Sustainable Water for the Future Water Recycling versus Desalination

Edited by

ISABEL C. ESCOBAR

The University of Toledo, Ohio, USA

ANDREA I. SCHAFER

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

Amsterdam • Boston • Heidelberg • London • New York • Oxford ELSEVIER Paris • San Diego • San Francisco • Singapore • Sydney • Tokyo

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First edition 2010

Copyright © 2010 Professor I. Escobar and Professor A. Schafer. Published by Elsevier B.V All rights reserved

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ISBN: 978-0-444-53115-5 ISSN: 1871-2711

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Isabel C. Escobar dedicates this book to her mother and father, and to the memory of her grandmother and aunt.

Andrea I. Schafer dedicates this book to Riko Hannes, born during the production of the book.

With this book, Isabel and Andrea honor Professor Menachem Elimelech's intellectual contribution to research along with his legacy of supporting and mentoring the careers of so many women in the field. Last, their friendship is what made this book possible.

Souhail R. Al-Abed

National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA

Gary Amy

UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands Pierre Berube

Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada

Rick G. Bond

Black and Veatch

Hyeok Choi

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, 416 Yates Drive, Arlington, TX 76019-0308, USA

Yoram Cohen

University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1592, USA Brett Digman

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, The University ofToledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390, USA

Dionysios D. Dionysiou

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071, USA

Sara Dolnicar

Marketing Research Innovation Centre, School of Management and Marketing, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave., 2522 Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Isabel C. Escobar

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, The University ofToledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, MS 305, Toledo, OH 43606-3390, USA

Christopher J. Gabelich

Palos Verdes, CA 90275, USA

Colleen Gorey

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, The University ofToledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390, USA

Tilak Gullinkala

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390, USA

Richard Hausman

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390, USA

Anna Hurlimann

Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia

Maria D. Kennedy

UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands Sabine Lattemann

Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

Joseph F. Leising

Applied Research and Development Center, Southern Nevada Water Authority, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Panagiotis Lianos

Department of Engineering Science, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece Sybrand Metz

Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden, The Netherlands

William Mitch

Department of Chemical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA

Albert Munoz

Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2125, Australia Kitty Nijmeijer

Membrane Technology Group, Institute of Mechanics, Processes and Control Twente (IMPACT), University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands

Martin Reinhard

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020, USA

Bryce S. Richards

School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK

Andrea I. Schäfer

School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK Jan C. Schippers

UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands Shane A. Snyder

Applied Research and Development Center, Southern Nevada Water Authority, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Benjamin D. Stanford

Applied Research and Development Center, Southern Nevada Water Authority, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Elias Stathatos

Department of Electrical Engineering, Technological-Educational Institute of Patras, 26334 Patras, Greece

H. Strathmann

Institute of Chemical Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany Emma Teuten

School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK B. Van der Brüggen

K.U. Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, Section Applied Physical Chemistry and Environmental Technology, W. de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Leuven), Belgium

Sophie Walewijk

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020, USA

Pei Xu

Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401-1887, USA

Sustainability means ''development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'' (Brundtland Commission report). While originally envisioned as an expansion on concerns of pollution prevention, sustainability more directly addresses the issue of resource allocation. It is a holistic approach to the use of resources: use what you need, but return it to nature in a form in which it can then be used by others. Be considerate of other species; as stewards of the planet have concern for the well-being of the land, the trees, and the animals. In the grandest sense, sustainability is a return to the ideals of our ancestors and their goal of protecting the world around them.

But sustainability also recognizes the need for society to develop, for technology to flourish, and for humanity to expand. And this means the consumption of resources and the disposal of our wastes. The resources needed to support a population of nearly 7 billion are tremendous, placing an enormous strain on the ability of the planet to provide for the current generation, much less to look to the protection of future generations. Arnulf Grubler, during his keynote address to the conference that kicked off this book series, and included in the book Sustainability Science and Engineering, explained this as the first paradox: ''We need green engineers to solve the problems created by the success of engineering." In other words, technological development that has made the current generation the wealthiest in history (as measured in terms of average life expectancy, leisure time, and similar) has been achieved at the expense of huge resource consumption. To continue this growth requires another way of looking at development, another way of consuming our resources.

Sustainability recognizes that this tremendous wealth is not distributed equitably across the planet. While people in developed nations enjoy the fruits ofthese developments, those in lesser developed countries continue to suffer in substantial poverty. However, our environmental challenges are global, and those in lesser developed nations do not have the means to address these challenges. Thus, it is incumbent upon scientists and engineers to continue to develop new technologies that make better use of our scarce resources, so that resources can be distributed more equitably and the world's population can continue to flourish.

The current book looks at the issues of water sustainability. Water is one of the primary resources needed to sustain life, and the availability of naturally occurring fresh water is declining. If we are to achieve a sustainable water system, we need to make better use of existing water supplies, we need to identify new ways to create drinking water from nonpotable sources, and we need to develop technologies that reuse the water that we have already extracted. And while solutions to the water challenge exist, their application across a broad population in wealthier nations poses an economic constraint, while their application in remote locations in which limited resources and energy exist poses a more practical challenge to resource allocation. Improved technologies that can be applied without great cost or consumption of energy resources are needed to achieve a sustainable water supply.

Membrane technologies are a potential sustainable solution, if they can be applied with limited materials consumption and a small energy footprint. Understanding these processes and developing these technologies provides a possible pathway to a sustainable future. The current book explores these concepts, evaluates alternatives, and describes opportunities. It is a promising vision of the future, built around a particular technology whose time has perhaps come.

Martin Abraham Youngstown State University Youngstown, OH

Isabel C. Escobar would like to acknowledge the help and support of Martin T. Geithmann, who spent many hours helping her edit figures. I also thank the work and commitment of all of the authors who submitted chapters according to our requests and dealt with our numerous comments. My students, Tilak, Colleen, Rick, and Brett, were crucial in the writing of our chapter. However, knowledge shared and learned from all my past and present students was essential to my knowledge and abilities. Encouragement was unending from my friends, especially Maria R. Coleman, Cyndee Gruden, and Nancy Ruiz. The patience and support from my department, college, and university allowed me to pursuit the goal of developing a book. Without research funding, knowledge would have never been available to write and edit this book, so I thank the past and present funding agencies, the U.S. National Science Foundation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Interior — Bureau of Reclamation, and Office of Naval Research. Lastly, I thank Martin Abraham for giving me the idea (and the push) to write this book, and Andrea for agreeing to co-edit it with me.

Andrea I. Schafer would like to thank Isabel for her invitation to contribute to this book and taking the lion's share of the workload. Isabel is a very special peer and most wonderful to work with. A special thank you also to Bryce and our children Moana, Tane, and Riko, for putting up with the many late nights of Mama stuck to a laptop screen. Let's hope that the impacts of our work will make our world a better place. My research group, in the past and the present, has contributed to the knowledge we have accumulated through hard work and much enjoyable fun events. I am looking forward to many more years of working with energetic young researchers and seeing them fly off to their own careers.

Isabel and Andrea also would like to thank the constant encouragement and unending patience of their Elsevier editor, Derek Coleman.

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