuration simulates step feed activated sludge (SFAS). Figure 7.10 Schematic diagram of five CSTRs in series with all biomass recycle to the first reactor and the influent distributed evenly among the reactors. Although not shown, solids wastage comes directly from all reactors. This configuration...

The Thermal Wind Equation

We saw in Section 5.2 that isobaric surfaces slope down from equator to pole. Moreover, these slopes increase with height, as can be seen, for example, in Fig. 5.13 and the schematic diagram, Fig. 5.14. Thus according to the geostrophic relation, Eq. 7-8, the geostrophic flow will increase with height, as indeed is observed

Tectonic Evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains

Tectonic Evolution

Figure 7.6 Schematic diagram showing the variation of exhumation events along the TAM at different localities (after Fitzgerald, 2002, with permission from the Royal Society of New Zealand). SCG, Scott Glacier area BDM, Beardmore Glacier Area SHG, Shackleton Glacier area SVL, Southern Victoria Land TNB, Terra Nova Bay NVL, Northern Victoria Land. A relative scale only is shown for exhumation as the amount of exhumation at any one locality will vary across the range. Early or late Cretaceous exhumation is not always present throughout an area (e.g. Scott Glacier region see Fitzgerald and Stump, 1997). Figure 7.6 Schematic diagram showing the variation of exhumation events along the TAM at different localities (after Fitzgerald, 2002, with permission from the Royal Society of New Zealand). SCG, Scott Glacier area BDM, Beardmore Glacier Area SHG, Shackleton Glacier area SVL, Southern Victoria Land TNB, Terra Nova Bay NVL, Northern Victoria Land. A relative scale only is shown for...

The Equatorial Undercurrent

Figure 5.4 shows the relationship between the mean wind stress and the resulting east-west slopes in the sea-surface and thermocline along the Equator in the Pacific (cf. the schematic diagram in Figure 5.3). In Figure 5.4(c), the position of the core of the Undercurrent (the region of highest velocity) is indicated by the blue crosses note that in the eastern Pacific, where the thermocline is especially shallow, and upwelling brings cooler water to the surface, the flow in the Undercurrent may extend to the surface.

The Role Of Long Waves In Ocean Circulation

Surface Waves Ocean Circulation

Figure 5.17 (a) Schematic diagram of a surface Kelvin wave in the Northern Hemisphere. In the case of a Kelvin wave in the thermocline, the thermocline would adopt the shape shown, while the sea-surface would take on a similar shape in 'mirror image', although to a much lesser extent. Figure 5.17 (a) Schematic diagram of a surface Kelvin wave in the Northern Hemisphere. In the case of a Kelvin wave in the thermocline, the thermocline would adopt the shape shown, while the sea-surface would take on a similar shape in 'mirror image', although to a much lesser extent.

Conventional And High Purity Oxygen Activated Sludge

Figure 7.1 presents a schematic diagram of the system used to simulate conventional and high purity oxygen activated sludge systems. All influent and all biomass recycle enters the first bioreactor and passes from bioreactor to bioreactor down the chain. For the purposes of this chapter, the bioreactors were considered to be of equal volume, but different residence time distributions can be attained by using bioreactors of different size.1* The influent flow rate used in simulations was 1000 m' day and the volume of each bioreactor was 50 m,' giving a total system volume of 250 m' and a system hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 6 hr, which is a value commonly used in practice. The biomass recycle flow rate was fixed at 500 m' day. unless otherwise specified, giving a recycle ratio, a(F, F), of 0.5, which is also commonly used in practice. All bioreactors are aerobic and the dissolved oxygen concentration was controlled at 2.0 mg L in each, thereby eliminating denitrification. This...

Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes

Figure 16 Schematic diagram illustrating the function of a bipolar membrane showing (a) a bipolar membrane and (b) the 4-5 nm thick transition region at the interphase of the two cation- and anion-exchange layers. Figure 16 Schematic diagram illustrating the function of a bipolar membrane showing (a) a bipolar membrane and (b) the 4-5 nm thick transition region at the interphase of the two cation- and anion-exchange layers. Figure 17 Schematic diagram indicating the production of acids and bases from the corresponding salt in a stack with feed and bleed operation.

Basin Scale Standing Wave Motions Seiches

Figure 5 Schematic diagram showing the first three horizontal interfacial seiche modes horizontal mode one (n 1), mode two (n 2), and mode three (n 3). Arrows denote direction of water particle velocities. Solid and dashed lines denote the interfacial displacement at one-half period intervals. Upper layer velocities for the baroclinic case are not shown and can be inferred from symmetry. Figure 5 Schematic diagram showing the first three horizontal interfacial seiche modes horizontal mode one (n 1), mode two (n 2), and mode three (n 3). Arrows denote direction of water particle velocities. Solid and dashed lines denote the interfacial displacement at one-half period intervals. Upper layer velocities for the baroclinic case are not shown and can be inferred from symmetry.

Atmospheric Circulation In Midlatitudes

Mid Latitude Cyclone Stages

Figure 2.5 Schematic diagrams to illustrate how (a) air spirals inwards and upwards in low pressure areas (cyclones) and (b) air spirals downwards and outwards in high pressure areas (anticyclones) (drawn for Northern Hemisphere situations). The contours are isobars (lines connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure) and the numbers give typical pressures at ground level, in millibars. Note that here the angle at which the air flow crosses the isobars is somewhat exaggerated. Within 1 km of the Earth's surface, the air flow would cross the isobars at small angles, while above that it would follow the isobars quite closely. Figure 2.5 Schematic diagrams to illustrate how (a) air spirals inwards and upwards in low pressure areas (cyclones) and (b) air spirals downwards and outwards in high pressure areas (anticyclones) (drawn for Northern Hemisphere situations). The contours are isobars (lines connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure) and the numbers give typical pressures at...

Biological Removal of Phosphorus

Biological Remediation Processes

The biological treatment or removal of phosphorus from wastewater depends on the accumulation of a large amount of bacteria that are capable of storing phosphorus in the form of polyphosphate inside the bacterial cells polyphosphate as stored energy for bacteria is produced as a result of sequestering volatile fatty acids by aerobic bacteria under anaerobic conditions, resulting in poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) under simultaneous use of glycogen. This requires that the influent of wastewater for biological phosphorus removal has to first mix with sludge in order to create a true anaerobic environment free from electron acceptors such as oxygen and nitrate. In the anaerobic environment or zone, volatile fatty acids (may be formed by fermentation) in the incoming wastewater stream can be accumulated by polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria. Thus, a successful design of a biological phosphorus removal process relies on the creation of such a true anaerobic zone this will also be...

Tropospheric Ozone And Associated Photochemical Oxidants

Figure 16.2 shows a schematic diagram of such a chamber (Fitz et al., 1981). Ports are included for the introduction of the primary pollutants and for sampling for product analysis. Because such bags do not have a rigid shape, they operate at atmospheric pressure. The volume of the chamber may be maintained during a run by introducing clean air at the same rate as sampling removes air from the chamber, thus diluting the mixture. Alternatively, these soft chambers can be allowed to collapse as air is removed for analysis this maintains the pressure at f atm but results in an increasing S V ratio during a run. FIGURE 16.2 Schematic diagram of typical outdoor 40-m3 collapsible bag environmental chamber (adapted from Fitz et al., 1981). FIGURE 16.2 Schematic diagram of typical outdoor 40-m3 collapsible bag environmental chamber (adapted from Fitz et al., 1981). FIGURE 16.3 Schematic diagram of the evacuable chamber at the Air Pollution Research Center, University of California, Riverside....

Solar and Biomass Integration to Steam Network

Solar thermal energy can be integrated with the supply system or directly at the process level. The integrated solar plant concept was initially proposed by Luz Solar International as a means of integrating parabolic trough solar plant with modern combined cycle power plants. A plant schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 29.3 (Kelly, 2001). The integration of solar thermal energy can be influenced by several factors as shown in Table 29.1 (Schnitzer et al., 2007). Solar thermal stations could also become an interesting way to reduce the environmental impact of energy generation with reasonably economic conditions (El-Sayed, 2005). Fig. 29.3 Integrated solar plant schematic diagram. Fig. 29.3 Integrated solar plant schematic diagram.

Principle of ionexchange membrane processes

The principle of electrodialysis is illustrated in Fig. 2, which shows a schematic diagram of an electrodialysis cell arrangement consisting of a series of anion- and cation-exchange membranes arranged in an alternating pattern between an anode and a cathode to form individual cells. If an ionic solution such as an aqueous salt solution is pumped through these cells and an electrical potential is established between the anode and cathode, the positively charged cations migrate toward the cathode and the negatively charged anions toward the anode. The cations pass through the negatively charged cation-exchange membrane but are retained by the positively charged anion-exchange membrane. Likewise, the negatively charged anions pass through the anion-exchange membrane, and are retained by the cation-exchange membrane. The overall result is an increase Figure 2 Schematic diagram illustrating the principle of desalination by electro-dialysis in a stack with cation- and...

Nazih K Shammas and Lawrence K Wang

Compact Landfill Liner

Figure 26.1 is a simplified schematic diagram of a hazardous waste landfill, showing the geometry and placement of double liners and LCRSs in a landfill.15 In a double-lined landfill, there are two liners and two LCRSs. The primary LCRS is located above the top liner and the secondary LCRS is located between the two liners. In this diagram, the top liner is a geomembrane (GM) liner, also called flexible membrane liner (FML), and the bottom liner is a composite liner system consisting of an FML overlying compacted low-permeability soil (or compacted clay).

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Figure 7.1 Schematic diagram of a sounding (left border of the shaded area) along with a dry adiabat rising from the surface (right border of the shaded area). The shaded area is proportional to the kinetic energy acquired by a parcel in rising from the surface to the intersection of the two curves.

Stratospheretroposphere Exchange

Whereas net diabatic heating is required to transport air from the troposphere into the stratosphere. Extensive measurements during the STEP (Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project) in the 1980s showed that specific vigorous convective events were primarily responsible for transporting tropical air into the stratosphere. Troposphcric air can be either mixed directly into the stratosphere when the cumulo-nimbus towers overshoot, mixed across the tropopause by turbulent motion, or moved upward due to radiative heating of cloud tops. The dehydration occurs because some or all of the condensed ice particles are returned to the troposphere by sedimentation while the dry air remains in the stratosphere. Soluble chemical species will be found in the ice particles rather than in the dry air surrounding them, so there may be a greater resistance to cross-tropopause transport of soluble compounds, A schematic diagram illustrating the general concept of the circulation between the troposphere...

Figures

13.3 Schematic diagram showing Perth's Integrated Water Supply Scheme (IWSS) 190 14.3 Berg River Spatial Equilibrium Model (BRDSEM) schematic diagram 210 14.4 Schematic diagram of the Berg River Basin Upper section 212 14.5 Schematic diagram of Berg River Basin Lower section as depicted in BRDSEM 213

Photovoltaic Systems

Fig. 3.2 Schematic diagram of an agricultural solar water pumping stand-alone system as an example of PV application. Similar to the air collectors, water collectors are used to heat up the water for various domestic and industrial applications. The domestic water heater generally uses flat plate collectors in parallel connection and runs automatically with the thermosiphon action whereas the industrial water heater uses a number of flat plate collectors in series and the thermo-siphon action does not work in this case and hence it uses a photovoltaic-driven water pump to maintain flow of water inside the water collector. A schematic diagram of a PV T water collector is shown in Fig. 3.3. A DC water pump is used to circulate water as the two flat plate collectors are connected in series. Fig. 3.3 Schematic diagram of a hybrid photovoltaic solar water heater as an example of PV T application. Fig. 3.3 Schematic diagram of a hybrid photovoltaic solar water heater as an example of PV T...

Drifts

Figure 5.29 is a schematic diagram of a DRIFTS apparatus that has been applied to studying the reactions of the components of sea salt particles with various oxides of nitrogen. As the reactions occur, nitrate, which absorbs strongly in the infrared, is formed on the salt surface. Since the reactant solids do not absorb in the infrared, the increase in nitrate with time can be readily followed and used to obtain reaction probabilities.

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Thus, if wastage is from each bioreactor in proportion to its volume, the SRT will be controlled solely by the total bioreactor volume and the total wastage flow rate, regardless of the MLSS concentration in each bioreactor. Because of its simplicity, this technique will be used in all simulations in this chapter, even though the wastage streams will not be shown in the schematic diagrams to simplify them.

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Chlorination units consist of a chlorination vessel in which the wastewater and the chlorine are brought into contact. In order to provide sufficient mixing, chlorine systems must have a chlorine contact time of 15-30 minutes, after which it must be dechlorinated prior to discharge. A schematic diagram of the systems is presented in Fig. 19.

Africa

Figure 5.19 (at Schematic diagram showing a disturbance of the upper ocean caused by an abrupt change irt the overlying wind field (b) Such a disturbance may he generated in the western Atlantic and travel eastwards as an eouatoiiai Kelvin wave at the eastern boundary, this splits info two coastal Kelvin waves, which contribute to seasonal upwellmg in the Gulf of Guinea fcf. Figure 5.9).

Agricultural Runoff

Nonpoint runoff from cultivated fields adds pollution to receiving water in the form of sediments and nutrients, particularly phosphorus. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has developed a process for treatment and management of these runoff waters. A schematic diagram of the system is shown in Figure 6.5 components include an underdrained wet meadow, a marsh, and a pond in series. An optional final component is a vegetated polishing area. The combined concept is referred to as a Nutrient Sediment Control System (NSCS) by the NRCS. Several of these systems have been used successfully in northern Maine for treatment of runoff from cultivated fields. The NSCS should not be installed as the sole control system. It should only be used in conjunction with best conservation practices applied for erosion control on the agricultural fields of concern.

Lidar system

Of 24 m and a temporal resolution of 33 s. The schematic diagram of lidar system is shown in Fig. 1. Details about our lidar studies system can be found in the studies of Nee et al.5 and Chen et al.6 The lidar measures height profile of backscattered signal from aerosols, which are converted into backscattering ratio. The aerosols backscattering ratio, BR, is defined as follows

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Where T is the time period over which the average is taken, assumed to be 1 year because of the seasonal cycle wtr is the vertical velocity along the 1-year trajectory and Ahm,L represents the mixed layer depth change accumulated over a 1-year trajectory in Lagrangian coordinates. Thus, this definition includes both the temporal average and the spatial average over a 1-year trajectory. The schematic diagram in Figure 5.27 illustrates this definition for a two-dimensional case. An instrument called a Bobber is released in late winter, when effective detrainment starts at a station. This instrument can be checked continuously by means of acoustic signals. If we were following the instrument, we would see that during the first part of the trajectory effective detrainment takes place, i.e., the mixed layer retreats and leaves stratified water behind. During the second half of the trajectory, mixed layer entrainment takes place and re-takes part of the water which entered the seasonal...

Moorings

The GTMBA is built primarily around the Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System (ATLAS) moorings of NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) and TRITON moorings of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). The Schematic diagram of the ATLAS moorings with the locations of different sensors fitted on the buoys and on the moorings is available in PMEL website. These moorings have special attributes that make them a valuable technology for tropical climate studies. In particular, (1) they can be instrumented to measure both upper ocean and surface meteorological variables involved in ocean-atmosphere interactions (2) they provide time series measurements at fine temporal resolution (minutes to hours) to resolve high frequency oceanic and atmospheric fluctuations that would otherwise be aliased into the lower frequency climate signals of primary interest (3) they can be deployed and maintained on a fixed grid of stations, so that measurements do...

Cyclall

The schematic diagram of all dataassimilation experiments is shown in Fig. 3, and the experimental domain is shown in Fig. 2(a) with the size of 222 x 128 in a 45 km grid distance. There are a total of 45 full vertical model levels with the n values of 1.0, 0.995, 0.988, 0.98, 0.97, 0.96, 0.945, 0.93, 0.91, 0.89, 0.87, 0.85, 0.82, 0.79, 0.76, 0.73, 0.69, 0.65, 0.61, 0.57, 0.53, 0.49, 0.45, 0.41, 0.37, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, 0.26, 0.24, 0.22, 0.2, 0.18, 0.16, 0.14, 0.12, 0.10, 0.082, 0.066, 0.052, 0.04, 0.03, 0.02, 0.01, 0.0. The model top is 30hPa, and the time step is 180 s. The moist physics include the new Kain-Fritsch cumulus parametrization scheme Figure 3. Schematic diagram illustrating the design of data-assimilation experiments. Figure 3. Schematic diagram illustrating the design of data-assimilation experiments.

Flotation

The particles are floated to the surface and removed by a skimming device to a collection trough for removal from the system. The raw wastewater is brought in contact with a recycled, clarified effluent that has been pressurized through air injection in a pressure tank. The combined flow stream enters the clarification vessel and the release of pressure causes tiny air bubbles to form and ascend to the surface of the water, carrying the suspended particles with their vertical rise. A schematic diagram of the DAF system is shown in Figure 7.

Cavern Closure

Figure 11 shows a schematic diagram of the seal, which is the only pathway from the waste-filled caverns at the North Dayton dome to the surface. The seal is placed between the cavern roof and the lowermost cemented steel casing at 1500 ft below the land surface. Properties of the salt-saturated expansive concrete and components of the plug other than salt will provide an excellent seal for the interim period, during which time the permanent salt seal will become effective.

Mechanism

Figure 3.3 Schematic diagram of an ice sheet and valley glacier showing the location of the accumulation zone, the ablation zone and the equilibrium line (the line where accumulation and ablation are equal in any given year). Principal flow paths are also shown. Modified from Sugden and John (1976) Glaciers and Landscape, Edward Arnold, Figure 3.3 Schematic diagram of an ice sheet and valley glacier showing the location of the accumulation zone, the ablation zone and the equilibrium line (the line where accumulation and ablation are equal in any given year). Principal flow paths are also shown. Modified from Sugden and John (1976) Glaciers and Landscape, Edward Arnold,

Classification

1977 Aerial Photograph Hummocks

Figure 6.7 Schematic diagram showing the distribution of landforms and sediments in landsystem A. The marginal zone consists of a broad, low-relief end moraine composed primarily of basal till over older glacial drift with a cover of supraglacial sediment. The subglacial zone consists of till plain also composed of basal till with few features except for rare flutes. In the subglacial zone supraglacial sediment may be completely absent. Glacifluvial (landsystem E) and glacilacustrine (landsystem F) landforms and sediments fronted this landsystem in the proglacial area or were superimposed on this landsystem during deglaciation. Bedrock in this area only rarely crops out, and glacial deposits are generally greater than 15 m thick. During retreat, ice-marginal zones of landsystem A were superimposed on older landsystems as is shown on the right of the diagram. In the southern Great Lakes region in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio each readvance deposited a wedge-shaped sheet of basal till on...

Sphaeroma Quoianum

FIGURE 9.1 Schematic diagrams showing the conversion of a (A) salt marsh, (B) mangrove, and (C) kelp forest to open, unvegetated systems initiated by the burrowing activities of isopods. The burrows of the isopods also create fine-scale habitat for bur-rowing-dwelling organisms. Burrows are depicted as small black lines, and the water surface by a blue dotted line. Despite the different systems, note the similarity of players and processes all systems contain an allogenic engineering (isopod) whose burrowing activities create fine-scale habitat and remove a second, autogenic engineer leading to the conversion of habitat from one state to another. See text for a full explanation. (See color plate.) FIGURE 9.1 Schematic diagrams showing the conversion of a (A) salt marsh, (B) mangrove, and (C) kelp forest to open, unvegetated systems initiated by the burrowing activities of isopods. The burrows of the isopods also create fine-scale habitat for bur-rowing-dwelling organisms. Burrows are...

Macromorphology

Fig. 1.1 Schematic diagram showing a nonsorted circle type of patterned ground with discontinuous and broken cryoturbated soil horizons (y) and oriented stones in the active layer, and ice lenses in the permafrost layer Fig. 1.1 Schematic diagram showing a nonsorted circle type of patterned ground with discontinuous and broken cryoturbated soil horizons (y) and oriented stones in the active layer, and ice lenses in the permafrost layer

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