The transport rate of a component in a membrane and a solution is determined by its concentration, its mobility in a given environment, and the driving force or forces acting on the component. The concentration and mobility of a component are determined by its interaction with other components in its surrounding. The driving forces for the transport are gradients in the electrochemical potential. For applying an electrical potential in an electrolyte solution, two electron conductors must be in contact with an electrolyte. At the electrode/electrolyte interface, the electron conductance is converted to an ionic conductance by an electrochemical reaction. In electrolyte solutions, the electrostatic forces must always be balanced, that is, the number of positive and negative electrical charges must always be equal on a macroscopic electrolyte volume.
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