Various mathematical models have been proposed to describe RO theory. These models can be divided into three groups: irreversible thermodynamic models, nonporous membrane models, and porous membrane models . The nonporous or homogeneous models assume that transport across the membrane takes place through the interstitial spaces of the polymer chains by diffusion mechanism. Whereas in porous models it is assumed that apart from previously mentioned mode, the transportation also occurs via convection through pores.
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