Research efforts in photocatalysis have dramatically expanded since the discovery of the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and the demonstration of its effectiveness to generate hydroxyl radicals in the presence of UV . TiO2 photocatalysis is of particular interest because of its environmentally friendly features. The process can completely oxidize virtually all organic contaminants (nonselective) without addition of any other chemicals for the reaction, and thus produce no harmful end products in most cases. Especially, TiO2 photocatalysis forms no disinfection by-products unlike other chemical oxidation processes when sufficient time is allowed for organic mineralization. In general, the photocatalytic process has features of a green engineering process. Although various materials (oxides: TiO2, ZnO, ZrO2, CeO2, SnO2, Fe2O3, SbrO4; sulfides: CdS, ZnS) have been used for photocatalysis, generally TiO2 is the most promising photocatalyst, considering its energy efficiency, durability, photostability, water insolubility, and nontoxicity. In this chapter, we overview TiO2-based AOTs for water treatment and reuse, and we are particularly interested in their current challenges and advances for their potential in full-scale practical applications.
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